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    Default no place to offer salat


    Asalam alaikum

    I am a new convert to Islam. I am a working woman in India. My problem is that I don't have any place where I can offer Salah during work hours. There is no such room which is clean and only for women in my office. In India women are not allowed inside mosques and my house is very far away from office so I cannot go home during work hours. Please tell me if there is a solution. Can I offer Qada for the missed Salats when I reach home ? I am very troubled and feel trapped in situations.

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    he Muslim has to understand the importance of prayer and the necessity of observing prayer regularly at the appointed times, fulfilling all the conditions and pillars and essential parts of the prayer. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

    “Verily, As-Salaah (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours”

    [al-Nisa’ 4:103]

    It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood said: I asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), “Which deed is most beloved to Allaah?” He said, “Prayer performed on time.” He said, “Then what?” He said, “Honouring one’s parents.” He said, “Then what?” He said, “Jihad for the sake of Allaah.”

    Narrated by al-Bukhaari (504) and Muslim (85).

    So it is not permissible for the Muslim to delay his prayer beyond the time it is due. Wudoo’ does not require a clean place. Even if we assume that it does, the questioner could make sure that he has wudoo’ before coming to work and keep his wudoo’ so that he can pray on time.

    He has to offer prayer on time. Looking for a clean place where he can perform the prayer is not too difficult. Prayer is valid in any place on earth so long as it is clean and pure. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The earth has been made for me a place of prayer and purification, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any man of my ummah, let him pray.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 335; Muslim, 521. Sharee’ah only excludes from that specific places in which prayer is not valid, which include graveyards and bathrooms. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “All the earth is a place of prostration apart from graveyards and bathrooms.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 492; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

    So the workplace may be a place of prayer if it is clean. If it is not easy then he should look for somewhere else. Asking his bosses to allocate a corner where he can pray is not something that is difficult.

    Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:

    If he deliberately delays the prayer until the time is too short to meet all the conditions and do all the essential parts of the prayer, such as if there is some impure substance on him, or he is junub and delays the prayer so that if he does ghusl the time for prayer will be over, then he has to purify himself first, but he is a sinner because he is doing the prayer at the wrong time. He should have purified himself before the time became too short and prayed on time. When he delays it, then he has to do what is required in the right sequence even though he is a sinner because of his delaying it.

    Sharh al-‘Umdah, 4/58.

    If he is unable to fulfil one of the conditions of prayer being valid – such as tahaarah (purity) – then he should pray on time and he is exempted from this condition. It is not permissible to delay the prayer until its time is over in order to fulfil that condition.

    Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:

    Because those who are obliged to pray when the time for prayer comes, but are unable to fulfil one of its conditions or essential parts at that moment, but will be able to do so after the time for prayer is over, it is not permissible for them to delay the prayer until its time is over. If this were permissible then the one who is unable to purify himself, cover himself, bow or prostrate, or do any other condition or essential part of the prayer would be allowed to delay the prayer until he is able to do that, if he knows or thinks it most likely that he will be able to do it. This is contrary to the Qur’aan, Sunnah and scholarly consensus, because sharee’ah’s concern that the prayer be performed on time is greater than its concern for any other condition or essential part of prayer that cannot be done. Hence it is not permissible to delay the prayer until its time is over because of being unable to do some of the essential parts. When the time for the obligatory prayer is too short and one cannot fulfil the conditions, then doing the prayer on time takes precedence over the conditions. There is only one time when fulfilling the conditions takes precedence over the act itself, which is when the act becomes obligatory towards the end of its time, such as when a sleeper wakes up at the end of the time, in which case the prayer becomes obligatory when he wakes up, and he must fulfil the conditions of prayer. The applies if someone wakes up after the time for prayer is over.

    Sharh al-‘Umdah, 4/347, 348.

    And Allaah knows best.
    Islam Q&A
    .................................................. .
    Praise be to Allaah.

    It is not permissible for a Muslim man or woman to delay an obligatory prayer beyond the proper time, rather every accountable Muslim man and woman is obliged to perform the prayers on time as much as they can.

    Work is not an excuse for delaying prayer, neither is impurity on clothes or clothes being dirty. None of these are acceptable excuses.

