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Thread: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic

  1. #61
    Limited Member Array hanoville3's Avatar
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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Alsalamu alikum warahmatu Allah wa barakatoh

    i hope if i can share you,

    plate = صَحْن

    and also = طَبَق

    is it right ?

    Thanks a lot

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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Salam thank you very much, its okay, I was just wondering where i can get the translation of word for word of Quran
    I mean for example Al Fatiha

    I know the meaning of it, starting in the Name of Allah, then thanking Allah, then remembering that Allah is Most Gracious and Most Merciful and so on, it keeps the kushoo infact

    salam
    Al-salamu alikum

    I hope this link can help

    .allahsquran.com/learn/

    but add ( www ) before the link

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    فصبرٌ جميلٌ Array Blue_rose's Avatar
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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Quote Originally Posted by Riana17 View Post
    Salam thank you very much, its okay, I was just wondering where i can get the translation of word for word of Quran
    I mean for example Al Fatiha

    I know the meaning of it, starting in the Name of Allah, then thanking Allah, then remembering that Allah is Most Gracious and Most Merciful and so on, it keeps the kushoo infact

    salam
    i am unsure of any sites that provide it. but you can search on ib and you may find the one i had written.


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  4. #64
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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic




    Supplement: Introduction to some Special Words

    Special words 1. ( إنَّ و أخواتها ) inna and words similar to it (that is, words that have the same ruling.)
    Certainly - إنَّ
    I wish - ليتَ
    Maybe - لعَلَّ

    Special words 2. ( كانَ و أخواتها ) kaana and words similar to it.
    Not - ليْسَ
    Was - كانَ

    The above words (and others of its type) are used with الجملة الإسمية .

    الدرسُ سهلٌ The lesson is easy.
    إنَّ الدرسَ سهلٌ Certainly the lesson is easy.
    ليتَ الدرسَ سهلٌ I wish that the lesson were easy.
    لعلَ الدرسَ سهلٌ Maybe the lesson is easy.

    ليسَ الدرسُ سهلا ً The lesson is not easy.
    كان الدرسُ سهلا ً The lesson was easy.

    Note: As you can see from the above examples, the subject and the predicate (خبر) in the جملة الإسمية normally contain a ُ or ٌ. This is known as رفع , so the subject is marfoo’ مرفوع .
    However, including one of the above special words in the nominal sentence changes the vowels on the subject and predicate. The first set of words ( إنَّ , ليتَ , لعلَ ) change the subject’s vowel to a fathha ( َ ), known as نصب (making the subject mansoob منصوب .) So إنَّ و أخواتها (inna and words similar to it) makes the subject mansoob and the predicate marfoo.

    The second set of words ( كان , ليس ) makes the predicate ( خبر ) mansoob so the predicate has a fathha vowel ( َ or ً ) on it instead of the normal damma vowels ( ُ or ٌ ) while the subject remains as it is normally (with the damma vowel ُ ) in the جملة الإسمية . That is, كانَ و أخواتها makes the subject marfoo and the predicate mansoob.

    If you memorize the above examples, it will make using such words in sentences easier.
    Additionally, memorizing the following will help remind you the rules of إنَّ و أخواتها and كانَ و أخواتها: ism inna mansoob, khabr inna marfoo. اسم إنَّ منصوب , خبر إنّ مرفوع . which means that the subject of Inna is mansoob and the predicate is marfoo. This is the rule for inna wa akhawaatiha. The rule for kaana wa akhawaatiha is the opposite of that of إنَّ و أخواتها . that is, the ending vowel of the subject and predicate of كانَ و أخواتها is the opposite of that of إنَّ و أخواتها .
    Some more examples:
    الوردَةُ جميلة ٌ the rose is beautiful.
    إنَّ الوردةَ جميلة ٌ certainly the rose is beautiful.
    لعلَ الوردة َ جميلة ٌ maybe the rose is beautiful.
    ليت الوردة َ جميلة ٌ i wish that that rose were beautiful.

    كان الوردة ُ جميلة ً the rose was beautiful.
    ليسَ الوردةُ جميلة ً the rose is not beautiful.
    As you can see from these examples, the two set of words have an opposite effect on the parts of the sentence. One makes the first part mansoob and the second part marfoo , while the other makes first part marfoo and the second part mansoob .

    Some more sentences using these words:
    The two boys are hungry. الولدان جائعان (the sentence has the normal word ending, both the subject and predicate are marfoo.)

