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    Arabic alphabet

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    I like to welcome you to this post, where we will be going over my free online Arabic alphabet class in great detail. I have developed and created a intensive course based on the book and lessons of Dr. Phillips. I base my lessons mainly on his book, which is entitled Arabic alphabet made easy. This text lesson is also highly based on his book and credit goes to him- (although I typed this up and spent a week doing so)

    I also spent a year making my free class here: https://m.youtube.com/channel/UCMCOEAmenp7YR-XzU8EuXpQ


    If you are not interested in a paid online Arabic course; then you can view my full course for free on YouTube. I have 20 sessions uploaded to YouTube currently and I will have 4 more sessions in the future inshallah, that is if more people watch and show interest.


    In the arabic alphabet there are 28 letters and they are pronounced according to the first letter each of the letter's name. Arabic is written from the right of the page to the left, the total opposite of the English language as you know. The formation of letters must match the directions in which the letters are being written.


    Here's the full Arabic alphabet in order, with the corresponding name of each the letter:
    Alif ا , Baa ب , Taa ت , Thaa ث , Jeem ج , HAA ح , Khaa خ , Daal د , Dthaal ذ , Raa ر , Zaan ز , Seen س , Sheen ش , Saad ص , Daad ض , TAA ط , THAA ظ , Ayn ع , Ghaan غ , Faa ف , QAAF ق , Kaaf ك , Laam ل , Meem م , Noon ن , Haa ه , Waaw و , Yaa ي


    Many people have stated that listening to the Arabic alphabet song helps them learn the letters faster. When we learn the arabic alphabet letters in my online arabic course lessons, we will not be learning them in order, rather will be learning them out of order and that will help you understand and memorize them quickly and effectively.


    Most language courses require you to cram information into your head and memorize the letters; but in my course you'll learn them naturally.
    The first letter that will be going over is the letter daal د and it is pronounced like the letter D in the English word 'deaf' and is written above the line.


    Some of the Arabic alphabet letters will go below the line after they start above the line, they would than go below the line but this letter will start above the line and stay on the line.
    The next letter is Raa ر and it is different from the English letter R and produced by the tapping of tip of the tongue once quickly. It is kind of like the TT in English words butter, pretty, waiter but in the R version of that. It is like the sound you would make when you were young of a motorcycle. Try doing that sound; well that is basically the idea of how it is pronounced. The Raa ر is written as a continual stroke which begins above the line and then extends below the line. So as I mentioned; some of the letters start above the line and stay on the line and some of the letters starts above the line and go below the line.


    The letter Noon ن is pronounced like that in the English word 'None' and is written mainly below the line.
    All of the letters in the Arabic alphabet can be connected to letters before them with exception to six letters. They are known as the non-connecting letters because these letters do not connect to letters that follow them, regardless if the letter after it is a connecting letter. 22 letters are called connecting letters because they connect to letters that follow them, for example, the Seen س and Noon ن are considered connecting letters because they connect to letter that come after them and they would take a modified form in order to connect.


    The letters Daal د and Raa ر on the other-hand are non-connecting letters and won't connect to letters coming after them. If you're confused about this topic or subject or any other subject, simply watch the video that I posted above because I talk about it and demonstrate clearly what's intended.


    The next subject that we need to discuss is something known as the long vowels. In the Arabic alphabet there are three long vowels.
    The first of the long vowels is a vowel called Alif ا. The Alif is equivalent to the long A in English as in the English word 'father'. This letter is a connector which means it does not connect to any letter that comes after it, however letters that preceded maybe be joined to it if they are among the connecting letters. It is written as a single horizontal stroke from top to bottom; and rests on the line.


    Pronunciation of vowels in the Arabic alphabet does not change as much as they do in English, for example; the A in English has four different pronunciations in the following words: father, late, bath and comma. If you like to gain more detail practice with these concepts and with the the previous letters we learned, then go ahead and click the video on top of this post.


    The next vowel is the letter Waaw و it is equivalent to the Long ' U' in the English as in the word brute and the double O as in the word 'room'. It should be noted that like Alif ا left the letter Waaw و does not join two letters following it. It is written in one stroke consisting of a circle beginning on the line from right to left and ending with a tail extending below the line.


    The last of the long vowels is the letter Yaa ى and it is equivalent to the EE in English words 'meet'. It is written like an 'S' whose head is stretched to the right and tail stretch to the left and curved upwards, the head of the 'S' written above the line of detail below the line. Again, to see these letters demonstrated you can watch the lesson above this post. You should know that this letter is a connector, that is it connects to letters which come after it. The connecting form is written on the line like that of the noon except that it has two dots below it.


