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    Default Native American Muslims

    Native American Muslims
    The Message, July 1996

    My name is Mahir Abdal-Razzaaq El and I am a Cherokee Blackfoot American Indian who is Muslim. I am known as Eagle Sun Walker. I serve as a Pipe Carrier Warrior for the Northeastern Band of Cherokee Indians in New York City.
    There are other Muslims in our group. For the most part, not many people are aware of the Native American contact with Islam that began over one thousand years ago by some of the early Muslim travelers who visited us. Some of these Muslim travelers ended up living among our people.

    For most Muslims and non-Muslims of today, this type of information is unknown and has never been mentioned in any of the history books.
    There are many documents, treaties, legislation and resolutions that were passed between 1600s and 1800s that show that Muslims were in fact here and were very active in the comunities in which they lived.
    Treaties such as Peace and Friendship that was signed on the Delaware River in the year 1787 bear the signatures of Abdel-Khak and Muhammad Ibn Abdullah. This treaty detailes our continued right to exist as a community in the areas of commerce, maritime shipping, current form of government at that time which was in accordance with Islam. According to a federal court case from the Continental Congress, we help put the breath of life in to the newly framed constitution. All of the documents are presently in the National Archives as well as the Library of Congress.

    If you have access to records in the state of South Carolina, read the Moors Sundry Act of 1790. In a future article, Inshallah, I will go in to more details about the various tribes, their languages; in which some are influenced by Arabic, Persian, Hebrew words. Almost all of the tribes vocabulary include the word Allah. The traditional dress code for Indian women includes the kimah and long dresses. For men, standard fare is turbans and long tops that come down to the knees. If you were to look at any of the old books on Cherokee clothing up until the time of 1832, you will see the men wearing turbans and the women wearing long head coverings. The last Cherokee chief who had a Muslim name was Ramadhan Ibn Wati of the Cherokees in 1866.

    Cities across the United States and Canada bear names that are of Indian and Islamic derivation. Have you ever wondered what the name Tallahassee means? It means that He Allah will deliver you sometime in the future.

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    Islam in America before Columbus
    Hisham Zoubeir, 14 February 1998

    Before I begin this article, I would like to extend my thanks to the creators of the Internet. It was there that I found my research on the topic that follows, and it is to the people who wrote the various articles and references that credit for this article should go to. I merely put two and two together for the benefit of those reading this now.

    The history surrounding the followers of our proud faith is one of two shades; the truth and the lie. The lies surrounding our history have been spread to every corner of the globe; that we were and are (?) barbarians, no better than animals. The truth is that although there were certain parts of history that do show that some of our followers were ruthless and brutal (such as the Ottoman Empire), this is not unlike every nation and country in the world. And we have a much more worthy things to focus on.

    Before the West declared themselves the great scientists of the earth, before their own Renaissance, Muslims already were making discoveries in science that took the West hundreds of years to even begin to imagine. What a shame that people in Europe were being persecuted by the Church for their suppositions that the earth was round; they should have come to the Islamic world--- an Afghan Muslim had proved that in 793 C.E.!

    However, the studying of the universe brought forth more questions, and more curiosity. The Muslims in West Africa were so intrigued by what was on the other side of the Great Sea, that they began their expeditions into the great unknown. Early reports of these travels are sketchy, but we can be sure that they crossed the Atlantic by 889 C.E.

    That was 603 years before Columbus. And that is not counting the actual physical evidence in the United States today that dates back even further; however, we do know, as De Lacy O'Leary pointed out, that Muslims definitely had the scientific knowledge and skill to make journeys across the Atlantic ocean.

    We were in the Americas, hundreds of years before Columbus, and of that we can be sure.

    Clyde-Ahmad Winters. Barry Fell. Alexander Von Wuthenau. Ivan Van Sertima. What do they have in common? A lot. They all provided evidence to the above statement; and it is a statement of fact, not an opinion, although many have chosen to ignore it in the past.

    Now, we are all aware of the grave tragedy that befell the various African people after the discovery of America. Many people from there were forcefully taken from their homes to America, to serve the people who had taken over that land. Black slavery. We also know, for a fact, that many of these people were indeed Muslims; that has never been in dispute, nor should it be. Clyde Ahmad Winters has given us details of how huge numbers of Muslims were brought to Latin America in a 1978 issue of Al-Ittihad: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Studies, although later on in 1543, Muslims in Spanish colonies were ejected from them by the residing government.

