What Do We Know About Black Holes???
The 20th century saw a great many new discoveries regarding celestial phenomena in the universe. One of these entities, which has only recently been encountered, is the Black Hole. These are formed when a star which has consumed all its fuel collapses in on itself, eventually turning into a black hole with infinite density and zero volume and an immensely powerful magnetic field. We are unable to see black holes even with the most powerful telescope, because their gravitational pull is so strong that light is unable to escape from them. However, such a collapsed star can be perceived by means of the effect it has on the surrounding area. In Surat al-Waqi'a, Allah draws attention this matter in this way, by swearing upon the position of stars:
And I swear by the stars' positions-and that is a mighty oath if you only knew. (Qur'an, 56:75-76)
The term "black hole" was first employed in 1969 by the American physicist John Wheeler. Previously, we imagined that we were able to see all the stars. However, it later emerged that there were stars in space whose light we were unable to perceive. Because, the light of these collapsed stars disappears. Light cannot escape from a black hole because it is such a high concentration of mass in a small space. The enormous gravitation captures even the fastest particles, i.e. the photons. For example, the final stage of a typical star, three times the mass of the Sun, ends after its burning out and its implosion as a black hole of only 20 kilometres in diameter! Black holes are "black," i.e. veiled from direct observation. They nevertheless reveal themselves indirectly, by the tremendous suction which their gravitational force exerts on other heavenly bodies. As well as depictions of the Day of Judgement, the verse below may also be pointing to this scientific discovery about black holes:
When the stars are extinguished, (Qur'an, 77:8)
Moreover, stars of great mass also cause warps to be perceived in space. Black holes, however, do not just cause warps in space but also tear holes in it. That is why these collapsed stars are known as black holes. This fact may be referred to in the verse about stars, and this is another important item of information demonstrating that the Qur'an is the Word of Allah:
[I swear] by Heaven and the Tariq! And what will convey to you what the Tariq is? The Star Piercing [the darkness]! (Qur'an, 86:1-3)
people used to reject prophets unless they bring forth seen miracles . Some believed and other went on in their stubbornness . Now after the demise of the prophets , people are in need to know if there is God or not ; Darwinism and evolution produced atheism and secularism , a world wide sweeping dogma that have thrown humanity back in the ages of darkness . Because of the distortion of Christianity and Judaism, these religions became so wavering and shaky leaving the concept of theism in jeopardy .
Islam , being the last revealed religion , is standing now in the face of such unsubstantiated claims of atheism . Most of the findings of the science that science brags about are mentioned in the Holy Quran , that was revealed more than 1400 years ago.
Allah says in the Holy Quran what means " "Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things? "
Among the many scientific miracles that are mentioned in the Holy Quran is the black hole "
The holy Quran mentions the black holes in the following holy verse by its very specific characteristics ; these are :
(1)They are running stars.
(2)They are veiled or receded .
(3)They are sweeping stars .
let's read the following verse from the holy Quran first before reading what astrophysics says about the black holes .
God says in the holy Quran what means [So verily, I swear by the stars that are veiled . And by the (sweeping ) stars that move swiftly and hide themselves. And by the night as it departs; And by the dawn as it brightens; Verily, this is the Word (this Qur'an brought by) a most honorable messenger [Jibril (Gabriel), from Allah to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)].] (At-Takwir: 15-19)
It is well known that stars change their nature as they age till they die , among the endpoints of stars is the black hole . God says in the Holy Quran what means" And call not, besides God, on another god. there is no god but He. Everything (that exists) will perish except His own Face. to Him belongs the Command, and to Him will ye (All do Him will ye (all) be brought back. "( Al-Kasas :88)
During the life cycle of stars , stars change from one entity to another , this change takes millions of years . One of these is the black hole . The black hole is fearful .
What kinds of black holes are there?
Scientists have identified three kinds of black holes – small, medium, and large.
(1)The small one or low-mass black holes stellar or galactic black holes
These low-mass black holes form from collapsed stars that were once 100 times as massive as our Sun .
When such a massive star runs out of energy, it throws off its outer shell and is left with a core that is still 15 times as massive as the Sun
Scientists believe that our Milky Way Galaxy contains tens of thousands of these black holes, hence the name "galactic" black hole.
(2) Super massive black holes reside in the center of galaxies. Some scientists speculate that most galaxies, including our own, harbor a super massive black hole
(3) The mid-size black holes .
There are two main processes constantly going on in massive stars: nuclear fusion (which tends to blow the star's hydrogen outward from the star's center) and gravitation (which tends to pull all hydrogen back in the direction it had come). These two processes balance one another until all the star's hydrogen is exhausted, allowing gravitation to take over.
