Assalam Alekum Respected Brothers and Sisters in Islam.
Im looking for Quranic verses revealed in praise of the Beloved and Most Noble Companions of Muhammad SAW.Please help me gather them and if you care add some Tafsir with it,it will be more than welcome.
Jazakallahu Khyran for your help.
As'Salaam Alaaykum uktee
I hope this helps.. This is only one ayaah stating that the prophet (SAW) is a good example ..
"Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad SAW) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much". [Al Qur'aan 33:21]
(21. Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.)
This Ayah is an important principle, to follow the Messenger of Allah in all his words, and deeds, etc. Hence Allah commanded the people to take the Prophet as an example on the day of Al-Ahzab, with regard to patience, guarding, striving and waiting for Allah to provide the way out; may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him forever, until the Day of Judgement. Allah says to those who were anxious and impatient and were shaken by feelings of panic on the day of Al-Ahzab:
﴿لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ﴾
(Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow) meaning, `why do you not take him as an example and follow his lead' Allah says:
﴿لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً﴾
(for him who hopes in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah much.)
Last edited by Ğħαrєєвαħ; 09-25-2011 at 09:12 PM.
I fear I wont be able to help much.
But I was, on this thread, given a link to a website that provides the context in which indivudal ayahs were revealed. So if you do find verses and want to learn more about them
www.altafsir.com (then click Quranic Science on the left)
Also as a wee side note www.quran.com is brilliant to.
Allah knows best
"Who, when disaster strikes them, say, "Indeed we belong to Allah , and indeed to Him we will return."
sister endymion are you asking about the ayat that are related to sahaba (radi allahu anhum).
Assalam Alekum dear all.
Im grateful for your replies.Yes,im looking for the Quranic verses related to Sahaba RA.Like this one.
10. Verily those who plight their fealty to thee do no less than plight their fealty to Allah. the Hand of Allah is over their hands: then any one who violates his oath, does so to the harm of his own soul, and any one who fulfils what he has covenanted with Allah,- Allah will soon grant him a great Reward.
18. Allah.s Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down Tranquillity to them; and He rewarded them with a speedy Victory;
29. Muhammad is the apostle of Allah. and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.
All the above Ayah's are taken from Surah Al-Fatah,The victory.
The above two Ayahs were about Beyat-e-Rizwan,the swear Sahaba's made on the hand of Prophet Muhammad SAW and Allah SWT was pleased with it.In this swear Prophet Muhammad SAW honor Uthman RA in an amazing way.the Holy Prophet placed one of his own hands on the other and pledged allegiance on his behalf, and thus bestowed a unique honour on Hadrat `Uthman in that he made Hadrat 'Uthman a partner in the pledge by making his own sacred hand represent the hand of Hadrat `Uthman.
The last Ayah is abut the virtue of Sahaba RA that they are hard for the unbelievers to cope them up but they are nice and humble between the company of Mumineens.
Alhamdulillah i found so many in Surah Al-Fatah and Surah Al-Tauba but any further help will be more than welcome
These verses were revealed when there was a slander against Aisha ra (Abdullah bin Ubai bib Salul accusing her of adultery and spread the rumour) and so Allah SWT cleared her:
Those who brought forward the lie are a body among yourselves: think it not to be an evil to you; On the contrary it is good for you: to every man among them (will come the punishment) of the sin that he earned, and to him who took on himself the lead among them, will be a penalty grievous.
Why did not the believers - men and women - when ye heard of the affair,- put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, "This (charge) is an obvious lie"?
Why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they have not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of Allah, (stand forth) themselves as liars!
Were it not for the grace and mercy of Allah on you, in this world and the Hereafter, a grievous penalty would have seized you in that ye rushed glibly into this affair.
(QS An Nur: 11-14)
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ ﴿١﴾ أَن جَاءَهُ الْأَعْمَىٰ ﴿٢﴾ وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّىٰ ﴿٣﴾ أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ الذِّكْرَىٰ ﴿٤﴾ أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَىٰ ﴿٥﴾ فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّىٰ ﴿٦﴾ وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّىٰ ﴿٧﴾ وَأَمَّا مَن جَاءَكَ يَسْعَىٰ ﴿٨﴾ وَهُوَ يَخْشَىٰ ﴿٩﴾ فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّىٰ ﴿١٠
(The Prophet (Peace be upon him)) frowned and turned away, (1) Because there came to him the blind man (i.e. 'Abdullah bin Umm-Maktum, who came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) while he was preaching to one or some of the Quraish chiefs). (2) But what could tell you that per chance he might become pure (from sins)? (3) Or that he might receive admonition, and that the admonition might profit him? (4) As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient, (5) To him you attend; (6) What does it matter to you if he will not become pure (from disbelief, you are only a Messenger, your duty is to convey the Message of Allah). (7) But as to him who came to you running. (8) And is afraid (of Allah and His Punishment), (9) Of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another, (10)
More than one of the scholars of Tafsir mentioned that one day the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] was addressing one of the great leaders of the Quraysh while hoping that he would accept Islam. While he was speaking in direct conversation with him, Ibn Umm Maktum came to him, and he was of those who had accepted Islam in its earliest days. He (Ibn Umm Maktum) then began asking the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] about something, urgently beseeching him. The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] hoped that the man would be guided, so he asked Ibn Umm Maktum to wait for a moment so he could complete his conversation. He frowned in the face of Ibn Umm Maktum and turned away from him in order to face the other man. Thus, Allah revealed,
عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّى - أَن جَآءَهُ الاٌّعْمَى - وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّى
(He frowned and turned away. Because there came to him the blind man. And how can you know that he might become pure) meaning, he may attain purification and cleanliness in his soul.
أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ الذِّكْرَى
(Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him) meaning, he may receive admonition and abstain from the forbidden.
أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَى - فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى
(As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient. To him you attend;) meaning, `you face the rich person so that perhaps he may be guided.'
وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلاَّ يَزَّكَّى
(What does it matter to you if he will not become pure) meaning, `you are not responsible for him if he does not attain purification.'
وَأَمَّا مَن جَآءَكَ يَسْعَى - وَهُوَ يَخْشَى
(But as for him who came to you running. And is afraid.) meaning, `he is seeking you and he comes to you so that he may be guided by what you say to him.'
فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى
(Of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another.) meaning, `you are too busy.' Here Allah commands His Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] to not single anyone out with the warning. Rather, he should equal warn the noble and the weak, the poor and the rich, the master and the slave, the men and the women, the young and the old. Then Allah will guide whomever He chooses to a path that is straight. He has the profound wisdom and the decisive proof.
وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَبُنَىَّ لاَ تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ - وَوَصَّيْنَا الإِنْسَـنَ بِوَلِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْناً عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِى عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ - وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَـحِبْهُمَا فِى الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفاً وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَىَّ ثُمَّ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
And (remember) when Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: "O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed. (13) And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years give thanks to Me and to your parents, unto Me is the final destination. (14) But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not, but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do. (15)
At-Tabarani recorded in Al-`Ishrah that Sa`d bin Malik said, "This Ayah,
وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلاَ تُطِعْهُمَا
(But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not;) was revealed concerning me. I was a man who honored his mother, but when I became Muslim, she said:
`O Sa`d! What is this new thing I see you doing Leave this religion of yours, or I will not eat or drink until I die, and people will say: Shame on you, for what you have done to me, and they will say that you have killed your mother.'
I said, `Do not do that, O mother, for I will not give up this religion of mine for anything.'
