25- Important Lessons - Chapter 6 - Conditions of Salaat
From the works of Imam Abdul-‘Aziz Bin Baz Rahimahulah Ta’ala
Presented by Sheikh Saleh As-Saleh Hafithahulah Ta’ala
Bismilah, Al-Rahman Al-Raheem. Alhamdulilahi Rab Al-‘Alameen wa salla Allahu ‘ala Muhammedan wa ‘ala aalahi wasahbihi wassalam.
In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists. I testify there is no true God worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammed is Allah’s true Slave and Messenger. May Allah’s salah and Salam be upon the Prophet, his pure family and his noble companions and those that follow on their path until the day of resurrection. May Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala make us from them. Wal-hamdulilah Rab Al-‘Alameen.
We continue with the book entitled: Important Lessons for the Ummah by the renowned sheikh of our time Abdul-Aziz Bin Baz rahimahu lahu ta’ala
Chapter 6: Conditions of Salah
The sheikh said: There are 9 conditions of salah:
2) Al-‘Aql – sanity
3) Tamyeez – (reaching the age of) discrimination
4) Raf’ul Hadath – lifting the ritual impurity
5) Izaalatul Najasah – removal of filth
6) Satril ‘Awrah – covering of the ‘awrah
7) Dukhul Al-Waqt – Commencement of prayer in the proper time
8) Istikbaal Al-Kiblah – Directing ones self to the Qiblah
9) Al-Niyah – Intention
These are the 9 conditions for salat and we will speak about them briefly.
1) Al-Islam: In principle and in origin salat is not acceptable from a kaffir because his actions are rejected. Allah ta’ala says:
At-Tawbah (9) - It is not for the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh), to maintain the Mosques of Allâh (i.e. to pray and worship Allâh therein, to look after their cleanliness and their building, etc.), while they witness against their ownselves of disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in Fire shall they abide.
This is if they die on the state of kuffir, but if they accept Islam then the salat becomes binding upon them. This is the first condition. So upon entrance of Islam the person is commanded to pray. He takes a bath and prepares himself for the correct prayer who’s time has commenced when he entered Islam, unless in the case of a woman being in a state of ritual impurity like menses, then she is to wait until she becomes pure.
2) Al-‘Aql – sanity. Opposite to sanity is insanity and the pen has been lifted for the insane- meaning they are not held accountable for their actions. In the hadith: The pen has been lifted from 3 (i.e. 3 person’s actions are not recorded), and they are:
• The sleeper until he awakes
• The insane until he recovers
• The child until he reaches the age of puberty
3) At-Tamyeez – which means reaching the age of discrimination and distinction. Some of the scholars have defined this to be 7 years of age, and that every child who is able to understand what he is addressed by and able to return the response, then he is mumayiz – he has reached the age of discrimination; this is a criteria. Some of the scholars picked 7 because this is what is most common. Therefore, at this level the salat is correct from him because of his correct intention – li-sihatee qasdahi. And he is commanded to do the salat, but it is not obligated upon him until he reaches the age of puberty. The Prophet sallah Allah ‘alayhi wassalam said:
Command your children to perform the prayer at 7, and beat them about it (if necessary as a disciplinary action) at the age of ten and separate them in beds.
This does not mean that they are not to sleep in the same room as some understand.
4) Raf’ul Hadath – lifting the state of ritual impurity. This means purification because the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said:
Allah does not except the sallat from anyone without tahur (ritual purity). Reported by Muslim.
This purification from the ritual impurity is divided into 2:
• A purification from Al-Hadathu Al-Asghar – minor ritual impurity, and this is the wadu’.
• A purification from Ataharatu min al-Hadathu Al-Akbar – major ritual impurity and this refers to al-ghusl – which is taking a bath. Ghusl is to cover the entire body with water together with rinsing the mouth and the nose.
What are the things that necessitate ghusl?
• Semen from a sexual discharge. It is not required if it occurs while a person is sleeping.
