Nothing could be more ridiculous. The Gharqad tree, which is apparently called Boxthorn in English, is actually about 90 related species of trees. I can tell you, as an observant Jew, that I've never heard of anything like this in Torah, Mishna, Gemara, Tehillim, etc.
There are five species of fruit (and their trees, obviously) which are significant to Jews, particularly in Israel - grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates. There are certain agricultural and other laws related to them, and to fruit trees in general.
As a side note, it is very interesting that the Islamic hadith mentions the Gharqad tree, however, because there IS one mention of this tree in Jewish literature. The Jewish King Solomon, son of King David, wrote a Book of Proverbs (in Hebrew, Mishlei). The Gharqad tree is mentioned there one time, in Chapter 22, Verse 5:
This isn't a great translation, but you get the basic picture:
5. Troops [and] snares are in the way of the perverse; he who preserves his soul will distance himself from them.
And now the Rashi commentary (Rashi was a great Jewish commentator who lived in France during the Middle Ages), which comes out a bit fractious in this translation, I think.
Troops [and] snares: Heb. צנים, as in (Num. 33: 55) “troops (לצנינים) in your sides” ; (Ezek. 23:24) “And they will come upon you, a band (הצן),” an expression of bands and brigands.
Troops and snares: are hidden on the ways of the one who perverts his ways; i.e., torments are prepared for him. He who preserves his soul will distance himself from them: He who is upright in his deeds will be saved from them.
From the English, it's not clear what all this has to do with the Boxthorn tree. The connection is in the Hebrew, meaning that thorns and snares (which this tree is apparently known for) torment the wicked. Basically, people who make bad (spiritually wicked) decisions will face obstacles and negative consequences, symbolized by the thorns and snares of this tree, the Boxthorn or Gharqad in Arabic.
So, Islam says that this particular tree, the Gharqad, which is used synonymously in Mishlei by Solomon to refer to thorns and snares that torment wicked people, is the tree of the Jews.
It is this tree, Islam says, which will protect the Jews against the Muslims on the Day of Judgment. A tree whose essence is to stumble and harass the wicked will protect the Jews from the Muslims. An interesting choice for "the tree of the Jews".
That's just something I find interesting, personally.
But to answer your question, until I read that hadith, I never heard of this tree in the Jewish faith. I've seen some places online where they show a picture of Israel's Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu planting a tree. For some reason, every time they use the same picture. But the tree he was planting is an olive tree, during Tisha B'Av, which is a Jewish holiday of trees and fruits. Anyone who has worked with small olive trees will know that it was an olive tree because of the shape of the leaves.
There is something called the Jewish National Fund. They have been working for almost 100 years to plant trees in Israel. Especially in the north of Israel, they did a lot of work to drain the swamps. They've planted maybe 100 million trees, but almost all those trees are evergreens, like the cedar trees in Lebanon. They are good for that climate, which can be both dry and cold. Unfortunately, a lot of trees were destroyed in the last war with Hezbollah. The rockets landed everywhere, and they started big fires that took a long time to stop. I know they started a campaign to replant those trees, but it will take a long time.
So anyway, if we Jews wanted to plant Gharqad trees, we would have done it instead of planting 100 million cedar trees.