    Dr. Barry Fell, a noted New Zealand archaeologist and linguist of Harvard University showed detailed existing evidence in his work, "Saga America" that Muslims were not only in the Americas before Columbus arrived, but very active there as well. The language of the Pima people in the South West and the Algonquian language had many words in their vocabulary that were Arabic in origin, and Islamic petroglyphs were found in places such as California.

    In the Inyo county of the State of California, according to Fell, there is another petroglyph that states, "Yasus bin Maria" which means in Arabic, "Jesus, son of Mary". This is not a Christian phrase; in fact, the phrase is to be found in the verses and ayahs of the Holy Quran. This glyph, as Fell believes, is centuries older than the US.

    In the Western states of the US he found texts, diagrams and charts engraved on rocks that were used for schooling that dated back to 700-800 C.E. The schooling was in subjects such as mathematics, history, geography, astronomy and sea navigation. The language of instruction was Kufic Arabic, from North Africa.

    The German art historian, Alexander Von Wuthenau, also provides evidence that Islamic peoples were in America, in the time between 300 and 900 C.E. This was at least half a millennium before Columbus was born! Carved heads, that were described as "Moorish-looking" were dated between 300 and 900 C.E. and another group of heads dated between 900 and 1500 C.E. An artifact found in the earlier group was photographed, and when later examined was found to resemble an old man in a Fez, like the Egyptians.

    Ivan Van Sertima is widely renowned for his work, "They Came Before Columbus" which showed that there was definitely contact between the ancient and early African people with the Native Americans. This and another of his works, "African Presence in Early America" both prove that there were African Muslim settlements in the Americas, before the expedition of Columbus was even conceived. His research has shown that Arab Muslim trade was active in America and one can only imagine that the marvellous culture that the Native Americans had that shared so much with Islamic teachings was of great attraction to the Muslims that came so far across the sea.

    And for the record, Christopher Columbus, the man who so-called discovered America, himself declared that his impression of the Carib people (i.e., Caribbean people) were "Mohemmedans." He knew of the Mandinka presence in the New World (Muslims) and that Muslims from the West coast of Africa had settled down in the Carribean, Central, South and North America. Unlike Columbus, they had not come to enslave the populations or plunder the land; they had come to trade and they married among the Natives. Columbus further admitted that on October 21st, 1492, as he was sailing past Gibara on the coast of Cuba, he saw a mosque, and remnants of other masjids have been found in Cuba, Mexico, Texas and Nevada.

    On the second voyage Columbus took to the West Indies, the people of Haiti told him that "black" people had been there before him. They showed him spears of these visitors, and further study of the metals involved in their construction showed that they could have been made only in one place: Guinea.

    Another historian, P.V. Ramos, also showed in his essay in "African Presence in Early America" that the dietary regulations of the Carib were similar to Islamic teachings.

    But let us say that we are wrong. Perhaps it is all just a coincidence; after all, there are no living survivors of the Native American Muslims, are they?

    Wrong. And this last part is what originally drew me into this quest for knowledge: an exposé written by a Native Muslim.

    Brother Mahir Abdal-Razzaaq El wrote in his account, recently posted on the Internet, about the Native Americans that were Muslims. He is of the Cherokee tribe; known as Eagle Sun Walker, and a Pipe Carrier Warrior of the Cherokees in New York. He tells of Muslim travelers that came to his land over one thousand years ago, and what is more important, existing evidence of legislation, treaties and resolutions that prove, beyond the shadow of a doubt that Muslims were in the Americas and very active. Although these documents have not been written after 1492, it is still interesting to note that Islam was in fact there. The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1787 have the signatures of Abdel-Khak and Mohammed Bin Abdulla. According to a federal court case from the Continental Congress,

    Native Muslims helped put life into the constitution.

    These are a matter of record; they cannot be disputed. Go to the National Archives or the Library of Congress and see for yourself; the Treat of 1987 show that the Natives abided by an Islamic system in commerce, maritime shipping and government. The records of the State of Carolina has the Moors Sundry Act of 1790. The Cherokee Chief of
    1866 was a man called Ramadhan Bin Wati. Native clothing up until 1832 was full Islamic wear. The name Tallahassee actually means," Allah will deliver you sometime in the future." In North America, there are no less than 565 names of tribes, villages, cities, mountains and other lands sites of Islamic or Arabic roots.