• Having actual sexual intercourse with the wife.
This is taken from the hadith narrated by Abu Hurreira radi Allahu ta’ala ‘anhu who said that the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said (in the agreed upon hadith):
If one of you sits between her legs and penetrates her, then ghusl (bath) is obligatory. Imam Muslim added to this even if he does not ejaculate.
• Death necessitates ghusl of the deceased.
• Menses and postnatal bleeding
Ghusl is of 2 types:
• The perfect one – as reported by ‘Aisha radi Allahu ta’ala ‘anha who said that whenever the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam took a batch after sexual intercourse, he would begin by washing his hands, then poor water with his right hand unto his left hand and watch his sexual organ. He would then perform ablution then take some water and run his fingers through the roots of his hair. Then he would poor 3 handfuls on his head and then poor water over the rest of his body and subsequently, washes his feet. (Sahih Muslim):
After washing the private parts, the person makes complete wadu’ and then pours the water on his head and penetrates the hair and then pours the water on his body, beginning with his right side followed by his left 3 times over and then he is done. This is the perfect way of performing the ghusl.
The second category is the sufficient ghusl and that is to poor water over the body with rinsing of the mouth and washing the nose. This is sufficient.
Taking a ghusl from janaba (a state of sexual defilement) after sexual intercourse lifts the major and minor states of impurity. Even if the person does not intend to lift the minor according to the preponderating opinion, then the ghusl is sufficient for both.
There are other baths which are mustahab (praiseworthy or recommended) and there are others which are of different opinions regarding them about whether they are praiseworthy only or obligated; from that is:
• Ghuslu Yawmal Jum’ah, and there are 2 opinions about this.
1) It is a wajib
2) It is an affirmed Sunnah
• Washing the dead. From the hadith: whoever washes the dead then let him take a bath. (Reported by Imam Ahmed and Abu Dawud with an authentic chain of narration).
• Also for the 2 ‘Eids. This is supported from some of the companions, where a man asked ‘Ali radi Allahu ta’ala ‘anhu about the ghusl. He mentioned to him the day of Jum’ah, the day of ‘Arafah, the day of An-Na7er and Yawmal Fitr-the day of sacrifice and they day of Fitr. (the chain of narration of this is authentic).
• After regaining conscience, then he takes a ghusl and this in accordance with the agreed upon hadith.
• Upon entering the state of Ihram for Hajj and/or ‘Umrah. There is a Report by at-Tirmidi with a good isnaad relating that the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam took his clothes and took a bath upon entering the state of ihram.
• Upon entering Mecca. This is because Ibn ‘Umar radi Allahu ta’ala ‘anhu mentioned that he did not enter Mecca accept that he took a bath and he mentioned that the Messenger sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam did so.
This is concerning the ghusl. Proceeding with the 5th condition of prayer:
5) Izaalatul Najasah – removal of filth. This covers the body of the praying person, his thawb (garment) and the place where he performs the salah in.
Removal of Najasah is classified as 3 types:
1) An-Najasatu Al-Mughalatha – which is the severe najasah that requires intense cleaning. This occurs from the licking of the utensils by a dog. The Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said if a dog licks the utensils of one of you, let him wash it seven times, one of them with earth. Some of the people are of the opinion that if a pig licks them then this would require the intense cleaning, but the correct opinion is that is not. This is called severe because the removal is intense.
2) The Medium Najasah – this covers the rest of filth where what is required is the removal of the effect of the filth and whatever removes it is considered. Whether the removal is by steam, wind, rain etc. the removal must be applied until the filth is removed, if it takes one time or ten times, which is the whole point.
3) The Light Najasah – this is like the najasah of the urine of the boy who did not eat the regular food, so it is sufficient in this case to sprinkle the water on the urine of the baby boy without rubbing etc. However, with respect to the baby girl who did not have regular food intake, the najasah is to be washed. This is spoken about in detail in the discussion of ‘Umdatul Ahkam. Also from this are light spots of blood which is pardoned. Also, the nathi which is the prosthetic fluid emitted as a result of sexual excitement; it is not the seminal discharge. In this case it is sufficient to wash the testicles and private part, and then make wadu’.