Once gravitation dominates, the star becomes unstable and starts to collapse. Once the star starts to collapse, it does not stop, and the star (and ultimately its atoms ) will cave inward upon itself, resulting in the formation of a black hool (Hewitt 186).
A supermassive black hole is a black hole with a mass of an order of magnitude between 105 and 1010 (hundreds of thousands and tens of billions) of solar masses . It is currently thought that most, if not all galaxies , including the Milky Way , contain supermassive black holes at their galactic centers.
Supermassive black holes have some interesting properties which distinguish them from relatively low-mass cousins , but they remain black hole sucking what fall a prey
X-Rays Indicate Star Ripped Up by Black Hole
Why are black holes black?
In order for a rocket to leave the surface of Earth, it must travel faster than 25,000 miles per hour (7 miles per second). This is called escape velocity. If the rocket has a speed less than the escape velocity of an object, the object's gravity will pull it back down. The escape velocity of a black hole is greater then 186,000 miles per second. That means a rocket would have to travel faster than 186,000 miles per second in order to leave the black hole. The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second, so light doesn't travel fast enough to leave the black hole, hence it is black.
It is believed that the black hole is the remnant of a massive star that that lived out its brief life billions of years ago and later was gravitationally kicked from its home star cluster to wander the Galaxy with its companion
Most of the stars in our Milky Way galaxy are within a thin disk, called the plane of the Galaxy. However, there also are globular clusters, each containing hundreds of thousands of the oldest stars in the Galaxy, which orbit the Galaxy's center in paths that take them far from the Galaxy's plane.
So when a star which has consumed all its fuel collapses in on itself, eventually turning into a black hole with infinite density and zero volume and an immensely powerful magnetic field.
The holy Quran refers to this fact ;i.e. the death of stars because of the exhaustion of its fuel " When the stars are extinguished " (Qur'an, 77:8)
Will all stars be black holes?
However, not all stars upon gravitational collapse form black holes. A star less than 1.4 times the mass of the sun will become a white dwarf . A star between 1.4 and 3 times the mass of the sun will become a neutron star . It's only those stars greater than 3 times the mass of the sun that become black holes upon collapse. They are formed from the cores of super massive stars and can best be described as regions of space where so much mass is concentrated that nothing, not even light, can escape the gravitational pull. It is an area where the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. The more massive an object is, the faster you have to travel to escape its gravity. This is known as the escape velocity.
Black holes are so massive that their escape velocity is faster than the speed of light. Since nothing can travel faster than light, nothing can escape the gravity of a black hole.
Facets of Scientific Inimitability:
Allah, the Almighty, swore by these things to confirm the fact that the Ever-Glorious Qur'an is a Divine revelation. He (Exalted and Glorified be He) says: [So verily, I swear by the stars that are veiled . And by the (sweeping ) stars that move swiftly and hide themselves. And by the night as it departs; And by the dawn as it brightens; Verily, this is the Word (this Qur'an brought by) a most honorable messenger [Jibril (Gabriel), from Allah to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)].] (At-Takwir: 15-19)
The importance of this kind of confirmation lies in the object used for swearing here, which is described in a way tantamount to black holes. The black holes are running stars that move in their poles, and hide themselves after having been obvious, as they are at the end of their lives. They produce no light due to their gravity which enables them to gravitate everything in their way and clear their way by swallowing up everything around. The Ever-Glorious Qur'an describes them as being ‘cleaners’ in conformity with the scientific description. The Qur’anic description which confirms the scientific one stands as decisive evidence that the Ever-Glorious Qur'an is the true word of Allah - Glory be to Him.
A non-Moslem scientist defined the black holes in a way that is really expressive. Though he never read the holy quran , he used the same word that the holy Quran used .This reflects how much the holy Quran scientific facts are in conformity with newly discovered facts . He literally said " It creates an immense gravitational pull not unlike an invisible cosmic vacuum cleaner. As it sucks in all matter in its way -not even light can escape.
The Arabic word " Konus " can be translated " sweeper or cleaner . It is the same word from which we derive what can be used in cleaning flats , i.e , the vacuum cleaner .
The Holy Quran is more accurate when describing the black hole ; in just three words the Holy Quran describes the black holes as follows :
(1)They are running and that what science says .
(2)They are receding away or veiled after being apparent and science says they were stars that receded or veiled as light can't escape their gravitation
(3)They suck or sweep any matter and that what science says about these stars.