    The two boys are certainly hungry. إنّ الولدَين حائعان ِ (the subject’s ending changed from alif + nun to ya + nun (that is, it became mansoob) while the predicate continues to have the alif+ nun (marfoo case))

    Maybe the two boys are hungry. لعل الولدين جائعان(the subject became mansoob while the predicate remains marfoo)

    The two boys were hungry. كان الولدان ِ جائعين (the subject remains marfoo while the predicate became mansoob (changed to ya + nun from the normal alif+nun))
    The two boys were not hungry. ليس الولدان جائعين (note the ending of the subject and predicate, whether they are marfoo or mansoob)

    Practice tip: use the above words in sentences of your own. (Refer to the lessons about marfoo, mansoob, and majroor word endings to help you use the proper word ending)

    Exercise: use the special words with the following sentences changing the subject and predicate as needed:
    الطكسُ معتدلٌ the weather is moderate
    الكتبُ مفيدةٌ
    المدرسون



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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic



    Week 18 – Past Negative

    لم is for past negative. However it is used with the present tense verb.
    لمْ أدرسْ. I didn’t study.
    لم أذهبْ. I didn’t go.
    لم أنامْ. I didn’t sleep.

    The verb afterلم ends in the same way as the imperative verb, that is, in sukun or without the ending ن . (this is known as the majzoom case. That is, the verb after لمْ is majzoom مجزوم .) (When the verb is singular, it contains a sukun on the last letter in the majzum case. When the verb is plural, the ending nun is omitted (in most cases).)

    لم يذهبوا They didn’t go. (the verb after لم is majzum, so the ending nunis omitted from the end of the verb here.)

    لم يذهبنَ They (feminine) didn’t go. – (In this sentence the sukun is on the last letter of the verb, the ب and the ن at the end is the feminine plural pronoun. However, this is its normal form and the feminine plural’s form doesn’t change because of the word that precedes it. That is, the feminine plural verb is mabny (unchanging): it always remains in the same form and doesn’t change with of the word preceding it.)

    To make a past tense sentence, just place لم before the present tense verb and change the ending of the verb to make it majzoom. Note that although the verb is in the present tense, the sentence is in the past tense because لم makes the sentence past tense. (This is similar to English past tense sentences which have the present tense verb with a helping verb + negative. )

    Some examples:

    I studied. دَرسْتُ (the verb here is in the past tense.)

    I didn’t study. لمْ أدْرُسْ (the verb here is in the present tense)

    They ate. هم أكَلوا (the verb here is in the past tense)

    They didn’t eat. هم لم يَأكلوا (the verb here is in the present tense.)



    Like , لم ما is also for past negative. However, ما is used with the past tense verb.

    ما درستُ I didn’t study.

    ما درسَ He didn’t study.

    ما أكلَ الولد الإشاء The boy didn’t eat dinner.


    So you can say the same negative sentence using either ما + past tense verb or لم + present tense verb:
    I studied. دَرسْتُ
    I didn’t study. لمْ أدْرُسْ
    I didn’t study. ما دَرَسْتُ
    They ate. هم أكَلوا
    They didn’t eat. هم لم يَأكلوا
    They didn’t eat. هم ما أكلوا

    (as you can see from the above examples, the plural verbs seem to end in the same way . أكلوا – لم يأكلوا . However, the difference is that the first verb is in the past tense and its ending is its normal ending while the other verb is in the present tense and it is majzum with لم . Normally, the present tense plural verb ends in a nun. )
    Practice tip: make past negative sentences.

    Some sentence analysis:
    دَرَسْتُ – دَرَسْ past tense verb mabnyمبني with sukun (the past tense verb is always mabny, that is it doesn’t change because of the word’s position in the sentence or because of the word that precedes it). In this verbدرسْتُ , the past tense verb ends with a sukun because it is conjugated (connected-اتصل ) with the first person pronoun. فعل ماض مبني على السكون لإتصاله بتاء (ت) الفاعل المتحركة
    تُ – first person subject pronoun mabny with damma. ضمير متصل مبني الضم في محل رفع فاعل.

    لمْ أدرُسْ
    لم – negation word that makes the present tense verb majzoom. It is called harf qalb because it changes the present tense into past tense. و قلب حرف نفي و جرم
    أدرسْ – present tense verb majzoom with لمْ and the subject of the sentence is the hidden first person subject pronoun. فعل مضارع مجزوم بلم و علامة جزمه السكون الظاهر على آخره , و الفاعل : ضمير مستتر وجوباً تقديره : أنا

    ما درسْتُ
    ما negation word. حرف نفي
    دَرَسْتُ – دَرَسْ past tense verb mabnyمبني with sukun (the past tense verb is always mabny, that is it doesn’t change because of the word’s position in the sentence or because of the word that precedes it). In this verbدرسْتُ , the past tense verb ends with a sukun because it is conjugated (connected-اتصل ) with the first person pronoun. فعل ماض مبني على السكون لإتصاله بتاء (ت) الفاعل المتحركة
    تُ – first person subject pronoun mabny with damma. ضمير متصل مبني الضم في محل رفع فاعل.


    Last edited by Blue_rose; 07-20-2011 at 01:05 PM.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic



    Afaal al khamsa

    Afaal al khamsa (أفعال الخمسة) are 5 verb conjugations that have special rules.