    The truth of Islam and the truth of the Native American culture is one and the same; many people hundreds of years ago realised that. The protection of the land and of the animals; the non-wastage of resources and the non-pollution of nature are all Islamic concepts.

    I finish this article with a few Native sayings. And then, I want you to tell me that Islam is not nurtured in the hearts of these people.

    "Our belief is that the Great Spirit has created all things. Not just mankind but animals, all plants, all rocks, all on earth and amongst the stars with true soul. For us, all life is holy. All of nature is within us and we are part of all nature." Chief White Cloud

    "What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night." Crowfoot

    "In the life of the Indian there was only one inevitable duty- the duty of prayer - the daily recognition of the Unseen and the Eternal."
    Ohiyesa

    Allahu akbar. Salaam wa allaykum wa rakhmatullah wa barakatu.

    When this article was written] Hisham Zoubeir is at the University of Sheffield undertaking a multi-disciplinary degree in law. He has lived in Abu Dhabi, Cairo and London. His main interests delves into peace, equality, righteousness and spirituality.

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    IB Oldskool Array Keltoi's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    lol...sorry, but this guy is full of nonsense. I have never seen so much disinformation contained in one article before.

    Tallahassee is an Apalachee word meaning "old town" or "abandoned fields", depending on the context.

    I'm not even sure what the Moors-Sundry Act has to do with Native Americans either. It was a case in South Carolina dealing with subjects of the Morrocan Emperor who had been taken to South Carolina as slaves. They won their case and for all intents and purposes were given judicial equality with white citizens. Has nothing to do with Native Americans.

    As for the rest of it, it is stating things as facts without any reliable evidence to support it. It disturbs me that people might read this article or the "evidence" presented and actually take it as fact.

    Conjecture is fine, but the author of this article liked to repeat "there can be no doubt"...any true professional archeologist would tell you there is a great deal of doubt concerning these claims.


    "Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."

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    Limited Member Array malhidar's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Interesting information I heard some of it

    before, but you confirm it to me. Thanks

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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Just to clear up one thing, the greeks and others had calculated the circumference of the earth with good accuracy a couple of hundered years before christ was born.

    thanks.

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    Catholic Array Jayda's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    hola,

    i think i read somewhere that they found a roman trireme in brazil... that's kind of interesting...

    que Dios te bendiga

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    IB Oldskool Array Keltoi's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Oh, I forgot to point out the obvious fallacy of stating Columbus called the natives of the Carribean "Mohameddans". If he called them this, which I have never heard before, it would be more to do with what land he thought he had found, not their customs, language, or look. Would your first thought of finding mostly naked tribes who practiced shamanism and in some instances cannabilism be "Hey, they must be Muslims!" Not quite.


    "Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."

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    El Habanero picante Array Woodrow's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    This has been discussed briefly on another thread. Although for personal reasons I believe there had been contact by Muslims with Native Americans prior to Columbus, I have no solid verifiable facts to back it up, therefore I have to say that what I have is personal opinion.

    With that said I have to agree with Keltoi. so far nothing solid has been presented to PROVE these claims.

    Those who read this thread please do so with the understanding that at the moment, there is no verifiable evidence to substantiate these claims. There is circumstantial evidence, however, there are many possible explanations for it.

    This is an interesting thread and good discussion, as long as we keep in mind it is only theory or conjecture at this point. Perhaps some members may be aware of solid evidence that can be posted?





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    Account Disabled Array wilberhum's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Why do we ignore the obvious?

    Obviously the peoples that became the Native Americans were the first.

    Some came across the Baring Straights and some across the Pacific Ocean.

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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    salaam,
    the evidence of islamic contact and integration with Native Americans is factual and was documented by the European colonists

    here are some examples
    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/N...cans_and_Islam

    Introduction

    There are numerous accounts of Muslims who were intergrated within Native Indian tribes pre Columbus, of Turkic, Moorish and African Muslims leaving colonies to live amongst the Native Indians. There are also historical letters and colonial advertisments describing the threat to the colonies of African Muslim Slaves fleeing and intergrating with the Native American Indians. There is also the case of Mahomet Weyonomonof the Mohegan tribe, who arrived in Britain in 1736 CE (1148 AH) [1]century to discuss the land grabs by the British.

