This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform wudoo`(ablution) in obedience to the order of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him). Ibn Taimiyyah said : "The place of intention is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of worship - and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars - Purification, Prayer, Zakaat, fast, Hajj, (freeing of slaves), Jihaad, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart - then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count - by total agreement of all the scholars of Islam - so intention is the firm intention and resolve itself."
19. As the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself explained in the hadeeth narrated by 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) in the Sahihain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended... [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48].
At-Mentioning Allaah's Name
20. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said that Prophet(peace be upon him) said There is no wudoo(ablution)for him who does not mention Allaah's name upon it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.399), At-Tirmidhee (no.26), Abu Dawood (no.101) and others. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani says: hadeeth Saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaarni', no.7444)].
Imam Ahmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in wudoo`(ablution), ghusl (washing), and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abu Bakr, and it is the saying of al-Hasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishaaq - as reported by Ibn Qudaamah in 'al-Mughnee' (1/84) and their proof is this hadeeth.
Ibn Qudaamah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the wudoo` of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification - just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (Al-Mughnee). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.
As for Ibn Taimiyyah he held it to be obligatory if the related hadeeth was authentic - as occurs in his Kitaab-ul-Imaan - and the hadeeth is authentic, so therefore his opinion is that it is obligatory.
21. Al-Bukharee and Muslim report from Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) sought water for wudoo , so the prophet (peace be upon him) said Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said Make wudoo` in the name of Allah. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made wudoo` . Thaabit said: "I said to Anas (may Allah be pleased with him): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhaaree, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa'ee, V8].
As for the proof for that which we have stated - it is his (peace be upon him) saying Make wudoo in the name of Allah. As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu'akkadah then they base that upon the relative hadeeth being weak ( There is no wudoo ... ). However since the hadeeth is saheeh as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allah Knows Best.
So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown, however the one who forgets should mention Allaah's name when he remembers.
Washing the Hands
22. Humraan (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that 'Uthmaan called for water to make wudoo and washed his hands three times... then said: I saw Rasoolullah the prophet(peace be upon him)make wudoo just as I have made wudoo . [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, and as preceded].
23. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The prophet (peace be upon him) said When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhaaree doesn't report "three times"].
24. And in the hadeeth of'Abdullaah ibn Zaid (may Allah be pleased with him) he was asked about the wudoo of the Prophet (peace be upon him), so he called for a bowl of water and made wudoo from it as the Prophet (peace be upon him) made wudoo, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].
25. Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (may Allah be pleased with him)who said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo washing his hands three times. [Ahmad (4/9), An-Nasaa'ee (1/55) - with saheeh isnaad].
Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq
AL-MADMADAH: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.
AL-ISTINSHAAQ: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.
AL-ISTINTHAAR: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq.
Washing the Mouth & Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)
26. 'Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wudoo of the prophet(peace be upon him), so he called for a pot of water..until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].
Washing the Mouth
27. In the hadeeth of 'Amr ibn Yahyaa (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].
Al-Imam an-Nawawi says: And in this hadeeth is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water - washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.
28. In the hadeeth of'Aa'ishah (may Allah be pleased with him) in which she describes the wudoo of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he said When you make wudoo then wash your mouth. [Al-Baihaqi says: 'Its isnaad is saheeh.' And it contains an addition to the previous hadeeth of 'Aa'ishah in Abu Dawood, no.l43].
Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water
29. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you makes wudoo then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abu Dawood (no. 140)].
30. Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the hadeeth of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) who said: O Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), inform me of the wudoo . He said Complete the wudoo and rub between the fingers and exert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawood, no.l42; At-Tirmidhee, no.38; An-nasaa'ee, no.ll4; IbMaajah, no.407; and others]. (Declared as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haalcim, and adh-Dhahabee agreed to that. Also declared as saheeh by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi's Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417].
It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (waajib). Ibn Qudaamah says in 'al-Mughnee': Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification - Ghusl and wudoo - as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madhhab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ibn Abi Lailaa and Ishaaq, and it is reported from 'Ataa.
Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left
'Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards 'Alee - as he made wudoo - and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand - he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) - then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad is saheeh].
Washing the Face
The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.
Allaah ta'ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa'idah,5:7]
Humraan ibn Abaan narrates that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) called for water to make wudoo and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) made wudoo . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no.226)].
Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers
31. 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhee (no.31), Ibn Maajah (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Haakim (1/14~) who declared its isnaad as saheeh as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan. See the note in al-Baghagawi's Sharh us-Sunnah, 1/421].
32. Anas narrates that the Prophet (peace be upon him), when he made wudoo , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said This is what my Lord - the Great and Exalted - has ordered me to do. [Abo Dawood (no.145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Haakim (1/149). Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani declares it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami', no.4572)].
Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it - then he must repeat the ( wudoo and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishaaq and Abu Thaur.
Most of the scholars however are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory - and that it is clearer that that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the beard..so that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khattaabee, 1/56].
Imam Ahmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah - and not obligatory in wudoo . ['Aun al Ma'bood, 1/247].
Washing the Arms Including the Elbows
Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands - which are to be included in this washing - they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the aayah.
Allaah ta'ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa'idah,5:7]
Humraan ibn Abaan reports that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) called for water for wudoo and mentioned the Prophet's (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) way of making wudoo - and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim as has preceded].
Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms - scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word "ilaa" (to) in the aayah - does it mean 'up to/until' or 'up to and including' ?
He who says that it means 'up to' does not include the elbows in the washing - just as Allaah ta'ala says: ... thumma 'atimmus-siyaama ilaa -llail: Then complete your fast till the night appears; [soorat-ul-Baqara, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Maalik.
Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is 'up to and including/along with' - and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allaah ta'ala's saying wa yayazidkum quwwatan ilaa quwwatikum: ...and add strength to your strength; [Soorat-ul-Hud 11:52]
33. The proof in this matter is the hadeeth of Nu'aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abu Hurairah make wudoo - he washed his face and completed the wudoo , then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm" - then in the end of the hadeeth he said: "This is how I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo . [Muslim, 1/246]
So, dear reader, it is clear from this hadeeth that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.
34. Jaabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said that when the Prophet (peace be upon him) made wudoo , he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by ad-Daaraqutnee (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others - Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami', 4547)].
Wiping the Head and Ears and 'Imaamah
1. Wiping over all of the head as Allaah ta'ala says: ...wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum...: ...rub your heads (with water) [Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7]
Ibn Qudaamah says in 'al-Mughnee': Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only - claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means "part of" as if He had said: "Wipe part of your heads".' However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allaah ta'ala orders us to wipe the faces].
Therefore their saying that the (Baa) means "part of" is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhaan says: 'He who claims that the "baa" means "part of" has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughnee, 1/112].
Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means "part of" and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the Arabic language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book. (Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).
35. In the hadeeth of'Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu'anhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means "a part of" - in that the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards - beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no.235), at-Tirmidhee (no.28) and others].
2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.
36. And it is authentically reported that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by at-Tirmidhee, no.37; Abu Dawood, no.l34 and Ibn Maajah, no.444]. (Declared by ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee to be saheeh - as-Saheehah, 1/36 - and Imam Ahmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]
As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this hadeeth as being da'eef - it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying - and Allaah Knows best.
And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Musayyib, 'Ataa, al-Hasan, Ibn Seereen, Sa'eed ibn Jubair and an-Nakha'ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra'y and Imams Malik and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears
37. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee says in 'ad-Da'eefah', no.995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears - therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head - just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the hadeeth of Ar-Rabee' bint Mu'awwidh that the Prophet (peace be upon him) "wiped his head with water remaining in his hand". [Reported by Abu Dawood and others with hasan isnaad].
The Way of Wiping
38. From 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr - about the way of performing wudoo - he said: Then he (peace be upon him) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa'ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].
Wiping Over the 'Imaamah (Turban) Only
39. 'Amr ibn Umayyah(may Allah be pleased with him) said: I saw The prophet (peace be upon him) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/266) and others].
40. Bilaal (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Prophet (peace be upon him) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].
Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock
41. Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Prophet (peace be upon him) made wudoo and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].
Ibn Qudaamah says in 'al-Mughnee' (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban - that is recorded from Ahmad: as the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped over his turban and forelock - as occurs in the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu'bah.
As for caps/'prayer hats', it is not permissible to wipe over them as Ahmad says for various reasons, from them: (1) They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it. (2) There is no difficulty in their removal.