    The afaal al-khamsa include second person and third person masculine plural verbs, second person and third person dual verbs, and second person feminine verbs: that is, verbs that end in : ان, ون, and the second person feminine verb that ends in ين :

    Examples of أفعال الخمسة:

    You (plural) go:تذهبون

    They plural go:يذهبون

    You (dual) go: تذهبان ِ

    They (dual) go:يذهبان

    You (feminine singular) go:تذهبينَ


    As you already learned, verbs are normally in the marfoo case. That is, they have a damma on the last letter if the verb is singular. However, some words make the verbs mansoob (change the singular verb’s damma to a fathha) or majzum (change the singular verb’s damma to a sukun).


    Note: remember, this lesson is about VERBS and not nouns. It’s easy to get confused when studying the different cases of verbs and nouns as both have marfoo and mansoob cases.

    Most present tense singular verbs (like singular nouns) have a damma on the last letter when they are marfoo and a fathha on the last letter when they are mansoob. However, the ending of dual and plural verbs are not the same as the ending of dual and plural nouns. So its important to remember what you are studying about so as not to get confused.


    If a verb is one of the afaal al khamsa, then it has a nun at the end in the marfoo case. And in the mansoob and majzum cases, the nun is omitted.

    A verb is in the mansoob case when it is preceded by one of huroof an nasb. The huroof an nasb are: أنْ , لنْ , إذن, كي \ لكي , ل ِ , حتى
    So the above verbs in the mansoob case:

    You (plural) go:تذهبوا

    They plural go:يذهبوا

    You (dual) go: تذهبا

    They (dual) go:يذهبا

    You (feminine singular) go:تذهبي


    A verb is in the majzum case when it is preceded by huroof al-jazm. Some of these huroof are: لمْ , إنْ (و حروف شرطية أخرى) (that is, other conditional words)
    The afaal al khamsa in the majzum case:
    You (plural) go:تذهبوا
    They plural go:يذهبوا
    You (dual) go: تذهبا
    They (dual) go:يذهبا
    You (feminine singular) go:تذهبي

    As you can see, the verb ending is the same in the mansoob and majzoom cases.

    So if the afaal al-khamsa contains a nun at the end, then it is marfoo. And if it doesn’t then it is either mansoob or majzum, depending on the word preceding it, whether it is huroof nasb or huruf jazm.

    Revision of huroof nasb:
    These are words that make the present tense verb mansoob: the huroof nasb are: أن , لن , ل ِ , إذن , كَيْ , حَتى

    Huroof al-jazm are:
    لمْ
    إنْ
    Other huroof shart jazimحروف شرط جازم (conditional words)
    Example of a conditional sentence:
    إنْ تدرسْ تنجحْ if you study you will succeed. As you can see from this sentence, the harf shart jazim makes two words majzum, the first verb and the second verb.

    Some sentences containing the afaal al khamsa in the marfoo, mansoob, and mazjoom cases:
    They are going to the park. هم يذهبون إلى الحديقة
    They will not go to the park.لن يذهبوا إلى الحديقة
    They did not go to the park.لم يذهبوا إلى الحديقة
    If you study you will succeed. إنْ تدرسي تنجحي (the two second person feminine verbs are majzoom, the ending nun is omitted.)
    The two boys are studying. الولدان يدرسان
    The two boys will not study. الولدان لن يدرسا (the verb is in the mansoob case)
    The two boys did not study. الولدان لم يدرسا (the verb is in the majzoom case)

    Practice tip: make sentences using verbs with and without the huroof nasb and huroof jazm.


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    فصبرٌ جميلٌ Array Blue_rose's Avatar
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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic



    Supplement: Hamza

    In Arabic, when the alif is pronounced (that is, when it has a vowel or sukun on it), it has a hamza on it (or under it, incase of a kasra). However, sometimes this isn’t the case. Additionally sometimes the hamza is on a ya without dots, known as a nabira (for example: ئ ) and sometimes it is on a و , for example: ؤ.

    The alif with a hamza is known as همزة القطة hamzatul qata . while a pronounced alif (not an elongated alif) without a hamza is called همزة الوصل .

    Generally, the elongated alif is called an alif (this is the alif which makes the previous letter’s vowel longer) while the pronounced alif is called a hamza. It is an alif with a sound of its own.

    An example of an (elongated) alif: the alif at the end of دُنيا (dunya – world) or دعا (prayer). This alif makes the previous letter’s vowel sound longer but it doesn’t have a sound of its own.

    An example of a hamza: the hamza at the end of بدَأ . this alif (hamza) has a sound of its own. It doesn’t affect the previous letter’s vowel.