    Main article: Muslims First Journey To America

    * in the 12th century Al-Idrisi reported in Nuzhat Al-Mushtaq Fi Ikhtiraq Al-Afaq (Excursion of the Longing One in Crossing Horizons), that a group of eight Muslim sailors from North Africa sailed west of Lisbon. After sailing west for more than 31 days, they landed on what must have been an island in the Caribbean. The intrepid explorers were initially imprisoned by Indians but were later released when a translator appeared who spoke Arabic [2]

    * 1310 CE (709 AH) Sultan Abu Bakari of the Mandinka kingdom of Mali sent two different fleets of ships, totalling 2,400 ships, sailing west from Africa. The fleets never returned to Africa.

    There are also numerous reports of 'black skinned' Indians. For example in Honduras Columbus reported seeing Black skinned Indians. Giles Cauvet's 'Les Berberes de l'Amerique' reported that a pre-Columbian tribe in Honduras was know as the Almamys a corruption of the Mandinka word for the Arabic Imam.

    American Treaties and laws with American Muslims

    * Treaty of Peace and Commerce Delaware signed in Delaware River in 1787 CE (1201 AH) which bears the signature of Abdel-Khak and Muhammad Ibn Abdullah


    Several colonial advertisments made direct reference to the intergration of African Americans into the Native American communities. For example ..ran off with his Indian wife... had kin among the Indians .. part Indian and speaks their language good. [3]

    In South Carolina, colonists became so concerned about the possible threat posed by the mixed African and Indian population that was arising as runaway Africans escapted to the Indians that they passed a new law in 1725 CE (1137 AH). This law stipulated a fine of 200 pounds on anyone who even brought a slave to the frontier regions of the colony. In 1751 CE (1164 AH) the colony of South Carolina found it necessary to issue another law, warning that having Africans in proximity to Indians was deemed detrimental to the security of the colony.

    In 1726 CE (1138 AH) the British governor of colonial New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois Indians to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Indians in 1764 CE (1177 AH) and from the Delaware Indians in 1765 CE (1178 AH). Despite their promises, no esacaped slaves were ever returned by these tribes, who continued to provide a safe and secure home for escaped slaves.


    And finally a census was undertaken of the Cherokee in 1835 CE (1250 AH) where fully 10% were of African descent [4]
    [edit] Turkic and Moorish colonies
    JamesTown and Roanoke Island
    JamesTown and Roanoke Island

    The Ottoman Navy from late 14th century was one of the main navel powers , and controlled much of the Mediterranean Sea. There where many skirmishes and battles with the European nations, and as such many Turkish sailors where imprisoned and taken to the new world. Once in the New World, these Muslim captives were assigned to slave labor on sugar plantations and in the mining operations of among other places, Cuba and Brazil.

    Main article: Ottoman Navy


    In 1586 CE (994 AH) English pirate Sir Francis Drake commanded thirty English ships, made a daring rade against the Spanish of the coast of Brazil. During this raid, Drake liberated some 400 prisoners, 300 of them estimated to be Moorish and Turkish galley slaves, as well as some South American Indians. On his return he picked up stranded English on Roanake Island, and unloaded around 200 of the captives, returning with the remaining 100 to be ransomed to the Turkish Dominons. On his return two weeks later, the prisoners were gone as where the small rowing boats that where left behind. [1]

    The Spanish established the Santa Elena, South Carolina, colony in 1566 CE (973 AH). The colony thrived for more than twenty years until it was overrun by the English in 1587 CE (995 AH).

    Many of the Santa Elena colonists were forcibly converted Muslims and Jews (Conversos). In Spain the Muslims were known as Mudajjan. Captain Joao Pardo recruited heavily from the Berber Galician Mountains of northern Portugal in 1567 CE (974 AH).[5]

    When Santa Elena fell, its inhabitants-including its converted Jews and Muslims escaped into the mountains of North Carolina.

    In Eastern Tennessee in the late 1700, Jonathan Swits an English men married a Mullungeon women and utilized them in his mining operations and these dark skin individuals were known as Mecca Indians and they described them as being good with Silver crafts and this really comes out of Muslim Spain and Muslims were very good in that. He continues to say that they use to fall down in prayer on the ground a number of times during the day facing East.

    in 1784, Tennessee governor John Seevier records an encounter with people in the Western North Carolina with Dark reddish brown complexion and he said that they were supposed to be of Moorish decent.


