The internal waves&The Darkness in the deep seas and Oceans
By The Researcher
Magdy Abd Al-Shafy Abd Al-Gawad
The English Department Manager
The Holy Quran is God's word , it has many different attributes in addition to the miracles of Prophet Mohummed , these attributes is the fact that a number of scientific truths that we have only been able to uncover by the technology of the 20th century were stated in the Qur'an 1,400 years ago. . These miracles help the believers to believe more and more and it is in the same time a word to the unbelievers in different times , As this age is , truly , the age of science , so the scientific miracles in the Holy Quran come to surface just to challange the nbelievers and at the same time to give the strong evidence that it is God's word .Unbelievers who read these miracles are supposed to believe that Quran is God's word . prophet Mohummed was unlettered man , who lived in the desert most of his life where there were no possible means to communicate with the places of civilization , thought such technological discoveries were not known in any place in the time of prophet Mohummed . There are many miracles and proofs latent in the Holy Quran ; they are numerous . When Quran refers to the scientific fact that were proved recently it attracts the attention to God's supreme greatness in creation , when man poders about these verses and associate them with the discovered facts , he will realy feel afraid and inferior to God ,God says in the Holy Quran in this concern what means " The erudite among His bondsmen fear Allah alone. Lo! Allah is Mighty, Forgiving."More over Quran calls man to ponder and speculate about His miracles of creation "53. We shall show them Our portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. Doth not thy Lord suffice, since He is Witness over all things?[41:53
in fact God supported His last Prophet Muhammad with many miracles and much evidence which proved that he is a true Prophet sent by God. Also, God supported His last revealed book, the Holy Quran, with many miracles that prove that this Quran is the literal word of God, revealed by Him, and that it was not authored by any human being. This chapter discusses some of this evidence.
this proves without doubt that the Quran must be the literal word of God, revealed by Him to the Prophet Muhammad , and that the Quran was not authored by Muhammad or by any other human being. This also proves that Muhammad is truly a prophet sent by God. It is beyond reason that anyone fourteen hundred years ago would have known these facts discovered or proven only recently with advanced equipment and sophisticated scientific methods.
The Quran on the deep seas and oceans and internal waves
God has said in the Quran in this concern what means : Or (the unbelievers’ state) is like the darkness in a deep sea. It is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds. Darknesses, one above another. If a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it....(Quran, 24:40)
We can understand from the following sentences in the previous verse, “...in a deep sea."that the seep sea is covered by waves, above which are waves, above which are clouds....”. It is clear that the second set of waves are the surface waves that we see, because the verse mentions that above the second waves there are clouds. But what about the first waves? Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which “occur on density interfaces between layers of different densities.”
What does verse mean ?
(1)There are successive layers of darkness till we reach the dark sea.
(2)the word ( Zolmat in Arabic rendered "darkness in English ) used in plural in the verse , here is another miracle as the Quran uses the word in plural, which means that there are successive stages of darkness or a number of layers of darkness before we reach the dark sea and these layers are caused by the clouds , then the layer of darkness caused by the surface sea and the water below and then the layers of darkness caused by the internal waves .
(3) This part of the verse "If a man stretches out his hand, he cannot see it.... " refers to the age of submarines as no can go so deep by himself or without being aided by technology .
Does this verse match the newly-discovered facts regarding the internal waves ?
Now to this miracles in detail
How can the darkness occur in the deep sea ?
To answer this question ,we will talk about three stages of darkness "
The first stage – clouds the first barriers
people know the clarity of the water of the seas ( granulation of colour into seas and oceans )by the use Secchi disc. Even though the Secchi disc measurement of water clarity is an approximate evaluation of the transparency of water, it is used primarily for its simplicity. A more accurate measurement of underwater irradiance can be made by the use of photometer, but that amount of accuracy is not needed for the Self Help Program instituted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resource in 1974.
The Secchi disk is used to measure how deep a person can see into the water. It is lowered into the lake by unwinding the waterproof tape to which it is attached and until the observer loses sight of it. The disk is then raised until it reappears. The depth of the water where the disk vanishes and reappears is the Secchi disk reading. The depth level reading on the tape at the surface level of the lake is recorded to the nearest foot.