    A single word in the Arabic may contain two or more long vowels, pronunciation of such words follow the same principles used reading words with only one long vowel.
    In the Arabic alphabet there also three short vowels ( a, u, i ). Each one corresponds in pronunciation to one of the three long vowels ( aa,oo, ee, ). There pronounced like the 'a' in pat, the 'u' in put and the 'i' in pit. The short 'a' vowel is called fat-hah And is indicated by short slanting line above the letter it follows. The short vowel 'u' is called dammah, And is indicated by small Waaw و written above the letter. The short vowel 'i' Is called kasrah and is written as a short slight slanting line below the letter.


    The next concept that will be discussing is the concept known as the Sukoon. And when I was studying at the university, this concept was very confusing and I didn't understand it until I asked the teacher on a live one-on-one session. This concept is used for the Koran as well to ensure people know that the letters do not have short vowels on it. This is to make sure that nobody pronounces even so much is a vowel wrong in the Koran.
    The Sukoon is a special symbol written over a consonant to indicate that the consonant does not have a short vowel on it. The Sukoon only confirms that there is no short vowel on the consonant because in modern rich in Arabic Shabu is often deleted. This might appear strange since is the number of possible short vowel combination and three letter words are 18. However, only a few are actually used and the context in the sentence will determine which ones are intended. Of course, reading this concept via text will not make it easy to understand it, would be best if you view the arabic alphabet video, or enroll to a online Arabic course.


    The long vowels are held twice as long as the short vowels in classical speech, however; in rapid speech long vowels are shortened. Although such differences do not affect the meaning of the words in English but in Arabic they do. The next letters that will be learning are all connected letters. And as such they all have connecting forms that they would take in order to connect to letters after it.


    The letter Baa ب is equivalent to the consonant 'b' in English and is written with a single stroke. It begins from the right with a slightly curved downward horizontal stroke followed by vertical extension ending in an upward, slightly curved horizontal stroke, giving the letter a 'canoe-like' shape. It should rest on the line and not below it as in the case of the Noon ن. The ب Baa is a connector and thus has a connecting form identical to the connecting form of the Noon ن except the dot is placed below the vertical extension instead of above it.


    The letter Taa ت is pronounced like a English 't' in the word "tea" and is written with exactly the same way as the ب Baa except that it has two dots above it, instead of one below. It should rest on the line and not below the line, and its connecting form is also identical to that of the except that of the ى Yaa; except that it has two dots above the letter instead of below.


    The letter Kaaf ك is pronounced like English consonant 'k' and is written in the two strokes. The first stroke is a vertical downward stroke like that of the Alif ا, followed by horizontal extension to the left with a slight upward curl at it end like that of the baa ب. The second stroke is like that of a stretch 's'. It should rest on the line and not below the line. The letter is a connector and its connecting form is that of a backwards 'z' made into strokes, the first stroke is a 45° downward slant to the right, followed by a curved extension to the left, like a large د Daal. The second stroke is a 45° degree downward slant to the left which meets the upper tip of the big daal to form a 90° angle.


    The letter Meem م is pronounced like the consonant 'M' in English and is written in a single stroke. The stroke begins at the left above the line, and makes a rounded triangle whose end goes below the line as a tail. The head of the Meem م in it's connecting form is different than it's basic form. Instead of the stroke moving in a clockwork direction, it begins above the line to the left and forms and oval by moving counterclockwise in its tail runs along the line. In the middle of words the head of the Meem م is formed in yet another way to facilitate the flow of writing. To really understand the concept of these letters you need to watch the video session of the Arabic alphabet.


    In the Arabic alphabet, suffixes added to the basic verb indicate the subject. The past tense singular masculine form is used as a standard instead of indefinitive as used in English.


    The Arabic Faa ف Corresponds to 'F' in English it is written like a backwards 'E' who tail extends along the line with an upward Karabatic and similar to ب Baa ت Taa. It should not curve below the line, and it's connecting form is identical to its separate form except that the latter half of the tail extension is deleted. In the middle of words which connect from the right the loop is modified so the writing will flow from the preceding extension into the Faa ف. Again, to get a clear picture of what's being said you need to click session to discourse:


    The Arabic Sheen ش is pronounced like the 'sh' in the English word 'shop'. It is written like س Seen, with addition to three dots above it.
    The Arabic letter Khaa خ does not have an English equivalent. It does occur in many other languages, such as the 'ch' in German 'Nacht'. It is produced by narrowing the passageway between the back of the tongue and the velum enough to create friction as the air passes through.