    People should be excused from work at prayer times; at the time of prayer a worker has to wash the impurity from his clothes, or change into clean clothes. As for regular dirt (as opposed to impurities), this does not prevent one from praying in those clothes, so long as that dirt is not impure and does not have an offensive smell that would bother other worshippers. But if the dirt or its smell will bother others, then he has to wash it before praying, or change into clean clothes so that he can pray in congregation.

    It is permissible for those who have legitimate shar’i excuses, such as those who are sick or are travelling, to combine Zuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either of them, and to combine Maghrib and ‘Isha’ at the time of either of them.

    This was narrated in the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). It is also permissible to join prayers when there is heavy rain or mud, which cause difficulty for people.
    .............................

    It is not necessary to know whether the floor of the office or workplace is clean or not, because the basic rule is that any place is clean unless you come to know otherwise. The Prophet (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: "The earth has been made for me a mosque and a means of purification. . ." So choose a suitable spot and pray there at the appropriate times. Beware of delaying your prayers, especially Salaat al-‘Asr (the mid-afternoon prayer), because the Prophet (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: "Whoever misses al-‘asr, it is as if he lost his family and his wealth." (Agreed upon; this version was reported by Muslim, no. 992).
    Last edited by tresbien; 12-12-2009 at 06:38 PM.

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Alsalaamu alikum
    I am also a new revert and i am learning the arabic of my prayers from a specific site. However, it mensions this :

    "There are exceptions for when it is permissible to combine prayers. For example, (Dhuhr and Asr) or (Maghrib and Isha') may be prayed right after each other. You can combine these two prayers when you are traveling, if you are sick, very sleepy, very tired, or if you cannot control your schedule (classes or work). These are the exceptions and should not become the norm.

    If this is untrue, then i am afraid the rest of the content is untrue also. If this is true, then I guess you can combine prayers. I need a more knowledgeable sister to brother to confirm this for me.

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Alaikum asalaam.

    Do you sit down at work? Is it possible for you to pray sitting down in your chair when the time for prayer comes?
    I would think that would be better than just missing the prayer all together.
    Allah ta'aala knows best.


    "And hold fast unto Allah, He is your protector, the best to protect and the best to help"

    (Quran 22:78)

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Asalaam Alaykum Sister, I am also a new revert. I work in a call centre where there is no where safe or clean for me to pray so I make up missed prayers when I get home.

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Quote Originally Posted by Donia View Post
    Alaikum asalaam.

    Do you sit down at work? Is it possible for you to pray sitting down in your chair when the time for prayer comes?
    I would think that would be better than just missing the prayer all together.
    Allah ta'aala knows best.
    Pls do not give your opinion but base your argument on evidence from the two reliable sources
    se fixed hours have come to be recognized by way of following the actual practice of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). So, each of the five prayers has its own time limit that should not be violated, whether by doing the salah ahead of it, which, is prohibited and categorically unacceptable, or by exceeding it and doing the salah after it unless there is an acceptable excuse. Otherwise, one commits a sin by so doing.

    Anyhow, it is out of this religion's ease and practicality that it makes it permissible to combine two prayers, i.e., Zuhr and `Asr together and Maghrib and `Isha’ together, whether by offering the second at the time of the first or by delaying the first to the time of the second, on account of some reasons, including travel, as proven by the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Following are some other reasons accepted for such permissibility:

    1. Rain, mud, snow, violent wind and storms, as well as any similar inclement weather conditions or natural disasters that prevent people from performing each salah on time except through formidable pain and trouble.

    2. Need or fear. This is meant to remove pain and trouble from people, as indicated in the hadith, narrated by Ibn `Abbas. Imam Muslim narrated on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) that he said, “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) has often combined Zuhr and `Asr, and Maghrib and `Isha’, for no fear or travel.”

    Another version of the hadith reads, “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) combined Zuhr and `Asr, and Maghrib and `Isha’, in Madinah under no circumstances of fear or rain.” Ibn `Abbas was asked, “So, why did he do that?” He answered that he (the Prophet) wanted to remove hardship and troubles off his nation.