She stayed without eating for one day and one night, and she became exhausted; then she stayed for another day and night without eating, and she became utterly exhausted.
When I saw that, I said: `O my mother, by Allah, even if you had one hundred souls and they were to depart one by one, I would not give up this religion of mine for anything, so if you want to, eat, and if you want to, do not eat.' So she ate.''
Sa'd Ibn Maalik Az-Zuhariy, also known as Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqaas (Radi allahu anha), accepted Islam when he was 17 years old.
Last edited by alhamdulilaah; 09-27-2011 at 09:59 AM.
Surah Al-Baiyyinah (The Clear Evidence) Surah no.98
Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said to Ubayy bin Ka`b (Radi allahu anha),
«إِنَّ اللهَ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ أَقْرَأَ عَلَيْكَ
لَمْ يَكُنِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ
(Verily, Allah has commanded me to recite to you (Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture.)) Ubayy said, "He (Allah) mentioned me by name to you'' The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] replied,
(Yes.) So he (Ubayy) cried. Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i all recorded this Hadith from Shu`bah.
In another narration by Musnad, when Ubayy radi allahu anha mentioned this story, at that time Abdur Rahman bin abzi radi allahu anha said O Abu Mundhir you must have been delighted. He said, yes , Allah says
قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّـهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ
Say: "In the Bounty of Allah, and in His Mercy (i.e. Islam and the Qur'an); -therein let them rejoice." That is better than what (the wealth) they amass. Surah Yunus [10:58]
Last edited by alhamdulilaah; 09-27-2011 at 10:54 AM.
وَسَيُجَنَّبُهَا الْأَتْقَى ﴿١٧﴾ الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّىٰ ﴿١٨﴾ وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِندَهُ مِن نِّعْمَةٍ تُجْزَىٰ ﴿١٩﴾
إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِ الْأَعْلَىٰ ﴿٢٠﴾ وَلَسَوْفَ يَرْضَىٰ ﴿٢١
17. And Al-Muttaqun (the pious and righteous - see V.2:2) will be far removed from it (Hell).
18. He who spends his wealth for increase in self-purification,
19. And have in his mind no favour from anyone for which a reward is expected in return,
20. Except only the desire to seek the Countenance of his Lord, the Most High;
21. He surely will be pleased (when he will enter Paradise).
(And those with Taqwa will be far removed from it.) meaning, the righteous, pure, most pious person will be saved from the Fire. Then He explains who he is by His saying,
الَّذِى يُؤْتِى مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّى
(He who gives of his wealth for self-purification.) meaning, he spends his wealth in obedience of his Lord in order to purify himself, his wealth and whatever Allah has bestowed upon him of religion and worldly things.
وَمَا لاًّحَدٍ عِندَهُ مِن نِّعْمَةٍ تُجْزَى
(And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back.) meaning, giving his wealth is not done so that he may gain some favor from someone wherein they return some good to him, and therefore he gives to get something in return. He only spends his wealth
ابْتِغَآءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِ الاٌّعْلَى
(to seek the Face of his Lord, the Most High) meaning, hoping to attain the blessing of seeing Him in the final abode in the Gardens of Paradise. Allah then says,
(He, surely, will be pleased.) meaning, indeed those with these characteristics will be pleased.
The Cause of this Revelation and the Virtue of Abu Bakr (radi allahu anha)
Many of the scholars of Tafsir have mentioned that these Ayat were revealed about Abu Bakr As-Siddiq radi allahu anha. Some of them even mentioned that there is a consensus among the Qur'anic commentators concerning this. There is no doubt that he is included in the meaning of these Ayat, and that he is the most deserving of the Ummah to be described with these characteristics in general, for indeed, the wording of these Ayat is general. As in Allah's saying,
وَسَيُجَنَّبُهَا الاٌّتْقَى - الَّذِى يُؤْتِى مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّى - وَمَا لاًّحَدٍ عِندَهُ مِن نِّعْمَةٍ تُجْزَى
(And those with Taqwa will be far removed from it. He who gives of his wealth for self-purification. And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back.)However, he (Abu Bakr radi allahu anha) was the first and foremost of this Ummah to have all of these characteristics and other praiseworthy characteristics as well. For verily, he was truthful, pious, generous, charitable, and he always spent his wealth in obedience of His Master (Allah) and in aiding the Messenger of Allah[Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] . How many Dirhams and Dinars did he spend seeking the Face of His Most Noble Lord. And did not consider any of the people as owning him some favor that he needed to get compensation for. Rather, his virtue and kindness was even shown towards leaders and chiefs from all the other tribes as well. This is why `Urwah bin Mas`ud, who was the chief of the Thaqif tribe, said to him on the day of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, "By Allah, if I did not owe you a debt, which I have not paid you back for, I would have responded to you (i.e., your call to Islam).'' Abu Bakr As-Siddiq radi allahu anha became angry with him for saying such a thing (i.e., I owe you something). So if this was his position with the chiefs of the Arabs and the heads of the tribes, then what about those other than them. Thus, Allah says,
وَمَا لاًّحَدٍ عِندَهُ مِن نِّعْمَةٍ تُجْزَى - إِلاَّ ابْتِغَآءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِ الاٌّعْلَى - وَلَسَوْفَ يَرْضَى
(And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back. Except to seek the Face of his Lord, the Most High. He, surely, will be pleased.)
And in the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,
مَنْ أَنْفَقَ زَوْجَيْنِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ دَعَتْهُ خَزَنَةُ الْجَنَّةِ يَاعَبْدَاللهِ، هَذَا خَيْر
(Whoever equipped two riding animals in the way of Allah, the Gatekeepers of Paradise will call to him saying, "O servant of Allah! This is good.'') So Abu Bakr radi allahu anha said, "O Messenger of Allah! The one who is called from them will not have any need. Will there be anyone who will be called from all of them'' The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] replied,
«نَعَمْ ، وَأَرْجُو أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنْهُم»
(Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.)
May Allah make us among them, ameen.
Last edited by alhamdulilaah; 09-27-2011 at 01:52 PM.
لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنصُرُونَ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ ﴿٨
وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ ۚ وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴿٩
(And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor emigrants, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking Bounties from Allah and to please Him. And helping Allah (i.e. helping His religion) and His Messenger (Muhammad [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam]). Such are indeed the truthful (to what they say); (8) And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given (from the booty of Bani An-Nadir), and give them (emigrants) preference over themselves, even though they were in need of that. And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful. (9) Surah Al-Hashr (59:8-9)
The Virtues of the Muhajirin and Al-Ansar
Allah states the categories of needy people who also deserve a part of the Fai',
الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِهِمْ وَأَمْوَلِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَناً
(who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking bounties from Allah and (His) good pleasure,) meaning, departed their homes and defied their people, seeking the acceptance of Allah and His favor,
وَيَنصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الصَّـدِقُونَ
(and helping Allah and His Messenger. Such are indeed the truthful.) meaning, `they are those who were truthful in statement and deed, and they are the chiefs of the Muhajirin.' Allah the Exalted praised the Ansar next and emphasized their virtue, status and honor, preferring to give to others over themselves, even though they were in need, and not feeling enviousness. Allah the Exalted said,
وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالإِيمَـنَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ
(And (it is also for) those who, before them, had homes and had adopted the faith,) referring to those who resided in the city to which the migration occurred, before the emigrants arrived at it, and who embraced the faith before many of the emigrants. `Umar said, "I recommend the Khalifah, who will come after me, to know the rights and virtues of the foremost Muhajirin and to preserve their honor. I also recommend him to be kind to the Ansar, those who resided in the city of Hijrah and embraced the faith beforehand, that he accepts the good that comes from those who do good among them and forgives those among them who commit errors.'' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith. Allah said,يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ
(love those who emigrate to them,) indicates that they, on account of their generosity and honorable conduct, loved those who emigrated to them and comforted them with their wealth. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, "The Muhajirin said, `O Allah's Messenger! We have never met people like those whom we emigrated to; comforting us in times of scarcity and giving us with a good heart in times of abundance. They have sufficed for us and shared their wealth with us so much so, that we feared that they might earn the whole reward instead of us.' He said,«لَا، مَا أَثْنَيْتُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَدَعَوْتُمُ اللهَ لَهُم»
(No they won't, as long you thanked them for what they did and invoked Allah for them.)'' I have not seen this version in the other books. Al-Bukhari recorded that Yahya bin Sa`id heard Anas bin Malik, when he went with him to Al-Walid, saying, "The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] called Ansar to divide Al-Bahrayn among them. The Ansar said, `Not until you give a similar portion to our emigrant brothers.' He said,«إِمَّا لَا، فَاصْبِرُوا حَتْى تَلْقَوْنِي، فَإِنَّهُ سَيُصِيبُكُمْ بَعْدِي أَثَرَة»
(Perhaps, no; but you will soon see people giving preference to others, so remain patient until you meet me (on the Day of Resurrection).)'' Al-Bukhari was alone with this version. He also recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Ansar said (to the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] ), `Distribute our date-palms between us and our emigrant brothers.' He replied, `No.' The Ansar said (to the emigrants), `Look tend to the trees and share the fruits with us.' The emigrants said, `We hear and obey.''' Al-Bukhari, but not Muslim, recorded it.
The Ansar never envied the Muhajirin
Allah said,وَلاَ يَجِدُونَ فِى صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّآ أُوتُواْ
(and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given,) meaning, the Ansar did not have any envy for the Muhajirin because of the better status, rank, or more exalted grade that Allah gave the Muhajirin above them. Allah's statement,
(that which they have been given,) refers to what the Muhajirin were favored with, according to Qatadah and Ibn Zayd.
Selflessness of the Ansar
Allah said,وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ
(and give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that.) meaning, they preferred giving to the needy rather than attending to their own needs, and began by giving the people before their own selves, even though they too were in need. An authentic Hadith stated that the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,«أَفْضَلُ الصَّدَقَةِ جُهْدُ الْمُقِل»
(The best charity is that given when one is in need and struggling.) This exalted rank is better than the rank of those whom Allah described in His statements,وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ
(And they give food, inspite of their love for it.)(76:8), and,
وَءَاتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ
(And gives his wealth, in spite of love for it.)(2:177) The latter give charity even though they love the wealth they give, not that they really need it, nor that it is necessary for them to keep it. The former prefer others to themselves even though they are in need and have a necessity for what they spend in charity. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq gave away all his wealth in charity and Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] asked him,«مَا أَبْقَيْتَ لِأَهْلِكَ؟»
(What did you keep for your family,) and he said, "I kept for them Allah and His Messenger.'' `Ikrimah (bin Abi Jahl) and two other wounded fighters were offered water when they were injured during the battle of Al-Yarmuk, and each one of them said that the sip of water should be given to another of the three wounded men. They did so even though they were badly injured and craving water. When the water reached the third man, he and the other two died and none of them drank any of the water! May Allah be pleased with them and make them pleased with Him. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "A man came to the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Poverty has stuck me.' The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] sent a messenger to his wives (to bring something for that man to eat) but they said that they had nothing. Then Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam]said,«أَلَا رَجُلٌ يُضَيِّفُ هَذَا، اللَّيْلَةَ، رَحِمَهُ الله»
(Who will invite this person or entertain him as a guest tonight; may Allah grant His mercy to him who does so) An Ansari man said, `I, O Allah's Messenger!' So he took him to his wife and said to her, `Entertain the guest of Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] generously.' She said, `By Allah ! We have nothing except the meal for my children.' He said, `Let your children sleep if they ask for supper. Then turn off the lamp and we go to bed tonight while hungry.' She did what he asked her to do. In the morning the Ansari went to Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] who said,«لَقَدْ عَجِبَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَوْ ضَحِكَ مِنْ فُلَانٍ وَفُلَانَة»
(Allah wondered (favorably) or laughed at the action of so-and-so and his wife.) Then Allah revealed,وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ
(and they give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that). '' Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in another part of his Sahih. Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith. In another narration for this Hadith, the Companion's name was mentioined, it was Abu Talhah Al-Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him. Allah said,وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
(And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are they who will be the successful.) indicating that those who are saved from being stingy, then they have earned success and a good achievement. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,«إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظُّلْمَ، فَإِنَّ الظُّلْمَ ظُلُمَاتٌ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَاتَّقُوا الشُّحَّ، فَإِنَّ الشُّحَّ أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ، حَمَلَهُمْ عَلى أَنْ سَفَكُوا دِمَاءَهُمْ وَاسْتَحَلُّوا مَحَارِمَهُم»
(Be on your guard against committing oppression, for oppression is a darkness on the Day of Resurrection. Be on your guard against being stingy, for being stingy is what destroyed those who were before you. It made them shed blood and make lawful what was unlawful for them.) Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Al-Aswad bin Hilal said that a man said to `Abdullah (bin Mas`ud),"O Abu `Abdur-Rahman! I fear that I have earned destruction for myself.'' `Abdullah asked him what the matter was and he said, "I hear Allah's saying,وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
(And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are they who will be the successful.) and I am somewhat a miser who barely gives away anything.'' `Abdullah said, "That is not the greed Allah mentioned in the Qur'an, which pertains to illegally consuming your brother's wealth. What you have is miserliness, and it is an evil thing indeed to be a miser.''