If the filth is on the floor then it is of two types:
1) It has a body mass. In this case its essence must be removed and then it should be drenched with water and the water must be more than the essence of this filth i.e. dung or clotted blood.
2) If it is fluid or moist in nature without body mass – if it was wet then it is to be dried and absorbed by a clothe or sponge or something in order to minimize it and its effect. Then it is to be drenched with water and the water needs to exceed the najasah. If it is dry, then in this case it is sufficient to drench it with water. The water must exceed in these cases because of the hadith of the Bedouin who urinated in the Prophet’s masjid sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam and he ordered for a pocket of water that was much more than the amount of urine which was there.
In the removal of filth, there is no intention that is required because this is from the turook; the purification which is the purpose is established with or without the intention so it isn’t necessary.
For example, if some filth comes on your clothes and then it becomes pure from rain, can you pray with these clothes that you did not intend to clean but had become pure anyways? The answer is yes.
The situation is opposite in the case of actually making the purification because making the purification is from al-ma’moor-what is commanded and therefore requires intention, and that is different from an-najasah which is from at-turook – things to be removed, left, abandoned, etc. This is why with the removal of filth a person can be forgiven for forgetfulness or ignorance but when it comes to tahara he must have intention. If you see najasah on your thawb etc. after your prayer then the prayer is still correct.
The evidence for this is in the hadith of Jibril when he informed the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam during the salat of filth on his shoes. The Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam did not redo the salat. He just took them off during the salat.
What about if one prays and then after he is finished praying he realizes he did not pray in a state of wadu’, does he have to redo his prayer? It is invalid so he must repeat.
This concludes the removal of filth.
6) Satril ‘Awrah (source of attraction) – covering the ‘awrah whether male or female. For the male the ‘awrah is from the naval to the knees. For the female, then the whole of her body is ‘Awrah except her face according to the correct opinion; and this while in salah. However, if she is praying in the presence of non-mahrams (marriageable persons) then she is to cover her face.
Also it is required for the male to cover both shoulders if he is able if he can’t do that, then he must cover at least one of his shoulders if he is able, and if he can’t do that then there is no harm upon him.
The dress is of 3 types:
1) Halal for both men and women and this is the origin for all dresses; meaning all dresses are lawful except those which the legislator prohibited.
2) That which is haram for the males and females such as something abducted or taken by force, stolen, or the dress which resembles the kuffar. The dress which is particular for women is prohibited for men and vice versa. Also it should be mentioned that dressing of one’s kids or those under one’s authority in any of these ways is also forbidden and the one who does this will be held accountable, because these kids will become accustomed to these clothes and it will be difficult later to rid them of it.
3) Dress that is forbidden for males and permissible for females such as silk, except when the male is suffering from some sort of dermatological disease (skin disease or rash etc.).
4) That which is common such as socks, shoes without heals, or a certain type of underclothing etc.
5) Wearing tight clothes which shape the private part or making it transparent etc.
7) Dukhul Al-Waqt – Commencement of prayer in the proper time.
Allah ta’ala says:
An-Nisa’ (4)-103: Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.
And from the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam we have several narrations related to the timing of as-salah (side note: sheikh Saleh urges the people to go to the site understand-islam.net under ‘Umdatu Al-Ahkam to listen about the prescribed prayer times because of the extensive details and benefits of it).
