Wa alaykum Salam Warahmatullaahi Wabarakaatuh
1. The Prophet :saws: definitely prayed facing the qibla. As for where he put his blessed hands, this is disputed. It seems most likely he put them on his chest. Wallahu A'lam.
2. Do you mean the Durood we say in tashahud? Yes.
4. 9. This may sound odd to you, this is because we are living in completely different times and have a completely different culture. We cannot use our 2015 standards to judge something that happened 1400 years ago. At that time, no one batted an eye because there was nothing unusual about it, and it was perfectly fine.
5. I think you mean :saws:? Well that is generally used exclusively for Rasoolallah :saws:, however it is also permissible to be used for the other prophets. Generally we say 'Alayhi Salam, which means peace be upon him, for other prophets.
6. Islam is an extremely honorable religion and highly respects the honor and integrity of it's people, and establishes the highest level of moral conduct. A man touching a strange woman and vice-versa is an extremely distasteful act which contradicts Islam's high standards of interactions between a male and female. Generally such touches tend to go further and even provoke desires which could lead to something worse like fornication, and Islam closes all such doors. It is better to be stabbed in the back of one's head than to touch a strange woman.
7. A person is determined to be a kafir by rejecting the religion sent by Allah swt for their time.
The religion of Al Islaam which can be summarized to La ilaha illallah muhammadur Rasoolallah :saws:, is the religion that is binding and obligatory upon everyone to accept.
The religions which Musa AS and 'Eeesa (Jesus) brought was also Islam, but that was for other nations and for a previous time. Those laws have been abrogated. And they weren't for the people who are following them nowadays anyway, Jesus didn't come for these modern day self claimed Christians, he came for the lost sheep of Israel for his time only.
And they don't follow one of the 4 divine books sent by Allah, rather that book has been lost. What the Jews and Christians have as their book may contain some remnants of Allah's divine book here and there, but it is pretty much something completely different to begin with. They are not following the laws of one of Allah's book, and even if they were, they were not for these people, and even if they were for them, they have been abrogated by the laws brought by Muhammad :saws:.
Even Moosa 'alayhi salam, the Prophet and messenger of Allah, would have to follow Muhammad :saws: if he were to come in this age!
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saw a portion of the Tawrah in the hands of “Umar, so he became angry and said: Are you confused about it, O Ibn Al-Khattab? By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, I brought it to you white and pure. And he added, ”By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, if Musa (Moses) were alive, he could not but follow me. ‘
However it is still obligatory to believe in all previous prophets and their laws, a person cannot be a Muslim without doing so.