    History of Islam In America
    The Beginnings 1312–1600
    Native Americans and Islam 1300–1900
    Muslims First Journey To America 1312 CE (711 AH)
    Christopher Columbus 1492 CE (897 AH)
    Estevanico 1538 CE (944 AH)
    Slavery in the Americaas 1538 CE (944 AH)
    Melungeons 1600 CE (1008 AH)
    Blackamoor 1639 CE (1048 AH)
    Islam In America 18th Century 1700–1799
    Mahomet Weyonomon 1708 CE (1119 AH)
    Lamine Jay 1730 CE (1142 AH)
    Job Ben Solomon Jallo 1730 CE (1142 AH)
    Abel Conder 1753 CE (1166 AH)
    Kunta Kinte 1767 CE (1180 AH)
    Runaway Slaves 1769–1790
    Peter Saleem 1775 CE (1188 AH)
    Ibrahim Abd ar-Rahman 1788 CE (1202 AH)
    Yusef Ben Ali 1790 CE (1204 AH)
    Islam In America 19th Century 1800–1899
    Salih Bilali 1803 CE (1217 AH)
    Yarrow Mamout 1807 CE (1221 AH)
    Abraham of the Micanopy Indian Tribe 1812 CE (1226 AH)
    Umar ibn Said 1770–1864
    Lamine Kebe 1835 CE (1250 AH)
    Islam In America 20th Century 1900–1999
    Islam In America 21st Century 2000–Present


    [edit] African American Intergration

    An increasing number of primary sources have come to light, detailing the religous make up of the African Slaves brought over from West Africa to the Americaas. West Africa included large Islamic Kingdoms and many of the Afican tribes where Muslim, such as the Mandinka, Fullo, etc. Estimates place the number of Muslim African slaves at 30%. Therefore any evidence of Africans intergrating with the native Americans is likely to include Muslim Africans.

    see

    Main article: History of Islam in America

    The earliest recorded example of African slaves escaping from European colonists and being absorbed by American Indians occured as far back as 1526 CE (932 AH). In June of that year, Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon established a Spanish colony near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in what is now eastern South Carolina. The Spanish settlement was named San Miquel de Gualdape. Amongst the settlement was 100 enslaved Africans. In November 1526 (Muharram 933), the first African slaves fled the colony and was taken in by the local Indians[6]

    In 1622 CE (1031 AH) the European colony of Jamestown was overrun by Native Americans. The African slaves did not share the same fate as the Europeans who were killed , but where instead taken and intergrated into the Native American communities.

    Several colonial advertisments made direct reference to the intergration of African Americans into the Native American communities. For example ..ran off with his Indian wife... had kin among the Indians .. part Indian and speaks their language good. [7]

    In South Carolina, colonists became so concerned about the possible threat posed by the mixed African and Indian population that was arising as runaway Africans escapted to the Indians that they passed a new law in 1725 CE (1137 AH). This law stipulated a fine of 200 pounds on anyone who even brought a slave to the frontier regions of the colony. In 1751 CE (1164 AH) the colony of South Carolina found it necessary to issue another law, warning that having Africans in proximity to Indians was deemed detrimental to the security of the colony.

    In 1726 CE (1138 AH) the British governor of colonial New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois Indians to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Indians in 1764 CE (1177 AH) and from the Delaware Indians in 1765 CE (1178 AH). Despite their promises, no esacaped slaves were ever returned by these tribes, who continued to provide a safe and secure home for escaped slaves.


    And finally a census was undertaken of the Cherokee in 1835 CE (1250 AH) where fully 10% were of African descent [8]
    [edit] Linguistic Similarities

    An additional and particularly intriguing piece of evidence attesting to the pre-Columbian presence of Muslims in America can be found by examining the relationship between certain American Indian words and their corresponding words in Turkish and Croation (Croatia and Bosnia being part of the Ottoman empire at the time). For Example Kentucky is supposedly named after an Indian word (Kain-tuck) that means dark and bloody ground The Turkish word Kan-tok means saturated with or full of blood. Another example is Chicago, named after an Indian word meaning a nasty, smelly, uncultivated land. The Turkish Chee-kahkahl has the same meaning. For more examples of place names

    Main article: Islamic place names in America

    Individually these similarities may not hold much weight but Jerard F. Dirks in his book Muslims in American History suggests that taken as a whole they are evidence of Turkish influence on Native Indian culture and linguistics.