    The hamza (pronounced alif) may be on an alif أ – إ or on a wow ؤ or a yaئ . no matter which letter the hamza is on, the sound of the letter is always of alif. For example, ؤ has the sound of alif and not a wow.


    Guidelines to placing a hamza on an alif, a wow, or a ya.

    Vowel strengths are from strongest to weakest as follows: the kasra (being the strongest), then the damma, then the fathha, then the sukun (being the weakest).

    To know which letter to place the hamza on, see whether the hamza is in the middle of the word or at the end. So if the vowel on the hamza is a kasra (the strongest vowel) while the vowel preceding it is a damma or fathha or sukun, place the vowel on a nabira (ئ).

    If the vowel on the hamza is a sukun or fathha while on the letter preceding it is a damma, place the hamza on a و . If one of the vowels is a fathha while the other is a sukun, the hamza is placed on an alif.

    In general, place the hamza on the letter appropriate for the stronger vowel.

    Learning these guidelines will also help you read words containing a hamza if there are no vowels on the letters. You will know how to pronounce a word by looking at the letter that the hamza is on.



    Checklist of rules for the Hamza in the Middle of the Word:

    If the hamza is in the middle of the word, look at the vowel on it and the vowel on the letter preceding it. Then use the letter (alif, wow, or ya) appropriate for the stronger of the two vowels.

    If one of the two vowels is a kasra, place the hamza on a ya (nabira) ئ.

    If one of the two vowels is a damma and the other is either a fathha or a sukun, place the hamza on a wowؤ .

    If one of the two vowels is a fathha and the other is a sukun, place the hamza on an alifإ – أ .



    Here are some words containing the hamza in the middle of the word.

    أؤمن ُ – I believe- the letter preceding the hamza has a damma while the hamza (second hamza) has a sukun on it. since the damma is stronger than the sukun, the hamza is placed on a wow. (note these rules are only for the hamza that comes in the middle or end of the word, not for the hamza at the beginning of the word. The hamza at the beginning of the word is always on an alif, as in this word.

    مُؤمنون - believers - here the case is the same as in the above word. The hamza has a sukun while the letter preceding it has a damma. Since the damma is stronger than the sukun, the hamza is placed on a wow.

    سَألَ - asked - here both the hamza and the letter before it contain a fathha. Therefore, the hamza is on an alif.

    سُئلَ – was asked - this word is the same as the previous word except that it is used in the passive sentenceجملة مبني للمجهول. (the form of the verb in the passive sentence is different from the form used in the active sentence – and you thought that the language couldn’t get more complicated! ) however, the rules for changes within the word (know as sarf صرف ) are the same. Here the vowel on the hamza is a kasra and the vowel on the letter preceding it is a damma. Since the kasra is stronger than the damma, the hamza is placed on a ئ.

    (An example of a sentence using this verb. سُئلَ الرجلُ السُؤالَ – The man was asked a question.) as you can see, by knowing the rules of the hamza help you know how to pronounce the word.)

    سُؤال - question - here the hamza contains a fathha but the letter before it contain a damma, so the hamza is placed on a wow which is the letter appropriate for the stronger vowel.

    يَسْألُ – to ask - this is the present tense of the verb سأل . in يسْألُ the hamza contains a fathha and the letter preceding it contains a sukun. Since the fathha is stronger than the sukun, the hamza is placed on an alif.

    Note: these rules are for all words and not just verbs.



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    فصبرٌ جميلٌ Array Blue_rose's Avatar
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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic



    July 23, 2011
    Vocabulary (Present Tense Verbs) 2


    Findيَجدُ

    Find out (discover) يَكشِف

    Flyيَطيرُ

    Forbidيَنهى

    Forgetيَنسى

    Getيَحْصِل – يَسْتلِم

    Giveيُعْطِي – يُقدِّم

    Goيَذهَبُ

    Growيَنمو

    Haveيَمْلِك

    Hearيَسْمَعُ

    Hideيخفِي

    Hitيَضرِب

    Holdيَمْسِك

    Hurtيُؤذِي

    Keepيَحْفِظ

    Knowيَعْلم – يَعْرِف

    Layيَسْتلْقي

    Leadيَقود

    Learnيتعَلم

    Leaveيَترُك

    (List of English verbs taken from irregular verb list, Business Vocabulary in Use for beginners)

    Practice tip: conjugate the verbs with pronouns and use them in sentences.
    Write the conjugated verb forms for the following pronouns:

    أنا I
    أنتَ you
    أنتِ you
    أنتما you dual
    أنتم you plural
    أنتنّ you plural fem
    هو he
    هي she
    هما they dual masc
    هما they dual fem
    هم they plural
    هنّ they plural fem


    For example, some conjugated forms for the verbيَجدُ are:
    أجدُ – أنا
    نجدُ - نحن
    تجدُ – أنت
    تجدين – أنتِ
    تجدان - أنتما
    تجدان – انتما
    تجدون – أنتم
    تجدْن َ – أنتنّ

    يجدُ – هو
    تجد – هي
    يجدان - هما
    تجدان – هما
    يجدون – هم
    يجدْن َ – هنّ

    Note: memorizing one verb for all conjugations with pronouns will help you in conjugating most verbs later.