    In the version of `Abdullah Ibn Shaqiq, it was stated that Ibn `Abbas one day delivered a sermon in the afternoon until the sun set and the stars began to appear in the sky, so people kept saying: “The prayer! The prayer!” And a man from the tribe of Tamim walked towards him and said vehemently: “The prayer! The prayer!” Ibn `Abbas replied: “Are you going to teach me the Sunnah? What a fool you are!” Then he said: “I've seen the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) combine Zuhr and `Asr, and Maghrib and `Isha’.” The narrator, `Abdullah Ibn Shaqiq, went on to say: “I felt uneasy, so I went to Abu Hurayrah and asked him about that and he confirmed the validity of what Ibn `Abbas said.” (Sahih Muslim)

    This explanation from Ibn `Abbas means that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) wanted to allow his nation more ease and facility rather hardship, since Allah the Almighty has not laid upon Muslims in religion any sort of hardship and He intends for them ease and does not want to make things difficult for them.
    This hadith also stands as explicit evidence for the permissibility of combining two prayers for necessity.

    Imam Ibn Sireen was reported as saying that he did not see any objection to doing so, as long as there is a need for it, unless people turn it into a habit. Likewise, Ibn Shibrima held the same opinion. In his Fath Al-Bari, Ibn Hajar said that many Imams — including Ibn Sireen, Rabi`a, Ash-hab, Ibn Al-Mundhir and Al-Qaffal Al-Qabir — held the opinion that the tradition in question may be applied literally; hence they saw it permissible for any Muslim to combine prayers while not traveling for whatever genuine need without restrictions, but on the condition of not taking it as a habit in itself.

    The Hanbali jurists have permitted for the Muslim to combine prayers once in a while due to certain excuses. So, if there is a burden in praying the obligatory prayers at the appointed time, combining is allowed, on the condition that the person does not take it as habit or as something done every two or three days or whenever he wants to go out on different occasions, a few times a week or a number of times a month. But this is permitted only some of the time, not all of the time, so that it can remove the burdens and hardships which face the people.

    For example, if a traffic policeman has his shift beginning before Maghrib and continues until after `Isha', then he can combine Maghrib and Isha'. Similarly, if a doctor has to perform an urgent medical operation, he is allowed to make an early or delayed combination.”

    An eminent scholar of Bahrain, Sheikh Nizam Ya`qubi, adds:

    “Allah states clearly in the Qur'an that each prayer has its own prescribed time, “Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.” (An-Nisa’: 103) So this means that each prayer must be performed at its own prescribed time.

    However, this rule is relaxed in cases of necessity and ample need. For example, traveling, sickness, warfare, rain and bad weather, etc. I must emphasize here that this rule should be taken only in difficult situations and not to make it a regular habit. There are many hadiths which mention punishment for those who delay their prayers without acceptable reason.”

    If you are still in need of more information, don't hesitate to contact us. Do keep in touch. May Allah guide us all to the straight path!





    Allah Almighty knows best.

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    I did miss prayer due to college and work with no wear to pray. I made them up when I got home by combing them. Sometimes during my breaks at college and work, I sat in my chair, point towards mecca and prayed sat down. That is exseptable.


    O Allah, I seek help from you. I seek your forgiveness. I seek your guidance. I believe in you.


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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Hello Tresbian,

    Thank u for the informative reply

    It can be possible to find a place in office, but what about the fact that women should not pray in front of other men. In my case I can go to the canteen and offer salah but there will be other men around. There is no privacy anywhere and that is the biggest problem.

    Thanks

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    The one performing the Prayer must abide by its rules and regulations. Although it is allowable for someone who is unable to stand to perform the Prayer sitting down, or for someone unable to sit to perform the Prayer lying down, still, we must know when that is allowable.

    Praying by sitting down on a chair is only permissible for someone not able to perform ruku` or sujud due to physical inabilities. But if he is able to stand, he is not allowed to perform the Prayer while sitting down.