    There are many more examples, that also correlate ancient Turkish. Which suggests that the Turkish influence was pre-Columbian.

    Main article: Turkish Native Indian linguistics

    [edit] Cultural Dress
    turbaned cherokee
    turbaned cherokee

    the old books on Cherokee clothing up until the time of 1832, you will see the men wearing turbans and the women wearing long head coverings.
    [edit] Famous Native American Muslims

    * Ramadhan Ibn Wati of the Cherokees in 1866.
    * Mahir Abdal-Razzaaq El a cherokee blackfoot and Muslim who writes for the Muslim Publication the Message.
    * Mahomet Weyonomon

    [edit] See Also

    Mahomet Weyonomon
    [edit] Further Reading

    * Amir Nashid Ali Muhammad Muslims in America - Seven Centuries of History ISBN 0-915957-75-2
    * Sylviane A. Diouf Servants of Allah - African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas ISBN 0-8147-1905-8
    * Allan D. Austin African Muslims in Antebellum America ISBN 0-415-91270-9

    [edit] References

    1. ↑ http://www.conferences.uconn.edu/heroism/Davison.pdf
    2. ↑ Quick AH 1998, Mroue Y 1996, Irving TB
    3. ↑ Katz WL 1997 p103
    4. ↑ Katz WL 1997
    5. ↑ Kennedy NB The Melungeons(1997),Cambpbell H The Powhatan remnants(2001)
    6. ↑ Muslims in American History p204
    7. ↑ Katz WL 1997 p103
    8. ↑ Katz WL 1997

    * Jerald F.Dirks Muslims in American History - a Forgotten Legacy ISBN 1-59008-044-0
    * utah indymedia

    This article is a stub. You can help The MuslimWiki by expanding it so that others Insha'Allah can benefit from your additions.

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    Limited Member Array abuhamza1970's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    and muslims founded some of the first states in the US
    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/Christopher_Columbus

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    IB Oldskool Array Keltoi's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    A lot of wishful thinking...I'll leave it at that.


    "Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."

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    Limited Member Array abuhamza1970's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    yep wishful thinking. After all these mad christian colonists just made up, printed articles, made laws etc. A bit like americans and aliens now


    Several colonial advertisments made direct reference to the intergration of African Americans into the Native American communities. For example ..ran off with his Indian wife... had kin among the Indians .. part Indian and speaks their language good. [3]

    In South Carolina, colonists became so concerned about the possible threat posed by the mixed African and Indian population that was arising as runaway Africans escapted to the Indians that they passed a new law in 1725 CE (1137 AH). This law stipulated a fine of 200 pounds on anyone who even brought a slave to the frontier regions of the colony. In 1751 CE (1164 AH) the colony of South Carolina found it necessary to issue another law, warning that having Africans in proximity to Indians was deemed detrimental to the security of the colony.

    In 1726 CE (1138 AH) the British governor of colonial New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois Indians to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Indians in 1764 CE (1177 AH) and from the Delaware Indians in 1765 CE (1178 AH). Despite their promises, no esacaped slaves were ever returned by these tribes, who continued to provide a safe and secure home for escaped slaves.

    Ref Katz WL 1997 p103

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    IB Oldskool Array Keltoi's Avatar
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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Quote Originally Posted by abuhamza1970 View Post
    yep wishful thinking. After all these mad christian colonists just made up, printed articles, made laws etc. A bit like americans and aliens now


    Several colonial advertisments made direct reference to the intergration of African Americans into the Native American communities. For example ..ran off with his Indian wife... had kin among the Indians .. part Indian and speaks their language good. [3]

    In South Carolina, colonists became so concerned about the possible threat posed by the mixed African and Indian population that was arising as runaway Africans escapted to the Indians that they passed a new law in 1725 CE (1137 AH). This law stipulated a fine of 200 pounds on anyone who even brought a slave to the frontier regions of the colony. In 1751 CE (1164 AH) the colony of South Carolina found it necessary to issue another law, warning that having Africans in proximity to Indians was deemed detrimental to the security of the colony.