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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic



    Supplement: Ending Hamza الهمزة المتطرفة



    As you learned before, the hamza may come on an alif, a wow, or a ya, depending on the vowel on it and or on the letter preceding it. The hamza on alif: أ – إ , the hamza on a wow: ؤ and the hamza on a ya (nabira): ئ . Note: Whichever letter the hamza is on, the sound is always of an alif and not of the letter the hamza is on.

    The hamza at the end of the word

    To know which letter to place the hamza on when the hamza is at the end of a word, look only at the vowel on the letter preceding the hamza and place the hamza on the letter appropriate for that vowel. So if the letter preceding the ending hamza has a kasra on it (no matter what vowel the ending hamza contains), the hamza is placed on a nabira ئ . If the letter preceding the ending hamza has a damma on it, the hamza is placed on a و . And if the letter preceding it has a fathha on it the hamza is placed on an alif.

    Examples of words containing the ending hamza.

    بدَأ - started – the letter preceding the ending hamza has a fathha so the hamza is placed on an alif.

    يَبْدَأ – he starts – here even though the ending hamza has a damma, since the letter preceding the ending hamza has a fathha on it so the hamza is placed on an alif and not a wow.

    شاطِئ –شاطئ البحر beach - here the letter preceding the ending hamza contains a kasra so the ending hamza is placed on a nabira.

    لؤْلؤ - here the letter preceding the hamza contains a damma so the ending hamza is on a wow.




    Here are the rules for which letter to place the hamza on when the hamza is at the end of the word (translation of rules taken from Shaikh Ahmad Kaftaro Institute grammar book 3):
    Look at the vowel on the letter preceding the hamza. Then select the letter appropriate for this vowel.
    If the vowel preceding the hamza is a kasra, place the ending hamza on a nabira ( ئ ).
    If the vowel preceding the hamza is a damma, place the hamza on a waw ( و ), that is ؤ .
    If the vowel preceding the hamza is a fathha, place the hamza on an alif ( أ ).
    If the vowel preceding the hamza is a sukun ( ْ ), place the hamza on the line. That is, write simply, ء .
    Memorize the above rules to help you remember where to place the ending hamza.


    Note: if the verb is conjugated with a pronoun (so that the ending hamza comes in the middle of the word instead of the end , the rules to be used are those for the hamza in the middle of the word and not the rules for the ending hamza. For example, when the verb بدأ is conjugated with the plural pronoun: يبدؤون – here the hamza is now in the middle of the word because the verb is conjugated with a plural pronoun ون so the rules used are those for the middle hamza and not the ending hamza.



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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Quote Originally Posted by WRITER View Post
    They (masculine plural)هم
    They (feminine plural)هنّ
    Sorry I am Interrupting in between. I am very behind in this course..
    Doubt..
    masculine plural=huma
    feminine plural=hunna
    What about combined plural for both masculine and feminine
    Last edited by Pure Purple; 08-08-2011 at 02:44 PM.

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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    masculine plural is hum هم
    feminine plural is hunna هُنَّ
    you use masculine plural هُم for combination of male and female.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Week 19 - Future Negative

    This Week’s Vocabulary
    يأكل - to eat
    آكل - I eat - (originally أأكل with a sukun on the second hamza, but the two hamzas combined to make آ )
    طائرة - plane
    يطير – to fly
    ينسى - to forget
    يتذكر – to remember
    وظيفة – duty , homework

    Future Negative
    لن is used with the present tense verb but makes the sentence future negative. That is, it is a negation word. It is also one of the huroof nasb which make the present tense verb mansoob. لن is used with the present tense verb and not with past tense verb.
    لن أدرسَ. I will not study.
    لن أذهبَ. I will not go.
    لن آكلَ. I will not eat.

    To make a sentence future negative, just place لن before the present tense verb. There is no need to use the future tense letter or word س or سوف .
    Note: Being is one of the حروف النصب , it makes the present tense verb mansoob. As you may recall, most present tense verbs are normally marfoo. With لن they become mansoob.
    Examples:
    أذهبُ – I am going. (the verb ends in a damma, that is it is marfoo)
    لنْ أذهَبَ – I will not go. The verb ends in a fathha, that is it is mansoob.

    يُطِيرُ الطائرةُ - the plane is flying. The verb ends in a damma (it is marfoo). Also note the hamza on the nabira in الطائرة this is because the hamza contains a kasra so the nabira - ئ- which is appropriate for a kasra is used.

    لن يطيرَ الطائرةُ – the plane will not fly. Note that the word لن makes the verb after it mansoob but has no effect on the noun. The noun remains as it is.

