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Alifah
02-23-2008, 11:34 AM
Assalamu alaykum
I would like to get information about recitation maqams. I know that there are a lot of them, but don't know the differences. I would like my recitation to be not only correct in pronunciation, but also to follow some style of recitation. When a person starts reciting, who does he choose the suitable maqam, does it depend on his vocal capabilities, or just on his wish. When he has chosen, does he just copy his techer or develop his own style?
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Al-Hanbali
02-23-2008, 12:41 PM
:salamext:

You may find the following informative insha'Allah:

Originally Posted by Ansar Al-'Adl
Assalamu Alykum wa rahmatullahi wa baraktuhu,

Here is some useful information which I wanted to share.

THE AHRUF
First there is the issue nof Ahruf (dialects/modes). The Qur'an was revealed in seven ahruf, as is proved in many mutawaatir ahadith. This was because different tribes pronounced and spelled words differently. The forms matched the dialects of following seven tribes:
1.Quraysh
2.Hudhayl
3.Thaqîf
4.Hawâzin
5.Kinânah
6.Tamîm
7.Yemen

The revelation of the Qur'an in seven different ahruf made its recitation and memorization much easier for the various tribes. At the same time the Qur'an challenged them to produce a surah like it in their own dialect so that they would not complain about the incomprehensibility.

Regarding whether or not these ahruf have been preserved, there are three opinions, the strongest being that of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ash-Shatibee, Ar-Raazi, Ibn Katheer and Ibn Al-Jazaree and many others. They say that when Uthman rd was compiling the Qur'an, he had Zaib ibn Thabit record it without the vowelation and consonants to accomodate the different Ahruf. At some points where the ahruf differed greatly, they recorded it according to the Quraysh dialect. There are 4 benefits which show the Wisdom of Allah revealing the Qur'an in seven ahruf:

1. To facilitate the memorization of the Qur'an. The arabs did not all speak arabic in the same way. The ahruf eased the memorization and was significant in the preservation of the Qur'an.

2. To prove the miraculous nature of the Qur'an. For despite all the differences, the meaning of the Ahruf did not contradict one another, but rather were complimentary.

3. To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad saws, for despite the fact that he was illiterate, the revelation of the Qur'an occured in different tribal dialects and different words, all of which consisted of the most fluent and eloquent speech of his time.

4. To honour the ummah of the Prophet Muhammad saws and show its superiority over all other nations.

THE QIRA'AT
Qira'at refers to the various manners of reciting the Qur'an. Each qiraa'a has its OWN rules of tajweed. In Murattal, it is not necessary to emphasize every vowel in clarity as it is in Mujawwad. Each qira'at is named after the Qari who was famous in reciting in that manner.
There are many different Qira'at, but Ibn Mujahid wrote a book on the seven most prominent. He did this on purpose to match the seven ahruf, but some people don't know that there are more than 7 qira'at. In fact, there are ten authentic Qira'at. For a qira'at to be authentic there are very detailed rules which we could discuss later if any wishes.
Here are the ten Qira'at with their famous Qaris:

1. Naafi' Al-Madanee. (Madinah)
Imam Malik recited in this manner. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal often recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Qaloon and Warsh.

2. Ibn Katheer al-Makee. (Makkah)
Imam Shafi recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Al-Buzzee and Qumbul.

3.Abu Amr al-Basri (Basra)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Ad-Doori and As-Soosee.

4. Ibn Aamir ash-Shami (Syria)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Hishaam and Ibn Thakwan.

5. Asim al-Kufi (Koofah)
Imaam Abu Hanifa recited in this manner. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal often recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who prserved this recitation are Shuba and Hafs

6. Hamzah Al-Kufi (Koofah)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Khalaf (who also has his own Qira'at #10) and Khallaad.

7. Al-Kisaa'ee
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Al-Layth and ad-Doori (same one as before).

8. Abu Ja'far Al-Madanee (Madinah)
The two Qaris who preserved this recitation are Isa and Sulayman.

9. Yaqub ibn Al-Basri (Basra)
Imam Bukhari recited in this manner.
The 2 Qaris who preserved this recitation are Ruways and Rooh.

10. Khalaf (same one who preserved Hamzah's recitation, but this is his own method of reciation)
The 2 Qaris who preserved this reciation are Ishaq and Idris.

Today 95% of the world recites Hafs an Asim, 3% Warsh an Naafi, .7% Qaloon an-Naafi, .3% Ad-Doori an Abu Amr and 1% Ibn 'Aamir.

Please let me know if anyone found this informative.
:w:
Originally Posted by Ansar Al-'Adl
:sl:
To get an idea of the differences you can listen to the following to recitations of Surah Fatir [all recitations by Ali Al-Hudhaify]:
Hafs 'an Asim (#5 on list)
Qaloon 'an Naafi' (#1 on list)

As one can see, the different recitations are almost completely identical except for a few words which are pronounced differently. For example,
Hafs: wa hûwa al-azîz al-hakîm
Qaloon: wahwa al-azîz al-hakîm
Translation: And He is the AllMighty, the AllWise.


Here are some more samples for Surah Al-Mulk [all recitations by Ahmad Al-Me’serawe]:
Qumbul 'an Ibn Katheer Al-Makkee
Ad-Doori 'an Abu Amr Al-Basree
Khalaf 'an Hamzah Al-Kufi
Ibn Dhawkan 'an Ibn Aamir Ash-Shami
Abi Harith 'an Al-Kisaa'ee
Sulayman 'an Abu Ja'far Al-Madanee
Isa 'an Abu Ja'far Al-Madanee
Ishaaq 'an Khalaf

Again the main difference is just the different pronounciation of wa hûwa or wahwa, hal tarâ or hal tarî, a prolonged or shortened vowelization for one or two words, and so on.

:w:
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