    Performing Prayer can be very fast. You can excuse yourself for just 5 minutes to perform your Prayer, which can be done anywhere in your office, even on a staircase landing if you do not want to be conspicuous. Just keep the obligatory Prayers, and in sha' Allah, your Prayer will be valid.
    is rule applies especially to the obligatory prayers; i.e., in performing supererogatory prayers, sitting is permitted, though it earns one half of the reward of performing prayer in standing. The evidence that this rule applies only to the obligatory prayers is the hadith in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Pray while standing.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

    The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to pray supererogatory prayers (sitting) on a saddle, but on getting to pray an obligatory prayer, he would get down off his saddle so that he could fulfill the essential conditions of the prayer, i.e., standing and facing the qiblah. (Reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim)

    If a person prays supererogatory prayer sitting, when he is able to stand, he will have half of the reward of one who stands. ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar narrated that he said to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) “I was told, O Messenger of Allah, that you said that the prayer of one who prays while sitting down is half of the prayer performed by one standing, but you pray sitting down.” He said, “That is right, but I am not like anyone of you.” (Reported by Muslim)

    In his commentary on the aforementioned hadith, Imam An-Nawawi said: “This hadith is to be understood as meaning that supererogatory prayer done sitting down when one is able to stand will bring half of the reward of one who prays standing. But if a person prays a supererogatory prayer sitting down because he is unable to stand, his reward will not be reduced, and he will have the same reward as one who prays standing. With regard to obligatory prayers, if a person prays sitting down when he is able to stand, his prayer will not be valid and he will not get any reward for this is actually counted as a sin.”

    So we say to those who perform prayers while sitting on the chairs during the obligatory prayers that it is not permissible for them to sit on chairs when they are able to stand, unless they find it extremely difficult to stand; but a slight difficulty is not an excuse.”

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Combining two prayers due to some pressing need:

    Imaam An-Nawawi may Allaah have mercy upon him wrote in his commentary on the book of Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him: "The majority of scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to combine prayers due to some pressing need. This is supported by the statement of Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him: 'The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) combined his prayers because he did not want to put his Ummah (nation) to hardship, and not because of illness or any other reason."' Also, Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him stated: "The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) combined the Thuhr and 'Asr and then the Maghrib and 'Ishaa' prayers (all) in Madeenah, without there being any danger or rain." Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him was asked: "What did he desire by that action?" He replied: "He did not want any hardship for his Ummah." Imaams Al-Bukhaari and Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon them recorded from him that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) prayed seven Rak'ahs (units of prayer) and eight Rak'ahs, i.e., the Thuhr and 'Asr together and the Maghrib and 'Ishaa' together, in Madeenah.

    Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him also recorded from 'Abdullaah Ibn Shaqeeq may Allaah have mercy upon him that 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him addressed the people one day after the 'Asr prayer and continued until after the sun had set and the stars began to appear (i.e., beyond the time of Maghrib). The people said to him: "The prayer! The prayer!" - and a man from the tribe of Taym in particular was continuously repeating this. Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah have mercy upon him exclaimed: "Are you teaching me the Sunnah?" Then he said: "I saw the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) combining the Thuhr and 'Asr as well as the Maghrib and 'Ishaa' prayers." 'Abdullaah Ibn Shaqiq may Allaah have mercy upon him commented: "I felt some uneasiness in my heart about what he had said, so I went to Abu Hurayrah may Allaah be pleased with him to ask him about that, and he confirmed what Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him had said."

    6. The validity of combined prayers after their legal excuse ceases to exist:

    In Al-Mughni it is stated: "If someone combines and performs both prayers at the time of the earlier prayer and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the prayer and before the time of the next prayer begins (the next prayer being the one that he had just prayed during the earlier time), then what he has done is sufficient for him and he needs not repeat the second prayer at its proper time. Since he performed the prayer in a proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his obligation during a circumstance in which he had a legal excuse, and his action is not invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a person who performs Tayammum (dry ablution) and then finds water after he finishes prayer."