Those were indeed a great help,Alhamdulillah
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِم بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُم مِّنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَن تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّـهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِم بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنتُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْهُ مِنكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ ﴿١﴾ إِن يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُوا لَكُمْ أَعْدَاءً وَيَبْسُطُوا إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُم بِالسُّوءِ وَوَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ ﴿٢﴾ لَن تَنفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَامُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ ۚ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ ﴿٣
O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists, etc.) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism, this Quran, and Muhammad [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] ), and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] ) and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists, etc., as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the Straight Path. (1) Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil, and they desire that you should disbelieve. (2) Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection (against Allah). He will judge between you. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do. (3)
Reason behind revealing Surat Al-Mumtahanah
The story of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah is the reason behind revealing the beginning of this honorable Surah. Hatib was among the Early Emigrants and participated in the battle of Badr. Hatib had children and wealth in Makkah, but he was not from the tribe of Quraysh. Rather, he was an ally of `Uthman. When the Messenger of Allah
[Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] decided to conquer Makkah, after its people broke the peace treaty between them, he ordered the Muslims to mobilize their forces to attack Makkah, and then said,
«اللْهُمَّ عَمِّ عَلَيْهِمْ خَبَرَنَا»
(O Allah! Keep our news concealed from them.) Hatib wrote a letter and sent it to the people of Makkah, with a woman from the tribe of Quraysh, informing them of the Messenger's intent to attack them. He wanted them to be indebted to him ﴿so that they would grant safety to his family in Makkah﴾. Allah the Exalted conveyed this matter to His Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] , because He accepted the Prophet's invocation ﴿to Him to conceal the news of the attack﴾. The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] sent someone after the woman and retrieved the letter. This story is collected in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hasan bin Muhammad bin `Ali said that `Abdullah bin Abu Rafi` -- or Ubaydullah bin Abu Rafi` -- said that he heard `Ali say, "Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] sent me, Zubayr and Al-Miqdad saying,
«انْطَلِقُوا حَتْى تَأْتُوا رَوْضَةَ خَاخٍ فَإِنَّ بِهَا ظَعِينَةً مَعَهَا كِتَابٌ فَخُذُوهُ مِنْهَا»
(Proceed until you reach Rawdat Khakh, where there is a lady carrying a letter. Take that letter from her.) So we proceeded on our way, with our horses galloping, until we reached the Rawdah. There we found the lady and said to her, `Take out the letter.' She said, `I am not carrying a letter.' We said, `Take out the letter, or else we will take off your clothes.' So she took it out of her braid, and we brought the letter to Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam]. The letter was addressed from Hatib bin Abu Balta`ah to some pagans of Makkah, telling them about what Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] intended to do. Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,
«يَا حَاطِبُ، مَا هَذَا؟»
(O Hatib! What is this) Hatib replied, `O Allah's Messenger! Do not make a hasty decision about me. I was a person not belonging to Quraysh, but I was an ally to them. All the Emigrants who were with you have kinsmen (in Makkah) who can protect their families. So I wanted to do them a favor, so they might protect my relatives, as I have no blood relation with them. I did not do this out of disbelief or to renegade from my religion, nor did I do it to choose disbelief after Islam.' Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said to his Companions,
(Regarding him, he has told you the truth.) `Umar said, `O Allah's Messenger! Allow me to chop off the head of this hypocrite!' The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,
«إِنَّهُ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا، وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ اللهَ اطَّلَعَ إِلَى أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ فَقَالَ:اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ فَقَدْ غَفَرْتُ لَكُم»
(He attended Badr. What can I tell you, perhaps Allah looked at those who attended Badr and said, "O the people of Badr, do what you like, for I have forgiven you.'')'' The Group with the exception of Ibn Majah, collected this Hadith using various chains of narration that included Sufyan bin `Uyaynah. Al-Bukhari added in his narration in the chapter on the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] 's battles, "Then Allah revealed the Surah,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends...) '' Al-Bukhari said in another part of his Sahih, `Amr (one of the narrators of the Hadith) said, "This Ayah,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends'...) was revealed about Hatib, but I do not know if the Ayah was mentioned in the Hadith (or was added as an explanation by one of the narrators).'' Al-Bukhari also said that `Ali bin Al-Madini said that Sufyan bin `Uyaynah was asked, "Is this why this Ayah,
لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ
(O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends.) was revealed'' Sufyan said, "This is the narration that I collected from `Amr, I did not leave a letter out of it. I do not know if anyone else memorized the same words for it.''
The Command to have Enmity towards the Disbelievers and to abandon supporting Them
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُواْ بِمَا جَآءَكُمْ مِّنَ الْحَقِّ
(O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth,) refers to the idolators and the disbelievers who are combatants against Allah, His Messenger and the believers. It is they whom Allah has decided should be our enemies and should be fought. Allah has forbidden the believers to take them as friends, supporters or companions. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah ,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَـرَى أَوْلِيَآءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as protecting friends, they are but protecting friends of each other. And if any among you takes them (as such), then surely, he is one of them.) (5:51) This Ayah contains a stern warning and a sure threat. Allah the Exalted said,
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمْ هُزُواً وَلَعِباً مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَالْكُفَّارَ أَوْلِيَآءَ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
(O you who believe! Take not as protecting friends those who take your religion as a mockery and fun from among those who received the Scripture before you, nor from among the disbelievers; and have Taqwa of Allah if you indeed are true believers.) (5:57)
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْكَـفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُواْ للَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَاناً مُّبِيناً
(O you who believe! Take not for protecting friends disbelievers instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves) (4:144) and,
لاَّ يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَـفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَىْءٍ إِلاَ أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنْهُمْ تُقَـةً وَيُحَذِّرْكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ
(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as protecting friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself (His punishment).) (3:28) This is why Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] accepted Hatib's excuse when he said that he only wanted to have a favor on the Quraysh, because of the property and family members he left behind in Makkah. Allah's statement,
يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّـكُمْ
(and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves ( from your homeland)) follows His encouragement to fight against them and to avoid being their supporters. This is because they expelled the Messenger[Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] and his Companions on account of their hatred for Tawhid and worshipping Allah alone in sincerity. This is why Allah the Exalted said,
أَن تُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ
(because you believe in Allah, your Lord!) meaning, `your only fault is that you believed in Allah, Lord of all that exists.' Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,
وَمَا نَقَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ
(And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, Almighty, Al-Hamid!) (85:8) and,
الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُواْ مِن دِيَـرِهِم بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلاَّ أَن يَقُولُواْ رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ
(Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said: "Our Lord is Allah.'') (22:40) Allah said,
إِن كُنتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَاداً فِى سَبِيلِى وَابْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِى
(If you have come forth to strive in My cause and to seek My good pleasure.) Allah says, `if you are as described here, then do not take the disbelievers as supporters. If you migrated in Jihad for My cause and for seeking My pleasure, then do not take My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends, after they expelled you from your homes and property in rage against you and rejection of your religion.' Allah's statement,
تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَاْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَآ أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَآ أَعْلَنتُمْ
(You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal.) Allah asks, `do you do this while I know the secrets of the hearts, the intentions and all apparent things,'وَمَن يَفْعَلْهُ مِنكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ السَّبِيلِإِن يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُواْ لَكُمْ أَعْدَآءً وَيَبْسُطُواْ إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ
(And whosoever of you does that, then indeed he has gone astray from the straight path. Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil,) meaning, `if they gain the upper hand over you, they would use every type of harm in their disposal to hurt you in words and action,'
وَوَدُّواْ لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ
(and they desire that you should disbelieve.) meaning, `they are eager that you do not earn any good. Therefore, their enmity to you is outward and inward, so how can you become supporters of this type of people' This also encourages the enmity. Allah's statement,
لَن تَنفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَـمُكُمْ وَلاَ أَوْلَـدُكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
(Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection. He will judge between you. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) means, `your family relations will not benefit you with Allah if Allah decided to cause harm your way. Your relations will not benefit you if you please them with what angers Allah.' Those who agree with their family being disbelievers in order to please them will have earned loss and failure and their deeds will be rendered invalid. Their relation will not benefit them with Allah, even if their relation was with a Prophet. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that a man said, "O Allah's Messenger! Where is my father'' He said,
(In the Fire.) When the man went away, the Prophet[Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] called him back and said:
«إِنَّ أَبِي وَأَبَاكَ فِي النَّار»
(Verily, my father and your father are in the Fire.) Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.
عَسَى اللَّـهُ أَن يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُم مِّنْهُم مَّوَدَّةً ۚ وَاللَّـهُ قَدِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٧
Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (7)
Surah Al-Mumtahinah (The Woman to be examined) surah no.60
It was the earnest desire of Umm Habibah (radi allaha anha) that her father and brother should come into the fold of Islam and earn the reward of blessed
Paradise.She did not want them to pass away from this world in a state of disbelief like Abu Jahl, Waleed bin Mughairah, 'Aas bin Wa'il, 'Utbah bin Rabi'h and
Shaibah bin Rabi'h. On the occasion of the conquest of Makkah, when Abu Sufyan and Mu'awiyah pledged allegiance to Allah and His Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] , her joy knew no bounds.The following ayah was revealed,
Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies.