    لن أنساك - I will not forget you.

    لن يتذكر وظيفته - he will not remember his duty (or homework).

    Revision of the mansoob case (of the present tense verb): the verb after لن is in the mansoob case. In the mansoob case, the present tense verb ends with a fathha when it is singular (instead of the normal damma). If the present tense verb is plural, its ending ن is omitted in the mansoob case. If it is feminine plural, it’s ending doesn’t change as the feminine plural present tense verb is مبْتي , that is, its form doesn’t change.

    Some more examples:
    هم سيذهبون – the plural future tense verb ends in a ن in the marfoo case. (the و makes the verb plural.)
    هم لن يذهبوا – the present tense verb is in the mansoob case so the ending ن is omitted. The alif is added to differentiate the mansoob verb from verbs whose normal ending is و .
    Note that in the above example, the future tense letter س was removed from the verb when used with لن. This is because لن by itself makes the sentence in the future tense so the future tense verb isn’t needed.

    Practice tip: make future negative sentences.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Correction to Vocabulary Present Tense verbs 1:

    Break - يَكْسِرُ

    Thanks to Sister Insaana for pointing it out.
    Last edited by Blue_rose; 08-31-2011 at 08:11 AM.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Supplement: More words referring to time:


    Day – يَوْم
    Yesterday - أمس
    Today – اليوم
    Tomorrow - غَداً

    Week – أُسْبوع
    Last week – أسبوع السابِقة – أسبوع الماضي
    Next week - أسبوع القادِم

    Month - شَهر
    Last month - شهر الماضي
    Next month - شهر القادم

    Year - عام- سَنَة
    Last year - سنة الماضي – عام الماضي
    Next Year – سنة القادم

    Last edited by Blue_rose; 08-20-2011 at 12:39 PM.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Week 20 - Negative word used with nouns, in الجملة الإسمية

    ليسَ also makes the sentence negative. The difference is that ليسَ is used with a noun in the جملة الاسمية (nominal sentence) while the previous four negative words ( لن , لم , ما , لا ) are normally used with verbs. That is, ليس makes the جملة اسمية negative.

    Revision of الجملة الاسمية (The nominal sentence): the nominal sentence is the sentence that starts with a noun. As you may recall, in Arabic the sentence may start with a noun/pronoun or with a verb. The sentence that starts with a noun/pronoun is called جملة اسمية . The sentence that starts with a verb is called جملة فعلية . The جملة اسمية contains a مبتدأ (subject) and a خبر that tells you more about the subject. The negative word ليس is used with the جملة اسمية. It makes the جملة اسمية negative.

    To use ليس just place this word before the subject noun (مبتدأ) in the جملة اسمية . That is, place ليس at the beginning of the sentence.
    Example:
    The lesson is difficult. الدرسُ صعب ٌ
    The lesson is not difficult. ليسَ الدرسُ صعباً.

    ليس can also be placed after the noun.
    المُدَرسُ ليس هنا The teacher is not here.
    المُدَرسَة ُ ليستْ موجودة ً The (female) teacher is not present.

    Note that the ending of the noun in the خبر khabr position used with ليس is different from its normal form. This is because ليس is one of the words that change the normal subject and predicate noun ending. ليس makes the predicate noun (خبر) mansoob while the subject used with laisa is marfoo (as normal). (Other words that do this are كان and its sister words كان و أخواتها). See supplement lesson 17 (Special words).
    So in the sentence containing laisa, the subject (known as اسم ليس ) is marfoo and the خبر (known as خبر ليس ) is mansoob.
    The khabr of laisa is mansoob whenever it is a noun or adjective. However, if it is a preposition or a verb, then it is not mansoob. That is, it’s form doesn’t change. It remains in its normal form but it is in the nasb position محل نصب .

    ليسَ changes form (masculine, feminine, singular, plural) depending on the noun it is used with. It can also be conjugated with subject pronouns.
    ليسَ Masculine singular
    ليسَتْ Feminine singular

    Example of Laisa ليس conjugated with subject pronouns:
    لَسْتُ Conjugated with the subject pronoun “I”
    لسْنا Conjugated with the subject pronoun “we”
    لَسْتَ Conjugated with the subject pronoun “you”
    لَسْت ِ Conjugated with the subject pronoun “you” (feminine)

    لستُ متعبة ً. I am not tired.
    لستُ موافقة ً I do not agree.
    لسنا فيْ البيتِ We are not at home.

