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  1. #1
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    The Medical student Review (OP)


    I don't know how many med students there are on board, or how useful this review will be for you.. I am a firm believer in slow and consistent than an intellectual enema two days before the exam where once released never again to be regained.. So what I plan to do here, is share some things I feel are important..

    In my pre-clinical years, I was president of the pharmacology club, and I enjoyed teaching it and exchanging ideas with others.. so if you have your own forte, quirks mnemonics that you'd like to share we can make a useful compendium..

    I am only going to focus here on pharmacology and diagnostic testings.. so every day I'll give you five of each..

    I am not going to start in any particular order but once in a section, I plan to complete it.. this will be just the high yield..


    __________________________________________________ ___________

    Oncology diagnostic testing
    _____________
    AFP (what disease is associated with it, and when do you answer this for a question?)
    AFP is associated with the development of
    1-hepatocellular ca.
    2-ovarian cancer
    3-non-seminomatous germ cell tumors
    Answer AFP when you see a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or V. AFP together with radiological imaging is used to screen for hepatocellular ca

    ____________________________________________
    CEA
    1-A protein elevated in a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer
    2-serum CEA have a prognostic value in pts with newely diagnosed CRC. Those with higher levels have worse prognosis.
    3-CEA level to monitor in colon cancer in pts after a surgical resection, it determines the presence of persistent, recurrent or metastatic disease

    __________________________________________________ ___________
    Colposcopy
    Colposcopy is the direct visualization of the cervix, by use of a magnifying scope with a lamp
    2-The transition zone must be visualized to ensure an adequate colposcopy. The border between squamous and columnar epithelium
    3-a colposcopy is the answer for a pt with an abnromal pap
    Atypical squams can't exclude high grade lesion ASC-II
    low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions LSIL
    high grade intraepithelial lesions HSIL
    Atypical sqams of undetermined significance ASCUS if HPV DNA testing is positive
    __________________________________________________ ___________
    Estrogen and progesterone receptors
    Should be done on all pts with breast cancer, in order to determine who should receive hormone therapy
    2-Therapy with either tamoxifen or raloxifene should be added to any pt. with positive receptors. This is either for estrogen or progesterone positivity alone or in combination. The response to tamoxifen is better if both receptors are positive
    __________________________________________________ ____
    Mammogram
    screening should begin at age 40 and should be performed every 1~2 years, screening at age 50 should be yearly
    2-when mammogram shows abnormalities, a core biopsy including sentinel lymph node biopsy is the next best step. carcinomas of the breast are associated with clustered polymorphic microcalcifications.
    3-screening lowers mortality most after age 50 and the dec is greater than that of a colonscopy or a pap smear
    __________________________________________________ ________________

    Now pharm
    _____________

    will start with infectious disease because it is the longest chunk
    Acyclovir/valcyclovir/famiciclovir

    all the above are the correct answer for
    Herpes simplex including, genital, cutaneous, orolabial
    for Herpes Encephalitis (acyclovir) IV form only in a hospital setting
    Varicella zoster
    shingles: Herpes zoster or reactivation
    Bell's palsy

    the above meds work by inhibition of thymidine kinase
    -most common adverse effects are nephrotoxicity presumably from precipitation of the meds in the kidney tubule, sx of neurological toxicity in the kidney tubule, sx of neurological tox, such as confusion, tremors and hallucination occur rarely
    __________________________________________________ __
    Rifaximin
    used to treat travelers' diarrhea such as that from E.coli, it isn't used for invasive diarrhea. an associated fever and bloody diarrhea indicate and invasive pathogen, such as campylobacter. When fever and bloody diarrhea are described, ciprofloxacin is the best answer.

    rifa is a nonabsorbed version of the rifamycin antibiotic, it inhibits ribosomal RNA production of essential proteins
    There are no major side effects since it isn't absorbed from the GI tract. it doesn't cause C.Diff, and may in fact treat it.
    _________________________________________________
    Daptomycin and Linezolid

    they are both used for gram +ve organisms such as MRSA, streptococci and vanc resistant enterococci. Linezolid is the only oral antibiotic for MRSA. They can both be used for Vanc resistant organisms .

    Liezolid is an oxazolidinone and inhibits protein synthesis at the ribosome. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide and disrupts cell membrane they are both unique classes of drugs

    Linezolid commonly causes thrombocytopenia, and is a MAO inhibitor, avoid tyramine foods. Dapto caused CPK on liver functiion tests to be elevated!!
    __________________________________________________ _____________
    Tigecycline
    an extremely broad spectrum anti-biotic that covrers MRSA, staph aureus, and well as gram negative bacilli. Tigecycline is the answer for complicated hospital of ICU acquired infections, tigecycline alone is equivalent to vanc and aztreonam in combination, it is also active against resistant enterococci and PCN resistant penumococcus

    tigecycline is a glyclycyline antibiotic that binds to the ribosome and inhibits protein synthesis, it is unique that it covers staph, strep, gram negatives, anerobes and organisms resistant to vanc
    tigecycline is hepatotoxic , caused nausea and diarrhea
    __________________________________________________ ________

    Polymyxin B (PMB) and colistin
    useful for conjunctivitis, infections of the skin, and otitis externa, also correct for multi drug resistant gram negative bacilli, that cause ventilator associated pneumonia and sepsis from pseudomonas or acinetobacter.

    works by disrupting phospholipids in the cell wall membrane
    Polymyxin B (PMB) and colistin are very toxic to the kidney and nerves and is limited to topical applications of the skin and ear, they are also used for multi drug resistant gram negative bacilli when there are no other therapeutic options..

    __________________________________________________ ______
    That is it for today..
    The Medical student Review

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  2. #81
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Jazakoum Allah khyran

    anyone with medical knowledge can contribute to this thread.. it isn't just mine..

    The Medical student Review

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  3. #82
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    I haven't been on this forum for quite a while. I'm a 3rd year med student now & we're starting to focus on pathologies in our courses. So this thread will be really useful for me. Thanks!!

  4. #83
    Ahlaam ma'aya! Silver Pearl's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Mashaa'Allaah, excellent thread! Very comprehensive!

    I'll try and add some CT, Ultrasound and X-Ray notes Inshaa'Allaah.
    The Medical student Review

    وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلاَّ بِاللّهِ


    ما بعرف انا شو حسيت

  5. #84
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    ^^ that would be amazing, I'd be very grateful for that..

    Jazaki Allah khyran

    The Medical student Review

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  6. #85
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Great lecture on Neuroendocrine tumors,



    The Medical student Review

    Text without context is pretext
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  7. #86
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Dr Najeeb is brilliant not to mention hilarious in his description of the renin-angiotensin-aldoesterone system



    I am sticking a link to all 79 videos.. most folks have problems with renal physiology the most but it would pay to listen to all his lectures actually ..

    http://www.youtube.com/profile?user=DoctorNajeeb#g/u

    The Medical student Review

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  8. #87
    A slave of Allaah Banu_Hashim's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    BarakAllahu Feek. Very useful.
    The Medical student Review

    ‘Say: If the ocean were ink wherewith to write out the words of my Lord, sooner would the ocean be exhausted, even if We added another ocean like it.’~Al Qu'raan (18:109)


  9. #88
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Jazaka Allah khyran, if you find something useful share it.. I am surprised at how many useful lectures I found on youtube..

    The Medical student Review

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  10. #89
    ~ ♥ Haramain ♥ ~ BintAbee's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Quote Originally Posted by Gossamer skye View Post
    Dr Najeeb is brilliant not to mention hilarious in his description of the renin-angiotensin-aldoesterone system



    I am sticking a link to all 79 videos.. most folks have problems with renal physiology the most but it would pay to listen to all his lectures actually ..

    http://www.youtube.com/profile?user=DoctorNajeeb#g/u

    Jazakillah Khair. Very benefcial indeed. Dad was excited about these lectures too

  11. #90
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    ^^ this guy is remarkable masha'Allah he did for me in one day what an entire semester of physiology didn't..
    al7mdlillah.. I like the way he incorporates 'mango' in the topic of filtration, I must admit I have never encountered an Asian professor who didn't incorporate that fruit into any topic somehow..