And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (60:7)
Surah Al-Mumtahinah (The Woman to be examined) surah no.60
Abdullah bin 'Abbas (Radi allahu anhu) says that this particular verse was revealed on the occassion of Umm Habibah's marriage to the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] . This marriage influenced important chieftains and prominent leaders like Abu Sufyan, Mu'awiyah and Yazid bin Abu Sufyan to understand Islam and join the ranks of the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] .
Tafsir of the ayah:
Perhaps Allah will make Friendship between You and Those, whom You hold as Enemies
Allah said to His faithful servants, after ordering them to be enemies with the disbelievers,
عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُم مِّنْهُم مَّوَدَّةً
(Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those, whom you hold as enemies.) meaning affection after animosity, tenderness after coldness and coming together after parting from each other,وَاللَّهُ قَدِيرٌ
(And Allah has power (over all things),) Allah is able to gather opposites and bring together hearts, after feeling hostility and hardness. In this case, the hearts will come together in agreement, just as Allah said when He mentioned His favor on the Ansar,وَاذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُم أَعْدَآءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَاناً وَكُنتُمْ عَلَى شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُمْ مِّنْهَا
(And remember Allah's favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His grace, you became brethren and were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it.) (3:103) Also the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said to them,«أَلَمْ أَجِدْكُمْ ضُلَّالًا فَهَدَاكُمُ اللهُ بِي، وَكُنْتُمْ مُتَفَرِّقِينَ فَأَلَّفَكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟»
(Did I not find you misguided, and Allah guided you through me; and divided, and Allah united ﴿your hearts﴾ through me) Allah the Exalted said,وَإِن يُرِيدُواْ أَن يَخْدَعُوكَ فَإِنَّ حَسْبَكَ اللَّهُ هُوَ الَّذِى أَيَّدَكَ بِنَصْرِهِ وَبِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ - وَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ لَوْ أَنفَقْتَ مَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ جَمِيعاً مَّآ أَلَّفْتَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ أَلَّفَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِنَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
(He it is Who has supported you with His help and with the believers. And He has united their hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah has united them. Certainly He is Almighty, All-Wise.) (8:62,63) And in the Hadith:«أَحْبِبْ حَبِيبَكَ هَوْنًا مَا، فَعَسَى أَنْ يَكُونَ بَغِيضَكَ يَوْمًا مَا، وَأَبْغِضْ بَغِيضَكَ هَوْنًا مَا، فَعَسَى أَنْ يَكُونَ حَبِيبَكَ يَوْمًا مَا»
(Love your loved one moderately, because one day, he might become your enemy. Hate your hated one moderately, because one day, he might become your loved one.) Allah's statement,وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) means,Allah forgives the disbelief of the disbelievers if they repent from it, returned to their Lord and surrendered to Him in Islam. Surely, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most-Merciful to those who repent to Him from their sins, no matter what type of the sin it is.
1. Tafsir Ibn Kathir
2. Great Women of Islam by Mahmood Ahmad Ghadanfar
لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّـهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ ﴿٨
Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes.
Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. (8)
Surah Al-Mumtahinah (The Woman to be examined) surah no.60 ayah no.8
لاَّ يَنْهَـكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِّن دِيَـرِكُمْ
(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes,) means, those who did not have a role in your expulsion. Therefore, Allah does not forbid you from being kind to the disbelievers who do not fight you because of the religion, such as women and weak disbelievers,
(to deal kindly) to be gentle with them,
(and justly with those) to be fair with them
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
(Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Asma' bint Abu Bakr (Radi allahu anha) said, "My mother, who was an idolatress at the time, came to me during the Treaty of Peace, the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] conducted with the Quraysh. I came to the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] and said, `O Allah's Messenger! My mother came visiting, desiring something from me, should I treat her with good relations' The Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,
«نَعَمْ صِلِي أُمَّك»
(Yes. Keep good relation with your mother.)'' The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Zubayr said, "Qutaylah came visiting her daughter, Asma' bint Abi Bakr (Radi allahu anha) , with some gifts, such as Dibab, cheese and clarified (cooking) butter, and she was an idolatress at that time. Asma' (Radi allahu anha) refused to accept her mother's gifts and did not let her enter her house. `A'ishah (Radi allahu anha) asked the Prophet [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] about his verdict and Allah sent down the Ayah,
لاَّ يَنْهَـكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ
(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion) until the end of the Ayah. Allah's Messenger [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] ordered Asma' to accept her mother's gifts and to let her enter her house.'' Allah's statement,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
(Allah loves those who deal with equity.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded, that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah [Salla Allahu Aleihi Wassalam] said,
«الْمُقْسِطُونَ عَلى مَنَابِرَ مِنْ نُورٍ عَنْ يَمِينِ الْعَرْشِ، الَّذِينَ يَعْدِلُونَ فِي حُكْمِهِمْ وَأَهَالِيهِمْ وَمَا وَلُوا»
(The just, who are fair in their decisions, families and those under their authority, will be on podiums made of light, to the right of the Throne.) An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith.
May Allah make us among the Muqsiteen (those who deal with equity), ameen.
Last edited by alhamdulilaah; 09-30-2011 at 04:33 PM.
Cant thank you enough dear sizta
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّـهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ ۖ وَآتُوهُم مَّا أَنفَقُوا ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْأَلُوا مَا أَنفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْأَلُوا مَا أَنفَقُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّـهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ ﴿١٠﴾ وَإِن فَاتَكُمْ شَيْءٌ مِّنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبْتُمْ فَآتُوا الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَاجُهُم مِّثْلَ مَا أَنفَقُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ الَّذِي أَنتُم بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿١١
O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them, Allah knows best as to their Faith, then if you ascertain that they are true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers, they are not lawful (wives) for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful (husbands) for them. But give the disbelievers that (amount of money) which they have spent [as their Mahr] to them. And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their Mahr to them. Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives, and ask for (the return of) that which you have spent (as Mahr) and let them (the disbelievers, etc.) ask back for that which they have spent. That is the Judgement of Allah. He judges between you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. (10) And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers, and you have an accession (by the coming over of a woman from the other side), then pay to those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent (on their Mahr). And fear Allah in Whom you believe. (11)
These ayat were revealed about Umm Kulthum bint Uqbah (Radi allahu anha), Her mother was Arwa (Radi allahu anha), whose first marriage was with Affan bin abi alas, from this marraige she had Uthman (Radi allahu anhu). After Affan's death Arwa (Radi allahu anha) married Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ait, from this marriage Umm Kulthum bint Uqbah (Radi allahu anha) was born.So with this she was sister of Uthman (Radi allahu anhu).Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ait was one of the enemies of Islam, while his wife Arwa (Radi allahu anha) and daughter Umm Kulthum bint Uqbah (Radi allahu anha) converted to Islam. When muslims started migration she could not as she was under observation by her father and brothers. When her father Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ait got killed in Battle of Badr , then her brothers put more strict measures to keep an eye on her.
After the Treaty of Hudaiybiyyah, she was able to leave Makkah, she travelled to Madinah by foot with a man from Bani Khazah. When her family found out that she left for Madinah, her two brothers Waleed bin Uqbah and `Umarah bin Uqbah became furious and went after her.