As for the woman's head cover - it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover - as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See'al-Mughnee', 1/312).
Washing the Feet and Ankles
Allaah ta'ala says: ...wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn: ...and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorat-ul-Maa'idah 5:7] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].
42. Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: the prophet (peace be upon him) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for 'Asr - so we began to make wudoo and wipe over our feet, so he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].
An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Sahih Muslim after mentioning the hadeeth: Muslim's intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these hadeeth was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet - and that wiping them is not sufficient.
43. In the hadeeth of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from Humraan ibn Abaan that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) called for water for wudoo and then mentioned the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) - then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.
44. As Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) did in Muslim's narration: "Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin" and in the end of the hadeeth said: This is what I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].
From this hadeeth - O Brother Muslim - it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying 'till he reached the shin'.
45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) said: When the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.148), at-Tinnidhee (no.40) and Ibn Maajah (no.446). Declared as 'saheeh' by al-Albaanee].
As-San'aanee says in 'Subul-us-Salaam' after quoting this hadeeth: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes - and this also occurs in the hadeeth of Ibn 'Abbaas which we have indicated - which is reported by at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim - and authenticated by al-Bukhaaree. And it is done by using the little finger. (See 'Subul-us-Salaam', 1/48).
46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa salam) said Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi' (fingers and/or toes). [Abu Dawood (no.142), at-Tirmidhee (no.37), an-Nasaa'ee (no.114), Ibn Maajah (no.407), al-Hakim (1/148). Al-Albaanee says: Saheeh.]. As-San'aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the hadeeth of Ibn 'Abbaas. [Subul-us-Salaam, 1/47].
The Reply to Those who Follow Wiping of the Feet Without Washing
(1) Wiping the feet when not wearing anything on the foot is not established from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam). As for their using as a proof the reading of the Aayah: wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn: rub your heads and your feet to the ankles...[soorat-ul-Maaidah 5:7] reading (arjulikum) - and saying that the feet are thus connected to (the command to wipe) the heads - and this is not correct, rather they are connected to (the order to wash) the hands. As for the reading of the word (arjulikum) with Kasra of the laam - as-San'aanee says That is for wiping over the leather socks - as is shown by the Sunnah - and this is the best interpretation for this particular recital. (As-Subul, 1/58).
(2) The Qur'aan is not to be explained according to the human intellect - especially in the matters of worship such as Salaat and wudoo , etc. - but by the Sunnah which explains this Pillar. And there are many such examples in the Qur'an which the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) explained by his sayings - and from this is the washing of the feet - and its proof from the Sunnah has preceded.
(3) If they wish to use the intellect then we say to them: The bottom of the foot has more right to be wiped than the surface (their saying being the wiping of the surface), and if they say: Then what about the socks? we say: That is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) just as washing the foot is also established in the Sunnah.
(4) Leaving out one of two verbs and sufficing with one of them, as the Arabs, when two verbs come together having similar meaning and are followed by things related to them, makes it permissible to mention only one of the two verbs and attaching those things relating to the second to those relating to the first which is mentioned - according to what the wording demands, until it is as if the two are partners with regard to the verb, as the poet said: I fed it with hay and cold water. And what is meant is: I fed it with hay and gave it cold water to drink.
(5) The saying of az-Zajjaj (a great scholar of the language): It is permissible that the wording (arjulikum) has the meaning of 'wash the feet' as the wording (ilal Ka'bain) conveys that meaning - as the mentioning of a limit suggests washing just as Allaah ta'ala says ilaal maraafiq [that is the limit of the elbows is for washing] however, if wiping were intended then there would be no need for mention of a limit just as Allaah ta'ala says wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum not mentioning any limit (for wiping the head) and further the term wiping can be used to mean washing. (Al-Mirqaat, 1/400).
(6) And further, the great majority of scholars have agreed that it is obligatory to wash the feet and that is reported - and reaches the level of mutawaatir from the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says; and further it is not established that any of the Sahaabah differed regarding that - except what is reported from 'Alee, Ibn 'Abbas and Anas (radhiAllaahu 'anhum) - and it is established that they went back on that. (Al-Mirqaat. 1/400~.
47. And Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said ...they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the wudoo (It has preceded, no.7). Meaning the Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.
Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah.