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View Full Version : Inscriptions Of The Early Years Of Hijra [c. 4 AH].

03-09-2005, 03:30 PM
Inscription A

c. 4 AH (or c. 625 CE).


1. Night and day 'Umar
2. and Abu-Bakr take shelter (?)
3. with God from every
4. thing unpleasant

Inscription B

c. 4 AH (or c. 625 CE)


The right-hand portion written in magnificent Qur'anic type script (Kufic). It is translated as:

1. Wise
2. And believes in the,
3. 'Umar son of al-.
4. Bakr.
This part has suffered considerable damage due to disintegration of the rock.

The left-hand portion is a big inscription with scores of lines. Probably part of right hand portion has crossed this inscription and consequently they can't be dated from the same time. This portion is translated as:

1. I am 'Umarah
2. son of Hazm. I am
3. Maimun....
4. I am Muhammad son of
5. 'Abdullah. I am M....
6. son of 'Awsajah.
7. I am Khalaf.
8. I am Sulaiman al-Ahmar (?) I am..
9. I am Sahl son of .....
10. I am Ma'qil al-Juhaniy. I ask...
11. O God .. I am...
12. I am Sa'd son of Mu'adh
13. .. son of .. I am...
14. ...
15. I am Aliya son of Abu-Talib
16. M Muhammad.

Some feet below this rocky couch there are several other inscription that read as follows:

1. May God accept from 'Umar!
2. May God treat
3. 'Umar with forgiveness!

1. ...the believers. Admit me in the pious!
2. May God make 'Umar from the people of the paradise,
3. [him and] Abu-Bakr, on account of the believers-like acts!


The inscriptions from Mount Sal`, Madinah, bearing no date, attracted quite a lot of attention. The presence of the names of Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Ali along with the name of the Prophet(P) is quite interesting. Hamidullah is of the opinion that it may be the handwriting of `Umar himself as `Umar was known for his calligraphic skills.

George Miles asserts that these inscriptions are from 1st century of Hijra but associating them to `Umar's own hand is a bit tenuous.

However, Safadi dates this inscription to c. 4 AH (or c. 625 CE).

The monumental script (i.e., Kufic) in the above inscriptions is quite fascinating. Grohmann compares the script of the inscriptions with those in the early Kufic Qur'anic manuscripts. He says that the resemblance is "very striking."

Inscription C

Undated. In all probability from early 1st century of Hijra.


1. x x x x
2. I testify that there is no God
3. [but G]od and I testify that (sic) Muhammad is His servant.
4. [and] His [Messenger]. With Thy mercy O God. There is no God but
5. [Him. I]n God is my trust and he is the Lord.
6. x x of the Exalted Throne.

Inscription A

Inscription B

Inscription C

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Ansar Al-'Adl
03-09-2005, 06:49 PM
SubhanAllah. That's interesting.

09-08-2006, 05:19 AM



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