After Al-Hudaybiyyah, Emigrant Muslim Women may not be returned to the Disbelievers
The treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah that was conducted between the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) and the disbelievers of Quraysh, in that treaty, there were these words, "Everyman (in another narration, every person) who reverts from our side to your side, should be returned to us, even if he is a follower of your religion.'' This was said by `Urwah, Ad-Dahhak, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd, Az-Zuhri, Muqatil bin Hayyan and As-Suddi. So according to this narration, this Ayah specifies and explains the Sunnah. And this is the best case of understanding. Yet according to another view of some of the Salaf, it abrogates it. Allah the Exalted and Most High ordered His faithful servants to test the faith of women who emigrate to them. When they are sure that they are faithful, they should not send them back to the disbelievers, for the disbelievers are not allowed for them and they are not allowed for the disbelievers. In the biography of `Abdullah bin Abi Ahmad bin Jahsh in Al-Musnad Al-Kabir, we also mentioned that `Abdullah bin Abi Ahmad said, "Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`ayt emigrated and her brothers, `Umarah and Al-Walid, went after her. They came to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) and talked to him about Umm Kulthum and asked that she be returned to them. Allah abolished the part of the treaty between the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) and the idolators about the women particularly. So He forbade returning Muslim women to the idolators and revealed the Ayah about testing them.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, about Allah's saying:
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا جَآءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ مُهَـجِرَتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ
(O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them;) "Their examination was asking them to testify to La ilaha illallah, and that Muhammad is Allah's servant and His Messenger.'' Mujahid explained the Ayah,
(examine them) by saying, "Ask them why they migrated. If they came because they were angry with their husbands, or for any other reason, and you realized that they did not embrace the faith, then send them back to their husbands.'' Allah's statement,
فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَـتٍ فَلاَ تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ
(then if you ascertain that they are true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers.) This Ayah indicates that faith can be recognized and affirmed.
The Believing Woman is prohibited from marrying an Idolator and the Believing Man is prohibited from marrying Mushrikah
لاَ هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ
(They are not lawful for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful for them.) This Ayah forbids Muslim women for idolators, which was a lawful marriage in the beginning of Islam. Abu Al-`As bin Ar-Rabi` was married to Zaynab, the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) 's daughter. She was a Muslim, while Abu Al-`As was still an idolator like his people. When he was captured during the battle of Badr, his wife, Zaynab, sent his ransom, a necklace that belonged to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam)'s first wife Khadijah. The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) became very emotional when he saw the necklace and said to the Companions,
«إِنْ رَأَيْتُمْ أَنْ تُطْلِقُوا لَهَا أَسِيرَهَا فَافْعَلُوا»
(If you decide to set free the prisoner who belongs to her, then do so.) They did, and Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) set him free. His ransom was that he send his wife to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) . Abu Al-`As fulfilled his promise and sent Zaynab to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) along with Zayd bin Harithah. Zaynab remained in Al-Madinah after the battle of Badr, which took place in the second year of Hijrah, until her husband Abu Al-`As bin Ar-Rahi` embraced Islam in the eighth year after the Hijrah. She returned to their marriage without renewing the dowery. Allah's statement,
وَءَاتُوهُم مَّآ أَنفَقُواْ
(But give them that which they have spent. ) meaning, the husbands of the emigrant women who came from the idolators, return the dowery that they gave to their wives. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri and several others. Allah's statement,
وَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ
(And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their due to them.) means, when you wish to marry them, then give them their dowery. That is, marry them under the condition that their `Iddah (waiting period) is finished and they have a legal guardian for their marriage etc. Allah said,
وَلاَ تُمْسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ
(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women,) thus forbidding His faithful servants from marrying idolator women or remaining married to them. In the Sahih, it is recorded that Al-Miswar and Marwan bin Al-Hakam said that after the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) conducted the treaty with the Quraysh idolators at Al-Hudaybiyyah, some Muslim women emigrated to him and Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah about them,
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا جَآءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ مُهَـجِرَتٍ
(O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants) until,
وَلاَ تُمْسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ
(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women,) Then `Umar bin Al-Khattab divorced two of his wives, who were idolatresses, and one of them got married to Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, while the other got married to Safwan bin Umayyah. Ibn Thawr narrated that Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri said, "This Ayah was revealed to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) while he was in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, after making peace. He agreed that whoever comes from the Quraysh to his side, will be returned to Makkah. When some women came, this Ayah was revealed. Allah commanded that the dowery that was paid to these women be returned to their husbands. Allah also ordered that if some Muslim women revert to the side of the idolators, the idolators should return their dowery to their Muslim husbands. Allah said,
وَلاَ تُمْسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ
(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women).'' Allah's statement,
وَاسْـَلُواْ مَآ أَنفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْـَلُواْ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ
(and ask for that which you have spent and let them ask for that which they have spent.) means, ask them for what you have paid to your wives who reverted to the side of the idolators, and they are entitled to get back the dowery that they gave their wives who emigrated to the Muslims. Allah's statement,
ذَلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ
(That is the judgement of Allah, He judges between you.) means, this judgement about the treaty and excluding women from its clauses, is a decision that Allah made for His creatures,
وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
(And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) meaning, He knows what benefits His servants and is the Most Wise about that. Allah the Exalted said,
وَإِن فَاتَكُمْ شَىْءٌ مِّنْ أَزْوَجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّـرِ فَعَـقَبْتُمْ فَآتُواْ الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَجُهُمْ مِّثْلَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ
(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers -- then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent.) Mujahid and Qatadah explained this Ayah, by saying, "This is about the disbelievers who did not have a treaty of peace. If a woman flees to the disbelievers and they do not give back what that her husband spent on her, then if a women comes to them (the Muslims) they are not to return to her husband anything until they pay the Muslim whose wife went to them the equivalent of what he spent. '' Ibn Jarir recorded that Az-Zuhri said, "The believers abided by Allah's decree and paid what they owed the idolators to compensate for the dowery the idolators gave to the women (who emigrated). However, the idolators refused to accept Allah's judgement for what they owed the Muslims. Allah said to the faithful believers,
وَإِن فَاتَكُمْ شَىْءٌ مِّنْ أَزْوَجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّـرِ فَعَـقَبْتُمْ فَآتُواْ الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَجُهُمْ مِّثْلَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ الَّذِى أَنتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ
(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers -- then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom your are believers.) Therefore, if a Muslim woman reverts to the idolators, the believers should give back the dowery her Muslim husband paid her, from whatever money is left with them from the dowery of women who migrated to the Muslims. They were supposed to return this wealth to the idolator husbands of these emigrant women. If they still have anything they owed the idolators, then they should return it to them.''
