star forts are incredible, relatively unappreciated structures that have recently become a fascination of mine - humungous constructions that only really become visually stunning when you look down on them from above. this type of fortification design was adopted in the early 16th century as people realised that simpler, often circular forts were pretty crap when it came to the job in hand: defense.
many of them still stand today in varying sizes. some are empty, some contain ruins. some, as you’ll see below, contain entire villages. be sure to check out the source links at the bottom for more info.
so here are 6 of the best star forts on earth…
1. palmanova, italy
2. bourtange, the netherlands
3. goryokaku, japan
4. almeida, portugal
5. saint-martin-de-ré, france
6. naarden, the netherlands