    The letter Khaa خ differs from Kaaf ك in that the Khaa Is breathe while in the case of Kaaf ك, The air steamed is completely stop then released. The head of the letter is written as a wavy line from left to right above the line where most potatoes written like a large see below the line.


    When a consonant is doubled in Arabic, its pronunciation is prolong; double consonant resulted in prolong pronunciation, in English this occurs in only a few to word combinations and with some compound words and in some words with prefixes. In English the doubling of a consonant of any word usually shortens the pronunciation of the vowel preceding the double consonant for example; mate/matter, fate/fatter, mane/manner, blade/bladder, rape/rapper etc. In Arabic the doubling does not affect either the vowels before after the consonant in anyway. The consonant is held twice its normal length doing pronunciation.


    A double consonant is indicated by the sign called Saddah, Written above the constant. Arabic has double consonant in many words, and in many cases it is only the single versus the double consonant which distinguishes two words of quite different meanings, therefore, it is very important for the student of Arabic to learn and recognize and produce double consonants correctly. To fully learn what we have went over thus far, simply click the playlist on top of this page and you can learn for free with my video lessons. The Arabic alphabet is considered one of the hardest languages to learn and you simply won't learn it via text lessons. But I am doing this as a review as a additional resource after you study the video lessons.


    Let's move swiftly on to the next set of letters. The letter Laam ل is a connector and is equivalent to 'L' in English. The only difference is that in the Arabic alphabet, 'L' is pronounced with the tongue flat which keeps sound of the 'L' light, while in Enlish 'L' is commonly pronounced with the back of the tongue raised and the middle lowered creating a heavy 'L' sound.


    The Laam ل is written in a single downward vertical stroke extending below the line in a rounded U curve. The tale of its connecting form does not go below the line but instead runs along the line. When Laam ل is followed by Alif ا, It has a special form when separated and enjoying three letter preceding it this unique form is sometimes taught as a separate letter called Laam-Alif. The separate form is made by two downward strokes, the first begins vertically, curves to the left at midway and ends at the end of the line. The second stages starts from the left, slanting to the right until it reaches the line, then extends along the line to the left to meet the end of the first stroke. When Laam-Alif is joined to a preceding letter, the extension moves vertically upward and then downward away from the upward stroke and curving slightly to the left. The second stroke begins from the left of the letter in a downward 45° degree slant meeting the middle of the previous downward stroke.


    The letter Waaw و which acts as a long vowel "oo" is also a non-connecting consonant equal to 'w' in the word 'why'. the letter Yaa ي which acts as a long vowel 'ee' is also connecting consonant equivalent to 'y' in English word 'yet'.


    To fully understand this subject you should go to the Arabic course and view them one by one in order and the playlist is above the page. When the letter Yaa ي has a Sukoon on it and is preceded by a fat-hah it is pronounced like the 'i' in the word bite; in modern Arabic it is pronounced like the 'i' in the word late.


    Hamzah It's not a letter of the Arabic alphabet but a sign indicating a consonant sound known in English as a glottal stop, it is produced by blocking off the air flow at the top of the windpipe and then releasing it. Hamzah is sometimes written over or under certain letters called seats or else it is written independently. At the beginning of a word it is always written with Alif ا its seat. Either above the Alif when the vowel is fat gag or dammah, Or under the Alif when the vowel is a kasrah. In the middle and at the end of words,


    Hamzah maybe written independently or on an Alif ا, a waaw و or a Yaa ي .
    So as I said in order to get a full deep comprehensive understanding of what's being taught in these text sessions you would need to watch the video lessons. And that will make it easier for you to understand what's really being said and what you are being intended, because we will be practicing along the way will have practice assignments. And it's easier to see that information written in front of you and demonstrated in front of you with a visual, rather than just text. While I'm writing this, we are a few days before Ramadan 2018. And I hope that you have a blessed and happy Ramadan and that all the Muslims would be better this Ramadan and every Ramadan in the future Insha'Allah. And my health is pretty bad so I would be thankful if you could make dua for me. But let's get back to the text lessons.


    The Arabic consonant ayn ع has is no English equivalent. In making the sound of the ayn ع, The muscles of the throat should be tightened causing the passage to become constricted and resulted in a 'squeezed' sound. The head of the ayn ع is written above the line in the tail below the line. The head is written like a English 'c', Then from the end of the 'c' a larger 'c' is written below the line.