    Practice tip: make negative sentences using ليسَ and its conjugation.
    Revision of nouns in the marfoo and mansoob cases:
    A noun is normally marfoo. If singular it ends in a damma in the marfoo case. If dual, it ends in a ان . If masculine plural it ends in a ون . If feminine plural or irregular plural it ends in a damma.
    With laisa and other words like it (words whose grammatical effect is that of كان) the khabr becomes mansoob.
    A noun in the mansoob case ends in a fathha on the last letter if it is singular or irregular. If dual, it ends in a يَن ِ . If masculine plural it ends in a ينَ with a kasra beneath the ya. If feminine plural it ends in a kasra.
    ليسَ ‘s grammatical effect is as follows:
    ليس is entered upon the جملة اسمية and makes the sentence negative.
    The مبتدأ of the جملة اسمية is known as اسم ليس when ليس is entered upon the جملة اسمية and is in the marfoo case.
    The خبر of the جملة اسمية becomes mansoob with ليسَ and is known as خبر ليس .

    Some Sentence Analysis:
    ليسَ الدرسُ صعباً. – the lesson is not difficult.
    ليسَ – فعل ماض ناقص على فتح , ترفع الاسم و تنصبُ الخبر – past tense imperfect verb mabny with a fathha. It makes the ism marfoo and the khabr mansoob.
    الدرسُ – اسم ليس مرفوع و علامة رفعه الضمة الظاهرة على آخره – ism laisa marfoo and the sign of raf’ is the damma visible at the end.
    صعبا ً – خبر ليس منصوب و علامة النصب الفتحة الظاهة على آخره – khabr laisa mansoob and the sign of nasb is the fathha visible at the end.

    لسنا فيْ البيتِ We are not at home.
    لَسْنا –ْ لس – فعل ماض ناقص على السكون لاتصاله ب نا الفاعلين , ترفع الاسم و تنصبُ الخبر – past tense imperfect verb mabny with a sukun as it is conjugated with the plural subject pronoun نا. It makes the ism marfoo and the khabr mansoob.
    نا – ضمير متصل مبني على السكون في محل رفع اسم ليس – conjugated pronoun mabny with sukun (structured to contain a sukun on the last letter) in the ism laisa raf’ position.
    في - حرف جر – preposition
    البيت ِ – اسم مجرور و علامة جره الكسرة – ism majroor and it’s sign of jar is the kasra visible at the end.
    و الجار و المجرور متعلقان بخبر ليس محذوف تقديره "موجودين" – and the preposition and its ism are related to the omitted khabr of laisa whose implication is “present” . (That is, the sentence actually means “we are not present at home” but the word present is omitted.)


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Supplement: More ليسَ conjugations.
    Laisa (ليس) mean “not” and is used with nouns, in الجملة الإسمية . It makes the sentence negative.

    Here is a list of laisa conjugations (ليس conjugated with subject pronouns.):
    (أنا) لسْتُ – not i
    (نحنُ) لسْنا - not we
    (أنتَ) لسْتَ – not you
    (أنت ِ) لسْت ِ – not you
    (أنتما) لسْتُما – not you two
    (أنتم) لسْتمْ - not you (many)
    (أنتنَّ) لسْتنَّ – not you (many female)

    (هو) ليسَ – not he
    (هي) ليسَتْ – not she
    (هما) ليسا – not they (two)

    (همْ) ليْسُوا – not they
    (هُنَّ) لسْنَ – not they (female)

    Some sentences
    ليس هو not him
    هو ليسَ في البيتِ – he is not at home.
    هو ليسَ موجودا ً – he is not present. Here the khabr is in the mansoob case, as can be seen from the tanwin fathha at the end of the word.
    هيّ ليستْ موجودة ً – she is not present.
    ليسوا موجودين – they are not present. (as you can see, in this sentence, the خبر is in the mansoob case. This is because laisa makes the khabr mansoob.)
    لسنا جاهِزين – we are not ready.
    هنّ لسْنَ موجودات – they (female) are not present.
    Practice tip: make sentences using ليسَ conjugations.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Test 5 posted on the conversation thread.


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic


    Week 22 - كانَ (was)

    كانَ Is attached to الجملة الإسمية (sentence starting with a noun). As with ليس , كان changes the normal ending of nouns: While the subject ( مبتدأ ) used with kaana remains مرفوع , the predicate خبر becomes منصوب because of كانَ. (The grammatical effect of كان on the مبتدأ and خبر is the same as the effect of ليس . However, كان puts the sentence into past tense while ليس makes it negative.)

    Note: because كان is a verb, it makes the جملة اسمية into a verbal sentence (جملة فعلية).

    The following are examples of sentences with كان .

    The boy was in the house. كانَ الولدُ في البيتِ

    The girl was in the house. كانتْ البنتُ في البيتِ

    (In the above sentences, the خبر is a prepositional phrase therefore, كان doesn’t change the words’ ending. However the خبر is in the nasb position (محل نصب ).