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَن لَّا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّـهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْرِقْنَ وَلَا يَزْنِينَ وَلَا يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعْصِينَكَ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ۙ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّـهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿١٢
O Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) ! When believing women come to you to give you the Bai'a (pledge), that they will not associate anything in worship with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit illegal sexual intercourse, that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood (i.e. by making illegal children belonging to their husbands), and that they will not disobey you in any Ma'ruf (Islamic Monotheism and all that which Islam ordains) then accept their Bai'a (pledge), and ask Allah to forgive them, Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (12)
The Matters the Women pledged to
Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah (Radi allahu anha) the wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) said, "Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) used to examine women who migrated to his side according to this Ayah,
يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ إِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ
(O Prophet! When believing women come to you pledging to you...) until,
إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)'' `Urwah said, "`A'ishah said, `When any believing woman agreed to these conditions, Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) would say to her,
(I have accepted your pledge.) but, by Allah, he never touched the hand of any women at all while taking the pledge from them. He only took their pledge of allegiance by saying,
«قَدْ بَايَعْتُكِ عَلى ذَلِك»
(I have accepted your pledge.)'' This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad recorded that Umaymah bint Ruqayqah said, "I came to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) with some women to give him our pledge and he took the pledge from us that is mentioned in the Qur'an, that we associate none with Allah, etc; as in the Ayah. Then he said,
«فِيمَا اسْتَطَعْتُنَّ وَأَطَقْتُن»
(As much as you can bear to implement.) We said, `Surely, Allah and His Messenger are more merciful with us than we are with ourselves.' We then said, `O Allah's Messenger, should you not shake hands with us' He said,
«إِنِّي لَا أُصَافِحُ النِّسَاءَ، إِنَّمَا قَوْلِي لِامْرَأَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ كَقَوْلِي لِمِائَةِ امْرَأَة»
(I do not shake hands with women, for my statement to one woman is as sufficient as my statement to a hundred women.)'' This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration; At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah collected it. Al-Bukhari also recorded that Umm `Atiyah said, "The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) took our pledge and recited to us the Ayah,
أَن لاَّ يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئاً
(...that they will not associate anything with Allah,) and forbade us to wail for the dead. Thereupon, a lady withdrew her hand saying, `But such and such lady shared with me in lamenting (over one of my relatives), so I must reward hers.' The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) did not object to that, so she went there and returned to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) and he accepted her pledge of allegiance.'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, "While we were with the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) , he said,
«تُبَايِعُونِي عَلى أَنْ لَا تُشْرِكُوا بِاللهِ شَيْئًا، وَلَا تَسْرِقُوا، وَلَا تَزْنُوا، وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ»
(Pledge to me in that you will not associate any with Allah, nor steal, nor commit Zina, nor kill your children.) Then he recited the Ayah that begins;
إِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ
(when the believing women come to you. ..) and took the pledge of allegiance from the women. He then added,
«فَمَنْ وَفَى مِنْكُمْ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللهِ، وَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَعُوقِبَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَهُ، وَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَسَتَرَهُ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ فَهُوَ إِلَى اللهِ، إِنْ شَاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُ، وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَه»
(Those among you who fulfill this pledge, will receive their reward from Allah. Those who deviate from any of it and receive the legal punishment (in this life), the punishment will be expiation for that sin. Whoever deviates from any of it and Allah screens him, then it is up to Allah to punish or forgive if He wills.) The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Allah's statement,
يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ إِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ
(O Prophet! When the believing women come to you pledging to you) means, `if any woman comes to you to give you the pledge and she accepts these conditions, then accept the pledge from her,'
عَلَى أَن لاَّ يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يَسْرِقْنَ
(that they will not associate anything with Allah, that they will not steal,) meaning, the property of other people. In the case where a husband is not fulfilling his duty of spending on his wife, then she is allowed to use a part of his wealth, what is reasonable, to spend on herself. This is the case regardless of whether the husband knows about his wife's actions or not, because of the Hadith in which Hind bint `Utbah said, "O Allah's Messenger! Abu Sufyan is a miser! He does not give me sufficient money for the living expense of our family and myself. Am I allowed to secretly take from his money without his knowledge'' Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) said to her,
«خُذِي مِنْ مَالِهِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ، مَا يَكْفِيكِ وَيَكْفِي بَنِيك»
(You may take from what is reasonable and appropriate for you and your children) This Hadith was recorded in the two Sahihs. Allah's statement,
(they will not commit Zina,) is similar to His other statement,
وَلاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الزِّنَى إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَآءَ سَبِيلاً
(And come not near to Az-Zina. Verily, it is a Fahishah (immoral act) and an evil way.) (17:32) A Hadith collected from Samurah mentions that for the adulterers and fornicators there is a painful torment in the fire of Hell. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah (Radi allahu anha) said, "Fatimah bint `Utbah came to give her pledge to Allah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) , who took the pledge from her,
أَن لاَّ يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يَسْرِقْنَ وَلاَ يَزْنِينَ
(that they will not associate anything with Allah, they will not steal, that they will not commit Zina (fornication and adultery),) Fatimah bashfully placed her hand on her head in shyness. The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) liked what she did. `A'ishah (Radi allahu anha) said, `O woman! Accept the pledge, because by Allah, we all gave the pledge to the same.' She said, `Yes then,' and she gave her pledge to the same things mentioned in the Ayah.''' Allah's statement,
وَلاَ يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلْـدَهُنَّ
(that they will not kill their children,) includes killing children after they are born. The people of Jahiliyyah used to kill their children because they feared poverty. The Ayah includes killing the fetus, just as some ignorant women do for various evil reasons. Allah's statement,
وَلاَ يَأْتِينَ بِبُهُتَـنٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ
(and that they will not utter slander, fabricating from between their hands and their feet,) Ibn `Abbas said, "It means that they not to attribute to their husbands other than their legitimate children.'' Muqatil said similarly. Allah's statement,
وَلاَ يَعْصِينَكَ فِى مَعْرُوفٍ
(and that they will not disobey you in Ma`ruf (good),) means, `that they will obey you when you order them to do good and forbid them from evil.' Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,
وَلاَ يَعْصِينَكَ فِى مَعْرُوفٍ
(and that they will not disobey you in any Ma`ruf (good), ) "This was one of the conditions which Allah imposed on the women.'' Maymun bin Mihran said, "Allah did not order obedience to His Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) for other than Ma`ruf, and Ma`ruf is itself obedience.'' Ibn Zayd said, "Allah commanded that His Messenger, the best of His creation, be obeyed in that which is Ma`ruf.'' Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm `Atiyah Al-Ansariyah said, "Among the conditions included in our pledge to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) to good was not to wail. A woman said, `So-and-so family brought comfort to me (by wailing over my dead relative), so I will first pay them back.' So she went and paid them back in the same (wailed for their dead), and then came and gave her pledge. Only she and Umm Sulaym bint Milhan, the mother of Anas bin Malik, did so.'' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith from the way of Hafsah bint Sirin from Umm `Atiyah Nusaybah Al-Ansariyah, may Allah be pleased with her. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Asid bin Abi Asid Al-Barrad said that one of the women who gave the pledge to Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) said, "Among the conditions included in the pledge that the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) took from us, is that we do not disobey any act of Ma`ruf (good) that he ordains. We should neither scratch our faces, pull our hair (in grief), tear our clothes nor wail.''
إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ
وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ
وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّـهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّـهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا ﴿٣٥
Indeed, the Muslim men and Muslim women, the believing men and believing women, the obedient men and obedient women, the truthful men and truthful women, the patient men and patient women, the humble men and humble women, the charitable men and charitable women, the fasting men and fasting women, the men who guard their private parts and the women who do so, and the men who remember Allah often and the women who do so - for them Allah has prepared forgiveness and a great reward. (35)
The Reason for Revelation
Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) said, "I said to the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam), `Why is it that we are not mentioned in the Qur'an as men are' Then one day without my realizing it, he was calling from the Minbar and I was combing my hair, so I tied my hair back then I went out to my chamber in my house, and I started listening out, and he was saying from the Minbar:
«يَاأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ:
إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ
(O people! Verily Allah says: (Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women...)) to the end of the Ayah.'' This was also recorded by An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir.
إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَـتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ
(Verily, the Muslims: men and women, the believers: men and women...) indicates that Iman is something other than Islam, and that it is more specific, because Allah says:
قَالَتِ الاٌّعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ
(The bedouins say: "We believe.'' Say: "You believe not but you only say, `We have surrendered (in Islam),' for faith has not yet entered your hearts.'') (49:14). In the Two Sahihs, it says:
«لَا يَزْنِي الزَّانِي حِينَ يَزْنِي وَهُوَ مُؤْمِن»
(The adulterer does not commit adultery at the time when he is a believer.) For it snatches away his Iman, although that does not mean he is a disbeliever, according to the consensus of the Muslims. This indicates that Iman is more specific than Islam, as we have stated at the beginning of our commentary on Al-Bukhari.
(the Qanit: men and the women,) Al-Qunut means obedience during quite time.
أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ ءَانَآءَ الَّيْلِ سَـجِداً وَقَآئِماً يَحْذَرُ الاٌّخِرَةَ وَيَرْجُواْ رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ
(Is one who is (Qanit,) prostrating himself or standing in the middle of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord...) (39:9)
وَلَهُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَـنِتُونَ
(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are (Qanitun) to Him.) (30:26)
يمَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِى لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِى وَارْكَعِى مَعَ الرَكِعِينَ
(O Maryam! "Uqnuti to your Lord and prostrate, and bow with Ar-Raki`in (those who bow).'') (3:43)
وَقُومُواْ لِلَّهِ قَـنِتِينَ
(And stand before Allah Qanitin) (2: 238). So, beyond Islam there is a higher level to be reached, which is Iman, and Qunut stems from them both.
(the men and women who are truthful,) This refers to their speech, for truthfulness is a praiseworthy attribute. Some of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, were never known to have lied even once, neither during Jahiliyyah nor in Islam. Truthfulness is a sign of faith, just as lying is a sign of hypocrisy. Whoever is truthful will be saved:
«عَلَيْكُمْ بِالصِّدْقِ فَإِنَّ الصِّدْقَ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْبِرِّ، وَإِنَّ الْبِرَّ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالْكَذِبَ، فَإِنَّ الْكَذِبَ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْفُجُورِ، وَإِنَّ الْفُجُورَ يَهْدِي إِلَى النَّارِ، وَلَا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَصْدُقُ وَيَتَحَرَّى الصِّدْقَ حَتَّى يُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللهِ صِدِّيقًا، وَلَا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَكْذِبُ وَيَتَحَرَّى الْكَذِبَ حَتَّى يُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللهِ كَذَّابًا»
(You have to be truthful, for truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. And beware of lying, for lying leads to immorality and immorality leads to Hell. A man will keep telling the truth and striving to do so until he will be recorded with Allah as a truthful. And a man will keep telling lies and will persist in doing so until he will be recorded with Allah as a liar.) And there are many Hadiths on this topic.
(the men and the women who are patient,) This is the attribute of those who are steadfast, which is patience in the face of adversity and knowing that what is decreed will inevitably come to pass. So, they face it with patience and steadfastness. Patience is the most difficult when disaster first strikes, then after that it becomes easier, and this is true steadfastness.
(the Khashi`: men and the women,) Khushu` means serenity and tranquillity, deliberation and dignity and humility. What motivates a person to be like this is the fear of Allah and the awareness that He is constantly watching, as mentioned in the Hadith:
«اعْبُدُ اللهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاك»
(Worship Allah as if you can see Him, for if you cannot see Him, He can see you.)
(the men and the women who give Sadaqat,) As-Sadaqah (charity) means doing good to people who are in need or who are weak and have no means of earning a living and none to financially support them. They give them from the excess of their wealth in obedience to Allah and as a good deed to His creation. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs:
«سَبْعَةٌ يُظِلُّهُمُ اللهُ فِي ظِلِّهِ يَوْمَ لَا ظِلَّ إِلَّا ظِلُّهُ فَذَكَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَرَجُلٌ تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَأَخْفَاهَا حَتَّى لَاتَعْلَمَ شِمَالُهُ مَا تُنْفِقُ يَمِينُه»
(There are seven whom Allah will shade with His Shade on the Day when there will be no shade except His Shade -- and among them he mentioned -- . ..a man who gave in charity and concealed it to the extent that his left hand did not know what his right hand was giving.) According to another Hadith:
«وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُطْفِىءُ الْخَطِيئَةَ كَمَا يُطْفِىءُ الْمَاءُ النَّار»
(Sadaqah extinguishes bad deeds just as water extinguishes fire.) There are many Hadiths which encourage charitable giving; this topic is discussed in detail elsewhere.
(the men and the women who fast,) According to a Hadith narrated by Ibn Majah:
«وَالصَّوْمُ زَكَاةُ الْبَدَن»
(Fasting is the Zakah of the body.) In other words, it purifies it and cleanses it of things that are bad in both physical and Shar`i terms. Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "Whoever fasts Ramadan and three days of each month, is included in the Ayah,
(the men and the women who fast,)'' Fasting is also one of the greatest means of overcoming one's desires, as the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) said:
«يَامَعْشَرَ الشَّبَابِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمُ الْبَاءَةَ فَلْيَتَزَوَّجْ، فَإِنَّهُ أَغَضُّ لِلْبَصَرِ وَأَحْصَنُ لِلْفَرْجِ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَيْهِ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ وِجَاء»
(O young men! Whoever among you can afford to get married, let him do so, for it is most effective in lowering the gaze and protecting the chastity. And whoever cannot get married, then let him fast, for it will be a protection for him.) It is quite apt that next should be mentioned:
وَالْحَـفِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَـفِـظَـتِ
(the men and the women who guard their chastity) i.e., they protect their private parts from forbidden and sinful things, except for that which is permitted. Allah says:
وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَـفِظُونَ - إِلاَّ عَلَى أَزْوَجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـنُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ - فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى وَرَآءَ ذلِكَ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ
(And those who guard their chastity. Except from their wives or the whom their right hands possess -- for they are not blameworthy. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers.) (70:29-31)
وَالذَكِـرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً وَالذَكِرَتِ
(and the men and the women who remember Allah much) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) said:
«إِذَا أَيْقَظَ الرَّجُلُ امْرَأَتَهُ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَصَلَّيَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ كُتِبَا تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ مِنَ الذَّاكِرِينَ اللهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَات»
(If a man wakes his wife at night and they pray two Rak`ahs, they will be recorded that night as being among the men and the women who remember Allah much.) This was recorded by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah from the Hadith of Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with them both, from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) . Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallaam) was walking along a road in Makkah, and he came to (the mountain of) Jumdan, and said,
«هَذَا جُمْدَانُ، سِيرُوا، فَقَدْ سَبَقَ الْمُفَرِّدُون»
(This is Jumdan, go ahead, for the Mufarridun have gone ahead.(The men and the women who remember Allah much) Then he said,
«اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُحَلِّقِين»
(O Allah, forgive those who shaved their hair.) They said, `And those who shortened.' He said,
«اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُحَلِّقِين»
(O Allah, forgive those who shaved their hair.) They said, `And those who shortened.'
(And those who shortened.) This was recorded by Imam Ahmad with this chain of narration. It was also recorded by Muslim, except for the last part of it.
أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْراً عَظِيماً
(Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.) Here Allah tells us that for all of those mentioned in this Ayah, He has prepared for them forgiveness of their sins and a great reward, meaning, Paradise.
Last edited by alhamdulilaah; 10-26-2011 at 10:20 AM.