Thanks for your post, NoahideHiker. This common allegation, and I'll respond to the article.
On the issue of Who is Allah, Shaykh Abdur-Rahman Robert Squires writes:
Some of the biggest misconceptions that many non-Muslims have about Islam have to do with the word "Allah". For various reasons, many people have come to believe that Muslims worship a different God than Christians and Jews. This is totally false, since "Allah" is simply the Arabic word for "God" - and there is only One God....
So the Arabic word "Allah" literally means "The God”: the "Al-" in Arabic basically serving the same function as the capital "G" in English. Due to the above mentioned facts, a more accurate translation of the word "Allah" into English might be "The One -and-Only God" or "The One True God".
Mahmood Murad writes:
Allah is the proper name applied to the true God who exists necessarily by Himself comprising all the excellent Divine names and attributes of perfection. Allah is One and Unique. He has no son, no partner, nor equal. He is the sole Creator and Sustainer of the universe.
Based on the above, any claim that Allah is a "moon-god" is ludicrous because since Allah is the arabic word for God, this is no different from saying "God is a moon-god" in english.
Most of this material has been refuted by Shabir Ally here:
Originally Posted by NoahideHiker
But for the sake of argument, let's assume that there are people, even today, who claim that Allah has daughters named Al-Lat, Al-uzza, and Manat. That doesn't make it true! If someone says that "God is a Forest-God", does that mean that everyone who prays to God is automatically praying to a "Forest-God"?
Moreover, the Qur'an clearly refutes such comments so they have nothing to do with Islam:
53:19-20,23. Have you seen Al-Lât, and Al-‘Uzzâ (two idols of the pagan Arabs) And Manât (another idol of the pagan Arabs), the other third?
...They are but names which you have named - you and your fathers - for which Allâh has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the Guidance from their Lord!
And the irrefutable pure creed of Islam in presented in the Qur'an:
112:1-4 Say: "He is Allâh, (the) One.
Allâh the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks).
He begets not, nor was He begotten.
And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.
2:116 And they say: Allah hath taken unto Himself a son. Be He glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth is His. All are subservient unto Him
The myth of satanic verses has been refuted here:
As Muhammad grew weary from evangelizing his new religion with little success, he was tricked by the devil into adding a verse in the Koran that commanded Muslims to pray to Allah's three pagan daughters Lat, Uzza and Manat. The pagan female trinity was immediately accepted without dissent and the passage was considered part of the revealed Koran. However some time later, Muhammad got a revelation from God that the verse should be removed. After repenting of the error, Muhammad was comforted by God.
As well, the Qur'an addresses the pagan idolaters and informs them:
21:98 Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allâh, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely), you will enter it.
And finally, to quash any claims that Allah is the moon-god, the Qur'an has clearly stated:
And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him. (41:37)
Please read this article for more info:
I hope this helps.