    In 1726 CE (1138 AH) the British governor of colonial New York exacted a promise from the Iroquois Indians to return all runaway slaves who had joined up with them. This same promise was extracted from the Huron Indians in 1764 CE (1177 AH) and from the Delaware Indians in 1765 CE (1178 AH). Despite their promises, no esacaped slaves were ever returned by these tribes, who continued to provide a safe and secure home for escaped slaves.

    Ref Katz WL 1997 p103
    What exactly does that any of that have to do with Islam in the New World? African slaves were not Muslims, at least not in general, they were from Western Africa and were of tribal religions.


    "Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."

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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Quote Originally Posted by Keltoi View Post
    What exactly does that any of that have to do with Islam in the New World? African slaves were not Muslims, at least not in general, they were from Western Africa and were of tribal religions.
    lol, read the article
    over 30% of all african american slaves where muslim (extensive study and research into names of slaves in plantations etc and areas the slaves came from)
    west africa is predominantly muslim

    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/S..._the_Americaas

    whilst you are there, you might want to read
    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/B...racial_slavery

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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Quote Originally Posted by abuhamza1970 View Post
    lol, read the article
    over 30% of all african american slaves where muslim (extensive study and research into names of slaves in plantations etc and areas the slaves came from)
    west africa is predominantly muslim

    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/S..._the_Americaas

    whilst you are there, you might want to read
    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/B...racial_slavery
    I find that 30% number to be quite high. In any event, I stated that in general African slaves were of tribal religions, especially those brought to the U.S. It was the source of Voodoo, Hoodoo, and other African religious influences.

    Having said that, I still don't see the point behind it. Most slaves converted to Christianity, or in the case of South America, a tribal version of it.

    As for the runaway slaves, yes many were taken in by Native tribes, especially the Seminole, but I still don't see what that has to do with the topic.


    "Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."

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    Default Re: Native American Muslims

    Yes the research puts the figure between 10 and 30%, so 30% is the high point.

    What the studies have also found is that the majority of the african american slaves who rebelled were Muslims. One of the reasons behind this has to do with the situation in West Africa.

    Most of the Muslims who were captured did so out of loosing wars against the anamilists. But also many were captured whilst travelling to trade.

    In addition most muslims in west africa were extremely literate. Captured slaves have give insight into the books that were learnt in Africa. In fact many have commented that the african american slaves brought to the americaas were more literate than the white slave holders.

    And so more often the muslims that were captured were educated, and had very deep islamic roots, which made them rebel (hence the edicts by Isabella of spain, forbidding muslim slaves to be taken to the new world)

    Some good examples of the literacy and leadership of the muslims captured and brought to the Americaas

    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/J..._Solomon_Jallo
    Introduction

    Job was one of many many Muslims enslaved by the Europeans and shipped to the US. see List of Early African Muslims in the USA, and Islam in the United States. What made Job difference was that his story was told. Thousands of other equally articulate, intelligent and practicing Muslims that were enslaved in the Americas remain unknown to us, except through slave records, or newspaper clippings of runaways. Job offered Salat 'At least once a white boy threw mud in his face as Job prostrated as a Muslim in prayer'.He refused wine and regulary wrote copies of the Qu'ran, and Arabic Scripture, impressing a Mr Bluett by writing copies of the Qu'ran from memory and praying publicly five times a day and maintaining his dietry restrictions.

    http://muslimwiki.com/mw/index.php/I..._Abd_ar-Rahman
    ntroduction

    Abdur-Rahman was born in Timbo, he was a captain in the military of the Fulbe tribe, commanding over 2,000 men. He was then captured and thrown into a ship bound for New Orleans via Dominica. His fate placed him in the path of a white man who had been nursed back to health by his father in Timbo. This eventually led to his fanfare journey back to Africa, accompanied by his wife Isabella. Much to Abdur-Rahmans distress he was unable to secure the release of his many children. They eventually made it to Africa after their father had passed away. see also List of Early African Muslims in the USA

    and here is a very good quote from him
    "I tell you the Testemant very good law;you no follow it; you no pray often enough; you greedy after money. You good man; you join the religion". "See, you want more land, more neegurs; you make neegur work hard, make more cotton.... Where you find dat in your law?"

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