    Arabic alphabet letter HAA ح, does not exist in English and is produced with the base of the tongue and the back of the throat, while strongly constricting the walls of the throat and tensing of the tongue. It may be called the whispering 'h' because it is very similar to the loud whisper. It may be approximated by loudly whispering statements like; Hi how are you? and Hello how do you do? and How high is Helen's whole horse?


    The Haa ح differs from خ Khaa in that there's no contact whatsoever between the base of the tongue and the soft palate for khaa خ. The sound of HAA ح is a "pure" sound, quite distinct from the scraping sound of Khaa خ. The only difference between the written forms of HAA ح and Khaa خ is the dot over khaa خ.


    The Arabic Saad ص Similar to س seen in terms of the general placement of the tongue. However, Saad ص is said with the back part of the tongue tensed and raised, and the middle of the tongue lowered as was done for ط TAA and Qaaf ق, giving the s-sound a deep and heavy effect. Seen, on the other hand is said with the tongue relaxed and flat.
    The short a vowel and long aa vowel following Saad ص are pronounced like the 'o' in English words, 'sod' and 'sob' or the 'aw' in 'saw'. In the English words 'sass' and 'sauce' the English speaker hears two different 'a' vowels and one 's' Consonant. The Arabic speaker, on the other hand, hears to different 'S' consonants and two variants of one 'a' vowel.


    The Arabic speaker would write 'sass' as ساس and sauce as صاص.
    The beginning of the letter ص Saad Is like ط TAA except that it begins like below the line. After completing the teardrop shape, it turns upwards slightly then downward into large 'u' like that of noon ن and seen س
    The connection form extends along the line after the upwards turn.
    Many Arabic words ending with the long vowel aa ا have a Yaa ي without dots to represent the Alif ا, which is also known as in this case as Alif maqsoorah (shortened Alif ). Alif maqsoorah Is pronounced in the same way as Alif ا.


    Alif Maqsoorah only occurs as the last letter of the word and whatever a suffixes added to the word, the Yaa ي Changes back into the regular Alif ا.


    The next concept that we will be discussing is a concept known as sun and moon letters; letters which follow ال al- Indicating definiteness fall into two main groups; Letters whose points of articulation are closed to that of Laam ل ( the palate behind the upper front teeth ). Those letters which articulated from locations far from that of the Laam ل are pronounced distinctly and separately from Laam ل. These letters are called moon letters ( al-huroof al-qamareeyah).


    When Laam ل precedes letters pronounced from points in the mouth which are close to that of Laam ل, the Laam is assimilated and read as it doubling of the letter. In the Arabic alphabet these letters are called sun letters (al-huroof ashshamseeyah).


    Note: Whenever ال al- Indicating definiteness is added to a word the Tanween is removed. Tanween generally indicates a indefiniteness. Consequently both ال al- and Tanween can't exist in the same word simultaneously. The word for moon in Arabic is Qamar, hence its name Moon letters ( al-huroof al-qamareeyah).


    Whatever ال al- Indicating definiteness is preceded by another word, the vowel of the word is added directly to the Laam ل and the Alif ا is not pronounced, as was explained earlier.


    The next concept that we will be discussing is a concept known as sun letters. Whenever ال al- Indicating definiteness proceeds letters which are pronounced from a point in the mouth close to that of Laam, the Laam is elided into the letter following it. The Fat-hah of the Alif ا is then joined directly to the letter following the Laam ل which is doubled indicating that the Laam ل was transformed into the phone letter during pronunciation.
    If another word precedes ال al- Indicating definiteness its final vowel is joined directly to the double letter and neither the Alif nor the Laam ل is pronounced.


    This may sound like gibberish and I agree it is gibberish, And I didn't even go over this topic or subject in my video course because it's too confusing and it's not very much essential for a person just starting to learn the Arabic alphabet.
    Let's move on to the next four letters that will be learning. The letter ذ thdaal is the same as English 'th' in words like that of 'that' 'weather' and 'bathe'


    Although these are different sounds they are spelled the same way in English. Arabic on the other hand has a separate letter for each. ذ thdaal is a non-connector and is exactly the same as daal د except that it has a dot above it.
    The letter Jeem ج should be pronounced like English 'J' in the word 'judge'.