From the comprehensive hadith related by Abdallah bin ‘Amru that the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said: the time of Zuhr (noon prayer) is when the sun passes the meridian, and when a man’s shadow is of the same length (as himself). Then he said it lasts until the ‘asr (afternoon prayer). He then said: the time of ‘Asr prayer is until the sun has not become yellow. The Maghrib (sunset prayer) is as long as the twilight has not disappeared. The ‘Isha’ prayer is until the true midnight or the middle of the night. The way to calculate the true midnight is as follows:
Calculating the true midnight time in 3 steps
If the sunset is at 5:00 PM and the Dawn starts at 5:00 AM. Therefore, from 5 PM to 5 AM we have 12 hours which is the total of the true nightfall. Divide the difference of 12 by 2 to find half of the total night fall, which in our case is 6. Now, take this half-nightfall time and add it to our sunset time which was 5 PM, i.e. 5 AM + 6 half-nightfall hours = 11 PM. So 11 PM in our example is the true midnight (as opposed to the 12 midnight which many go by).
Therefore, ‘Isha prayer is until the middle of the night at 11 PM in our example.
It is permissible to combine prayers of Maghrib and ‘Isha’ or to combine Zuhr and ‘Asr in travel, in case of illness, fear, rain. This combination can be done either at the time of the first salat in the combination or at the time of the second salat in the combination for both combinations.
If a person is sleeping and misses the salah, he must pray when is awaken and this is its expiation and there is no expiation except that.
If a person forgets to pray, he must pray upon remembering and this is the expiation and there is no expiation except that as the Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said.
If a person is going into surgery and other situations like this, then he may combine the prayers.
8) Istikbaal Al-Kiblah – Directing onesself in prayer toward the Qiblah.
Allah ta’ala says:
Al-Baqqarah (2)-144: Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's ) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Harâm (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction. Certainly, the people who were given the Scriptures (i.e. Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka'bah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allâh is not unaware of what they do.
The Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam told the person who did not do his prayer properly:
When you stand to perform the salat then complete your wadu’, then face the Qiblah and magnify your Lord. (This is collected in Bukhari and Muslim).
If the person does not know the direction of the Qiblah then he should strive with his best effort to determine it’s direction. If there are people around him who may know then he should ask, otherwise he should put his best effort to determine it and Allah does not burden a soul with more then it can bear.
If the person is praying in the Haram and he sees the Ka’bah then he must face it directly in his prayer and this is a must. If he doesn’t see the Ka’bah, then praying in the direction of it is sufficient. The Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said with regards to the Qiblah of the people of Medina:
Between the east and the west there is a Qiblah.
This is about the Qiblah and the Sheikh directs readers to the ‘Umdat Al-Ahkam section under the topic of Qiblah for more detailed information.
9) Al-Niyah – The intention. The place of the intention is in the heart. The heart is the origin or principle for every worship. The Prophet sallah Allahu ‘alayhi wassalam said:
Verily, actions are but by intention and each person shall have that which he intended. (This is an agreed upon hadith).
The intention in salah differentiates between the obligatory and voluntary salah. It also differs corresponding to the types of obligatory prayers and the types of voluntary prayers themselves.
It is an innovation to utter the intention on the tongue while standing for salah. For example, saying: Oh Allah, I intend to perform such and such. This is rejected.
It is permissible for the person to pray the Zuhr behind someone who is praying the ‘Asr. And it is permissible for the one praying Nafal (voluntary prayer) to follow an Imam who is performing the obligatory prayer. It is also permissible for the person to change his intention from being an Imam to being a Ma’mum (lead instead of leading). It is permissible to change from being in a single state, to being an Imam.
If you are praying alone and a group of people come to the masjid while you are praying, and they being to pray in congregation, you may move from your position to their congregation; this is an example of going from an Imam state to a Ma’mum state and there are other examples.
It is permissible to change from being a Ma’mum to being an Imam. For example, if an Imam designates a person to lead the prayer then this would entail a change from being lead to being the leader.
It is permissible to go from being lead to infiraad (praying alone).
Also, the person praying alone may change his intention to be an Imam if someone joins him.
It is permissible for the Imam to change into a single state. This occurs when the person(s) he is leading leave the prayer.
It is permissible to change from being an Imam to one who is lead. If the regular Imam arrives while the designated Imam is leading then he may assume the Imaama making you ma’mum.
All of these situations are permissible and this concludes the conditions of salah.