    I was late. كُنْتُ مُتَأخِرة

    There was an accident on the way. كان حادثة في الطريق

    The lesson was hard. كان الدرسُ صعباً

    The girl wanted to study. كانتْ البنتُ تريدُ أن تدرس (here the khabr is a verb phrase. The verb is in the nasb position but كان has no effect on the verb’s ending. This is because كان only change’s the noun’s ending while putting other forms of words (prepositional phrases and verb phrases) into the محل نصب (nasb position).

    As you can see in the above examples, the khabr of kaana changes only when it is a noun. But when it is a verb phrase or a prepositional phrase, then kaana has no apparent effect on it. however the predicate is said to be in the mansoob case (محل نصب) although it doesn’t visibly change. The same is the case with the other words that change the normal noun ending, like ليس and إنّ and their sister words. These words affect the مبتدأ and خبر when they are nouns but not when they are pronouns, verbs, prepositions, etc.)

    كان Can be used with nouns as well as pronouns. When used with pronouns, كان is attached to the pronoun. Some examples of كان conjugated with pronouns:

    I was - كُنْتُ

    You were -كُنْتَ

    You (feminine) were - كُنْتِ

    They were – كانوا

    They (feminine) were –كُنَّ

    Note: كان by itself means he was. (he was in the house - هو كان في البيتِ )
    When used to mean she was, a تْ is attached at the end. (she was in the house - هي كانَتْ في البيتِ )


    To use كان just place it at the start of the جملة الاسمية , that is before the subject of the sentence.
    كان الرجلُ طويلا ً the man was tall. (note that the subject (اسم كان) is marfoo while the predicate (خبر كان ) is mansoob.
    كانتْ الوردةُ جميلة ً the rose was beautiful.

    You can also place it after the subject noun, for example:
    ً هو كان موجودا He was present
    هي كانتْ موجودة ً She was present
    هُمْ كانوا مُتأخِرين They were late. (note that the khabr of kaana is mansoob. Here, since the khabr is plural, it has a ya + nun in the nasb case.)


    Practice Tip: make sentences using forms of كانَ .

    Note: forms of كان can be used to show action that takes place in the present as well as future. The present tense of كان is يكون (fem. تكون) . to show action in the future, add س ( سيكون) (fem. ستكون ).



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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic



    Supplement - كانَ Conjugations
    كانَ was
    I was - كُنْتُ
    We were - كُنّا

    You were - كُنْتَ
    You were (feminine) - كنتِ

    You were (dual) - كنتُما

    You were (plural) - كنتُم
    You were (feminine plural) - كنتنَّ

    He was - كانَ
    She was - كانَتْ

    They were (dual) - كانا
    They were (masculine) - كانوا
    They were (feminine) - كُنّ

    Some usage in sentences:
    I was at the beach. كنتُ على شاطيء البحر
    You were studying.كنْتَ تدرسُ

    The boy was sick.كان الولدُ مريضاً
    The two boys were energetic (or active). كانا الولدان نشيطين
    They were energetic. هم كانوا نشيطين
    The girls were energetic. كانَتْ البنات نشيطاتِ

    As you can see from the above examples, the subject noun after كان has a damma at the end if it is singular or feminine plural (or ends in a ون if it is masculine plural). However with كان the ending of the second noun (the خبر ) changes from its normal vowel to a fathha if it is singular or a kasra if it is feminine plural or a ين if it is dual or masculine plural. This is known as نصب in Arabic. That is, with كان the is منصوب.

    Note: when kaana is added to the jumla ismiah, the mubtada is called اسم كان (ism kaana) and the khabr is called خبر كان (khabr kaana). اسم كان is marfoo and خبر كان is mansoob. If the khabr of kaana is a verb or prepositional phrase, then it doesn’t change form but is in the nasb position (محل نصب ).


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    Default Re: EZ Arabic - a course to help you learn arabic




    Week 22
    Some connecting words
    Below are some connecting words. Some of these are used to connect two nouns or verbs while others can be used to connect two sentences in order to make a compound sentence. Use them in your sentences to make more complex sentences.
    لكن But
    و And
    ف So
    ثما Then
    أو or
    أم or


    كان الولدُ و أخته يلعبان في الحديفة The boy and his sister were playing in the garden.
    كنْتُ مشغولة و لكن زرتك I was busy but I visited you. (note that the خبر is feminine. Men would omit the ending ة when using the word, saying instead: كنْتُ مشغولا ً و لكن زرتك )
    كنت مشغولة فلم أزورك. I was busy so I didn’t visit you.
    كنت مشغولة فما زرْتك I was busy so I didn’t visit you.
    سأكونُ مشغولة فلا أزورك I will be busy so I won’t visit you.
    سأزورك ثم أذهب إلى السوق I will visit you, then I will go shopping.
    أزورك أم أذهب إلى السوق؟ Should I visit you or go shopping?
    هل تزورينني أو تزورين مريم؟ Are you going to visit me or are you going to visit Maryam?

    Practice tip: use the above connecting words in sentences of your own.


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