    7. Prayer on board a ship, train or plane:

    Prayer on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no disliking for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it. Ibn 'Umar may Allaah be pleased with him said: "I asked the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) about prayer on ships and he replied: "Pray standing upon them unless you fear that you will drown (due to the ship capsizing)."" [Ad-Daaraqutni and Al-Haakim]

    'Abdullaah Ibn Abi 'Utbah may Allaah have mercy upon him reported: "I accompanied Jaabir Ibn 'Abdullaah, Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri and Abu Hurayrah may Allaah be pleased with them on a boat, and they prayed standing in a congregation, with one of them as their Imaam, although they could have gone ashore (if they had so desired)." [Sa'eed Ibn Mansoor]

    ---------------------------------------

    Source: Fiqh Us-Sunnah, by As-Sayyid Saabiq
    please buy Fiqh Us Sunnah or read fiqh us sunnah from the net.It is informative and helpful
    Last edited by tresbien; 12-14-2009 at 02:46 PM.

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Combining two prayers due to some pressing need:

    Imaam An-Nawawi may Allaah have mercy upon him wrote in his commentary on the book of Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him: "The majority of scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to combine prayers due to some pressing need. This is supported by the statement of Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him: 'The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) combined his prayers because he did not want to put his Ummah (nation) to hardship, and not because of illness or any other reason."' Also, Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him stated: "The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) combined the Thuhr and 'Asr and then the Maghrib and 'Ishaa' prayers (all) in Madeenah, without there being any danger or rain." Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him was asked: "What did he desire by that action?" He replied: "He did not want any hardship for his Ummah." Imaams Al-Bukhaari and Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon them recorded from him that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) prayed seven Rak'ahs (units of prayer) and eight Rak'ahs, i.e., the Thuhr and 'Asr together and the Maghrib and 'Ishaa' together, in Madeenah.

    Imaam Muslim may Allaah have mercy upon him also recorded from 'Abdullaah Ibn Shaqeeq may Allaah have mercy upon him that 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him addressed the people one day after the 'Asr prayer and continued until after the sun had set and the stars began to appear (i.e., beyond the time of Maghrib). The people said to him: "The prayer! The prayer!" - and a man from the tribe of Taym in particular was continuously repeating this. Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah have mercy upon him exclaimed: "Are you teaching me the Sunnah?" Then he said: "I saw the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) combining the Thuhr and 'Asr as well as the Maghrib and 'Ishaa' prayers." 'Abdullaah Ibn Shaqiq may Allaah have mercy upon him commented: "I felt some uneasiness in my heart about what he had said, so I went to Abu Hurayrah may Allaah be pleased with him to ask him about that, and he confirmed what Ibn 'Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with him had said."

    6. The validity of combined prayers after their legal excuse ceases to exist:

    In Al-Mughni it is stated: "If someone combines and performs both prayers at the time of the earlier prayer and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the prayer and before the time of the next prayer begins (the next prayer being the one that he had just prayed during the earlier time), then what he has done is sufficient for him and he needs not repeat the second prayer at its proper time. Since he performed the prayer in a proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his obligation during a circumstance in which he had a legal excuse, and his action is not invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a person who performs Tayammum (dry ablution) and then finds water after he finishes prayer."

    7. Prayer on board a ship, train or plane:

    Prayer on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no disliking for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it. Ibn 'Umar may Allaah be pleased with him said: "I asked the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allaah exalt his mention ) about prayer on ships and he replied: "Pray standing upon them unless you fear that you will drown (due to the ship capsizing)."" [Ad-Daaraqutni and Al-Haakim]

    'Abdullaah Ibn Abi 'Utbah may Allaah have mercy upon him reported: "I accompanied Jaabir Ibn 'Abdullaah, Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri and Abu Hurayrah may Allaah be pleased with them on a boat, and they prayed standing in a congregation, with one of them as their Imaam, although they could have gone ashore (if they had so desired)." [Sa'eed Ibn Mansoor]

    ---------------------------------------

    Source: Fiqh Us-Sunnah, by As-Sayyid Saabiq
    please buy Fiqh Us Sunnah or read from the net.It is informative and helpful

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    How should a woman pray in public places?
    My question is: is it permissible for a woman to pray in places where there are non-mahram men who can see her from in front and from behind, as is the case when she is on a trip or in the airport, and she is afraid that the time for the prayer will end? How should she pray in these situations? May Allaah reward you with all good.

    Praise be to Allaah.