The clouds are the first barriers to absorb the sun rays
The rays emitted from the sun is composed of electromagnetic waves starting with the radio waves to the X-rays , the overwhelming seen light is the spectrum along with the infrared , the ultra violet rays and some elementary accelerated particles such as the electrons . Most of the ultra violet rays are blocked by the Ozone layer . When the rest of the sun rays reach the below strata of the gas atmosphere of the earth , the clouds reflect and disperse about 30% .The clouds , the condensation nucleus , the particles of the hanging dust and water vapour absorb about 19% of the light . So during the process of light reflection , absorption and dispersion , the clouds block or screen about 49% of the sun rays causing a relative darkness under the clouds.
A Passenger on a plane flying over the clouds will see the light of the sun so bright but if the plane flies under the clouds , that is , between the clouds and the surface of the sea , the passenger will realize that the light of the sun begins to fade away and becomes less bright ; this means that the area between the clouds and the surface of the sea is a little dark because the rays of the sun can not penetrate the clouds , which are a strong barrier that prevent the light to pass freely,thus resulting in a layer of darkness under the clouds.
Surface waves on the sea and the oceans cause the second drakes
When the rest of the sun rays reaches the surface of the sea , about 35% of the infrared rays is consumed in evaporating some of the water forming the clouds and in photosynthesis process of naval plants .As to the rest of the white light that actually reach the surface of the sea , it doesn't penetrate the surface wave completely as the surface wave reflects about 5% out of it making the bright colour of the surface of the sea .
Sunrays trying to penetrate the seas water
The journey of the rest of the light during the first 200 meteres
The darkness in deep seas and oceans is found around a depth of 200 meters below. At this depth, there is almost no light . Below a depth of 1000 meters there is no light at all. Human beings are not able to dive more than forty meters without the aid of submarines or special equipment. Human beings cannot survive unaided in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters .
Between 3 and 30 percent of the sunlight is reflected at the sea surface. Then almost all of the seven colors of the light spectrum are absorbed one after another in the first 200 meters , except the blue light. (Oceans, Elder and Pernetta, p. 27.)
How does this darkness occur ?
Light that will penetrate water will undergo several processes that will make it vanquish gradually ; among these are Light refraction , photolysis , absorption by the different water particles and minerals dissolved in water and the hanging materials in water and the living creatures along with its organic wastes
Under the surface waves
In this picture we see a ray of light going through the depth of the ocean.
The upper layer has absorbed the red color in the first 10 meters . If a diver would dive to a depth of 30 meters and gets wounded there, he would not be able to see his blood, because the red color does not reach this depth. In the same way, as we see in this picture,orange rays are absorbed next. Then at the depth of 50 meters yellow rays are absorbed. At the depth of 100 meters green rays are absorbed. At depths beyond 200 meters , blue rays are absorbed, and so on.
So the colour of seas and oceans seems blue because this colour is dispersed in the first 200 meters
Dark seas submarine
Despite the striking speed of light (300,000 km per second in space and about 225,000 km per second in water ) , it can only travel as far as 1000 meters ; only after 200 meters downwards darkness begins ; only (0.01%) out of the sun rays goes . Only this very little amount of light continues its journey till it disappears completely at the depth of one km below the sea surface and that is because of the infraction of light , dispersion and absorption .
The average depth of oceans is estimated as 3795 meteres and the deepest doesn't nearly outdistance eleven km (11.034 M) . Between this two points the depths of oceans and seas range between four and five km and the average depth in the very deep oceans and seas range between eight and ten kilometers – this means that the depths of these seas and oceans are in complete fearful darkness
The internal waves
These two parts of the ocean differ with respect to their properties and haracteristics, and the surface is further separated from the deep part by waves. These internal waves were only discovered in the year 1900. Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which "occur on dense interfaces between layers of different densities. The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them.
Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location. The length of these waves vary between tens and hundreds of kilometers and its height reaches 200 meters and its speed is a bout 100.5 CM per second and It spans over period from four minutes and twenty-five kilometers
Life in the deep seas and oceans & Bioluminescence
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. The name originates from the Greek bios for "living" and the Latin lumen "light". Bioluminescence may be generated by symbiotic organisms carried within a larger organism. It is generated by an enzyme-catalyzed chemoluminescence reaction, wherein the pigment luciferin is oxidised by theenzymeluciferase. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is involved in most instances. The chemical reaction can occur either within or outside of the cell. In bacteria, the expression of genes related to bioluminescence is controlled by an operon called the lux operon.