    Letters which follow ال al- Indicating definiteness fall into two main groups; Letters whose points of articulation are closed to that of Laam ل ( the palate behind the upper front teeth ). Those letters which articulated from locations far from that of the Laam ل are pronounced distinctly and separately from Laam ل. These letters are called moon letters ( al-huroof al-qamareeyah). When Laam ل precedes letters pronounced from points in the mouth which are close to that of Laam ل, the Laam is assimilated and read as it doubling of the letter. In the Arabic alphabet these letters are called sun letters (al-huroof ashshamseeyah).
    Note: Whenever ال al- Indicating definiteness is added to a word the Tanween is removed. Tanween generally indicates a indefiniteness. Consequently both ال al- and Tanween can't exist in the same word simultaneously. The word for moon in Arabic is Qamar, hence its name Moon letters ( al-huroof al-qamareeyah).
    Whatever ال al- Indicating definiteness is preceded by another word, the vowel of the word is added directly to the Laam ل and the Alif ا is not pronounced, as was explained earlier.


    The next concept that we will be discussing is a concept known as sun letters. Whenever ال al- Indicating definiteness proceeds letters which are pronounced from a point in the mouth close to that of Laam, the Laam is elided into the letter following it. The Fat-hah of the Alif ا is then joined directly to the letter following the Laam ل which is doubled indicating that the Laam ل was transformed into the phone letter during pronunciation.
    If another word precedes ال al- Indicating definiteness its final vowel is joined directly to the double letter and neither the Alif nor the Laam ل is pronounced.


    This may sound like gibberish and I agree it is gibberish, And I didn't even go over this topic or subject in my video course because it's too confusing and it's not very much essential for a person just starting to learn the Arabic alphabet.


    Let's move on to the next four letters that will be learning. The letter ذ thdaal is the same as English 'th' in words like that of 'that' 'weather' and 'bathe'


    Although these are different sounds they are spelled the same way in English. Arabic on the other hand has a separate letter for each. ذ thdaal is a non-connector and is exactly the same as daal د except that it has a dot above it.


    The letter Jeem ج should be pronounced like English 'J' in the word 'judge'. In Egyptian slang it is pronounced like the G in the word gold. In North African slang it's like the S in the word measure. It's written forms exactly like that of the Khaa خ and HAA ح except that it has one dot below the head of the letter.
    The Arabic letter Haa ه is the H in the English except that more force is used in it's pronunciation in Arabic. Unlike English it is also pronounced at the end of this syllable or word. In English is only pronounced at the beginning of the syllable.
    Haa ه Has for distinctly different forms depending on its position in a word. Independently it is written as a somewhat rounded teardrop. When is joined to a following letter, it is written like a triangle with rounded edges beginning from the left upwards. The base is made along the line before closing the triangle is made and the tail continues along the line.


    When the letter Haa ه is joined on both sides, the extension from the letter on the right forms a continual teardrop below the line and then above the line. The loop of the upper teardrop crosses middle like a finger eight and continues along the line.
    In the final form where ه Haa Is only joined to a preceding letter, the extension line rises vertically then forms a teardrop to the left of line.
    Taa Marbootah ة only occurs as the last continent of the word. If a suffix is added the Taa Marbootah ة Changes to ت. Feminine names usually have the Taa Marbootah suffix ة, In which case they do not take Tanween or Kasrah.


    The letter Thaa ظ has know English equivalent. It is pronounced like ذ thdaal, but with a tensing of the tongue used in pronouncing ط Taa and saad ص. It is written exactly the same as ط except that it has a dot above it.


    The letter ث Thaa is pronounced exactly like the 'th' in the English word like, 'thin', three', 'bath', etc. Its written form is like that of baa ب and ت Taa except has three dots.
    The letter ض Daad has no English equivalent. It is like د daal with the tensing of the tongue used in pronouncing ط TAA, ظ ThAA, and ص Saad in all of its forms except for the addition of the dot above it.


    The final letter of the Arabic alphabet letter Ghaan غ. It is similar to خ Khaa except that it is voiced. غ Ghyaan is basically a gurgling sound in fact they're preferred for gargle is gharghara غرغر. It is a connector with four forms which originated exactly the same way as those of ع ayn except that it has a dot above it.


    This should give you a general idea of the arabic letters and the sounds and forms they take. To learn properly and effectively you should sign up to a one on one course or view my free lessons.


    I conclude with may the peace and blessing be upon the prophet Muhammad and on all those who follow him until the last day.
    Last edited by MohammedK; 08-07-2018 at 11:36 PM.

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    Re: Arabic alphabet

    https://m.youtube.com/c/ArabicAlphabetc

    Arabic Alphabet - YouTube
    This channel offers free Arabic alphabet lessons, as well as 3 subjects in one channel with each topic soon being in their own playlist, the topics include a......


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