    If a woman has to pray in a public place, where men are passing by her and can see her, then she should cover all of her body and pray on time. And Allaah knows best.
    Islam Q&A
    Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    It is difficult, especially when you have a non-Muslim employer, and especially when you are a revert. However, as tresbien has demonstrated, it is clear that these problems do not justify leaving the prayer until later, and that one commits a sin by doing so.

    If a person believes his faith to be more important that his job, he will find a way to fulfil his obligations, and endure whatever difficulties that entails. Have you asked your manager to help you? Are there other Muslims there? While they may be able to refuse, if a number of you have the same request they may help you simply to maintain a happy workforce.

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    radar senses ur pain Array desert winds's Avatar
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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    Tresbien ,when you say cover the body and pray are you talking about jilbab?

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    Default Re: no place to offer salat


    he scholars have differed as to just how much the jilbab must cover. As explained above, there are two opinions on this.

    The first opinion
    The first opinion of the scholars is, in effect, that the jilbab or outergarment should cover everything but the face and the hands. There are two sub-opinions here. The first sub-opinion is that there must be a single garment that covers everything that must be covered. This would mean that the garment called "jilbab" must be something like the garments known as "abaya" and "chador". The second sub-opinion is that a combination of garments that cover what the jilbab is to cover may substitute for the jilbab. Specifically, these scholars permit the head to be covered by the headscarf (khimar) and the feet to covered by socks and shoes. As long as a sister covers her head and neck with the khimar, then her jilbab does not need to cover over her head, but may be like a coat, which just covers from the shoulders on down. And as long as her feet are completely covered with socks and shoes, then her jilbab does not need to come down to the ground but may come down only to the ankles. This is the majority position. We can say that according to the majority opinion of the scholars, the garment called "jilbab" is any garment that meets the following criteria:

    * this garment is an outergarment; an extra layer; something worn over the normal clothing
    * if the khimar is not worn, this garment must cover from the top of the head on down, but if the khimar is worn, this garment only needs to cover from the shoulders on down
    * similarly, if socks are not worn, this garment must cover down to the ground, but if socks are worn so that the feet are completely covered, this garment only needs to cover down to the ankles
    * this garment must be made of fabric that is thick and opaque so that it does not show what is beneath it, and it must be loose so that it does not reveal the contours of what is beneath it

    These scholars are agreed that the jilbab is to be worn outdoors and in open public places like the market, the masjid, etc. It does not need to be worn indoors, such as in the house or a building where access is controlled. This is because the jilbab serves the purposes of asserting the Islamic identity of a sister, and of protecting her from harassment, which are concerns only outdoors and in public. The rules in Surah an-Nur ayah 31 govern the dress of the Muslim woman indoors. Thus a sister may wear the khimar and modest clothing indoors, and this is her hijab for this location. However, the jilbab is part of her hijab when she is outdoors or in open public places.

    The second opinion
    According to the second opinion of the scholars, the jilbab must cover the entire body except for the eyes. Just as most of the scholars who hold the first opinion allow the khimar, coat, and socks and shoes to substitute for a one-piece outergarment that covers everything but the face and hands, so most of the scholars who hold the second opinion allow multiple pieces to substitute for the one-piece outergarment or sheet that covers everything but the eyes. These multiple pieces may include a separate affixed face veil (niqab), a headscarf (khimar), a coat or cloak (jilbab), and socks and shoes. However, these scholars would strongly emphasize that the coat-jilbab is not the same as the Quranic jilbab. The Quranic jilbab must cover everything but the eyes. It should also be noted that most of these scholars also hold that Surah an-Nur ayah 31 mandates the covering of everything but the eyes around non-mahram men, even when the sister is indoors. It is not clear if these scholars would allow modest clothes, a khimar, and a niqab or if they do require the jilbab indoors (i.e., if non-mahram men are present). Sisters who prefer this opinion should consult a scholar for specific advice on this question.

    Note: Some scholars of this group hold that the jilbab must be a one-piece outergarment that covers everything but the eyes. This is the position of the Saudi ulama.
    Last edited by tresbien; 12-16-2009 at 09:12 PM.

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