Deep in the ocean, where sunlight can no longer penetrate, lies an incredible world of darkness. And against all odds, this just happens to be the location of one of nature's most impressive artificial light shows. The creatures here have evolved their own ways of dealing with the darkness. Through a process known as bioluminescence, God has granted them the ability to use chemicals within their bodies to produce light. If you have ever seen a firefly then you have witnessed the same process in action. Bioluminescence is mainly a marine phenomenon. It is not found in freshwater. On land, it is seen only in a few species of fungi and insects. It is the oceans where this unique ability achieves its highest form. Hundreds of species of fish and invertebrates flash their colors in a light show that can sometimes rival the streets of Las Vegas
Deep sea creatures
The viperfish lives in the bathyal zone. The bathyal zone extends down about 4,000 meters. Food is scarce in this region. The viperfish is able to survive in this area because he is a fierce hunter. He floats on his back and the tip of his spine glows. This glowing attracts fish. The fish come near and he stabs them with his long lower fangs. The viperfish also has curved teeth which prevents his prey from escaping.
The world's record holder for deepest fish goes to the brotulid* family, about which scientists know almost nothing. These fish are benthopelagic, living at depths of 7000 meters or more. The world's deepest fish (Abyssobrotula galatheae) was found in the Puerto Rican Trench at a depth of 8,372 meters (that's over five miles down!).Their eyes appear to be virtually nonexistent.
Not only are they large and very hardy, but these pigmented copepods produce some of the brightest bioluminescent displays. They eject puffs of light when they do an escape flip.
This small hydromedusa in the genus Aglantha is bioluminescent, but the blue and purple colors in this photo are formed by iridescence of thin tissues in its bell. The thickness of the tissue and angle of light striking it can cause bright colors to show up, similar to what happens with the ctenophore Beroe, although produced by a different mechanism. The orange color near the mouth is pigmentation, probably to mask luminescence or attract prey.
The deep-dwelling squid Histioteuthis heteropsis is covered with photophores, perhaps used to mask its silhouette from predators and prey.
You may not have heard of it, but the hydromedusa Aequorea victoria is probably the most influential bioluminescent marine organism. Calcium-activated photoprotein and green-fluorescent protein (GFP) were first discovered and cloned from this cnidarian.
Professor Rao says: "It is difficult to imagine that this type of knowledge was existing at the time around 1400 years back. Maybe some of the things they have simple ideas about such, but to describe those things in great detail is very difficult. So, this is definitely not a simple human knowledge. A normal human being cannot explain this phenomenon in that much detail. So I thought the information must have come from a supernatural source."
small hydromedusa in the genus Aglantha is bioluminescent, but the blue and purple colors in this photo are formed by iridescence of thin tissues in its bell. The thickness of the tissue and angle of light striking it can cause bright colors to show up, similar to what happens with the ctenophore Beroe, although produced by a different mechanism. The orange color near the mouth is pigmentation, probably to mask luminescence or attract prey.
The rainbow colors on ctenophores are not bioluminescence. They are merely diffraction acting on the ambient light. This shallow-dwelling species, Beroe forskalii, produces a bright luminescent display when disturbed. (Approx size 10 cm).
What do scientists say about this miraculous verse
Myctophids, or lanternfish (not to be confused with anglerfish), are among the most numerous fish in the sea. They have species-specific patterns to the distribution of their light organs, leading some to suggest that they must be used to recognize potential mates. Whether or not this is true, they likely use their luminescence for counterillumination as well.
Yes, the source of such knowledge must be from a level beyond that of man. It cannot be from nature, as Professor Rao said, but this is far beyond nature, and far beyond human capability. What Professor Rao was trying to say is that this is something which cannot be attributed to a natural being, for it is truly the speech of the one who knows nature, the universe and its secrets, as the Qur'an tells us:
Say: The (Qur'an) was sent down by Him who knows the secrets (that is) in the heavens and the earth... (Qur'an 25:6).
It is from Allah. In this way, the testimonies of the scientists are concentrated one after the other in order to prove that this guidance and light contains in it the indisputable evidence of its truth, for the Qur'an is the source of guidance until the Last Hour.
By Magdy Abd Al-Shafy Abd Al-Gawad