    The Medical student Review

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  12. #91
    Bint Abee's lil sis! Raudha's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review




    My friend sent me this link to a movie of heart embryology which I found VERY useful:

    http://video.google.com/videoplay?do...1776699704562#

    I hope others find it beneficial as well.

    Last edited by Raudha; 04-12-2010 at 04:48 PM.

  13. #92
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    ^^ jazaki Allah khyran that is indeed very useful..especially in understanding how some congenital heart diseases develop..

    The Medical student Review

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  14. #93
    Bint Abee's lil sis! Raudha's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    ^Ameen. Wa Iyyaki dear sis.

    I also have this link that my Dad sent to me. I haven't been through it in detail though. Its called the Auscultation assistant:

    http://www.med.ucla.edu/wilkes/inex.htm

    I hope its beneficial.


  15. #94
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Oh God yes.. I have been thinking of investing in one of those electrical stethoscope.. you know the art of the physical exam is really a dying one with all the technology we have .. although I wonder what that spells out to with the new healthcare reform

    The Medical student Review

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  16. #95
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    iridectomy for narrow angle

    The Medical student Review

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  17. #96
    A slave of Allaah Banu_Hashim's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    YouTube is possibly one of the best inventions ever. I've found so many amazing organic chemistry lectures . Al7amdulillah.
    The Medical student Review

    ‘Say: If the ocean were ink wherewith to write out the words of my Lord, sooner would the ocean be exhausted, even if We added another ocean like it.’~Al Qu'raan (18:109)


  18. #97
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    ^^ organic chemistry was the death of me.. I didn't even have internet when I was in under-grad.. I really think the number of hours I have vested studying would have been so much better utilized and elucidated if I had all that technology at my finger tips.. but al7mdlillah 3la kol 7al.. still there are plenty of folks with the latest technology who manage to do nothing at all with their lives as such I should be grateful even if I struggled alot!

    The Medical student Review

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  19. #98
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    Quote Originally Posted by Gossamer skye View Post
    ^^ organic chemistry was the death of me.. I didn't even have internet when I was in under-grad.. I really think the number of hours I have vested studying would have been so much better utilized and elucidated if I had all that technology at my finger tips.. but al7mdlillah 3la kol 7al.. still there are plenty of folks with the latest technology who manage to do nothing at all with their lives as such I should be grateful even if I struggled alot!

    Actually, I think struggle and hardships are what make a person ultimately successful. No hardships and ease all the time make a lazy student :X

    Allahu 'Alam.
    The Medical student Review

    ‘Say: If the ocean were ink wherewith to write out the words of my Lord, sooner would the ocean be exhausted, even if We added another ocean like it.’~Al Qu'raan (18:109)


  20. #99
    Anathema CosmicPathos's Avatar
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    hehe .. Orgo chem I and orgo chem II my life changers in college, allhamdulillah. Sort of a comebacks from miserable first year performance. Allhamdulillah. yet most folks dont like it and I can see why. You have to make those 2 courses your wives, at least for the whole semester and imagine that they are just nagging wives by nature.

    Once you can relate pure orgo with the biochemical reactions and their mechanisms (the dreaded biochem courses) in your cells (purine/pryrimidine metabolism etc) you come to realize how each molecule is like a living being ... with its own life, its own ideals and its own destiny studying and "living" with these molecules for almost eternity make you start believing in them as each of them had a persona, a story to tell. There are universes within us. If you thought that this was crazy, we still dont know in detail how each atom and subatomic particles behave within these molecules ....as these chemicals dance to the tune of life.

    *back to viro*
    Last edited by CosmicPathos; 04-14-2010 at 08:43 PM.
    The Medical student Review

    Help me to escape from this existence
    I yearn for an answer... can you help me?
    I'm drowning in a sea of abused visions and shattered dreams
    In somnolent illusion... I'm paralyzed

  21. #100
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    Re: The Medical student Review


    I don't think they are akin to nagging wives for surely one would construe something from the nags.. they were elusive, problematic and mocking.. the worst type of partnership ..
    al7mdlillah it is behind us...
    The Medical student Review

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