View Full Version : IJTIHAD IN Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)'S PRESENCE. (Part 3)

06-04-2019, 08:23 PM
Bismillah Ir-Rahman, Ir-Raheem. I begin with ALLAH's auspiciousness,whose Name is the Best among all the names. All Revences, All Sanctities and All Worships are due to ALLAH alone. Ashahadu An Laa illaaha illal llahu
Wa Ash Hadu Anna Muhammadan Abdu Hu Wa Rasooluhu
''I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah
who is without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) is the Rasool.''
"O Allah, Shower Your Peace come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have brought peace to Ibrahim and his family.
Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. O Allah, Shower your blessing upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious". I am Satisfied with ALLAH as My Rabb and Cherisher, I am Satisfied With Islam as My Din (religion) and I am satisfied with Muhammad as a Rasulallah (Messenger)sallallahu alaihi was salam) I seek Protection with ALLAH! With the Glorious and Noble Face of ALLAH! With the Complete and Perfect words of ALLAH! With the Exalted Attributes of ALLAH! From the Punishment of Hell; From chastisement in the Grave; From the Trial of Life and Death; From the Mischief of the dajjal. There is no power nor strength with (anyone) save Allah. ALLAH is Good and Only accept that which is Good. ALLAH is the Truth and only accept that which True. ALLAH is Pure and only accept that which is Pure. Ya ALLAH! ALL the praises are for You,You are the Holder of the Heavens and the Earth, And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All praises are for You; You are are the Substaner of the Heavens and the Earth And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All the praises are for you;You have the Possession of the Heavens and the Earth and whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All the praises are for You; You are Light (Nur) of the Heavens and Earth And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All praises are for You; You are the King of the Heavens and the Earth And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All praises are for You; You are the Truth and Your Promise is the Truth, And Your word is the Truth and the Meeting with You is true, And Parardise is True And Hell is true and All the Prophets(peace be upon them) are true; And Muhammad Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) is true, And the Day of Resurrection is True. Ya ALLAH! You have promise and Your promise is the truth,Ya ALLAH! You have promise and Your words is the truth, Ya ALLAH! You have promise and You are the Truth!. Ya ALLAH! You have created Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) to be the most truthful of men and what He(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) has said is the absolute truth! --------------------------------------------------------------
IJTIHAD IN Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)'S PRESENCE. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) encouraged his sahabah to seek knowledge, utilize their reasoning ability, and benefit mankind. It was due to his encouragement that on several occasions, they exercised their ijtihad and practiced their personal reasoning in presence of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). Sometimes he himself asked them for their opinion and reasoning, while at the other times they expressed it without his demand.
1. In the 5th year of Hijra, Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) received news that a large army of Quraysh was about to march to attack Medina. He summoned his sahabah for consultation. Several suggestions were expressed as to what would be the best plan for defense. Salman al-Farisi said: "Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)! In Persia, when we feared an attack (of horsemen), we would surround ourselves with a trench. Let us dig a trench around us now."Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) accepted Salman's suggestions and ordered the digging of a trench to defend the city of Medina.2. During the Battle of the Trench ten thousand troops of Quraysh, Banu Ghatafan, and their allies besieged Medina.3 This siege was prolonged and the strain on the Muslims increased. Food was beginning to run short and many of the weak in faith, unnerved by hunger, cold, and lack of sleep were losing strength to resist.Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) tried to weaken the power of the enemy by splitting them. One night, he sent word to 'Uyaynah ibn Hisn, the chief of Banu Ghatafan, offering him one third of the date harvest of Medina if he would quit the Quraysh and turn back along with his men. But 'Uyaynah demanded half of the dates of Medina.Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) sent for Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, the chief of Banu Aws, and Sa'd ibn 'Ubbadah, the chief of Banu Khazraj. He said, "Uyaynah has asked me half of your dates for leaving Quraysh along with his men and deserting the allied forces, while I offered him one third. However, he refused to accept my offer and insisted on one half. What is your opinion?" They replied, "Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) if you have been commanded by Allah about something, then do it."Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) replied: "If I were commanded by Allah I would not consult you. It is just my personal opinion which I am presenting to you for discussion." They said: "Then our opinion is not to give them but sword."Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) agreed with them and accepted their opinion.323. After the Battle of the Trench,Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) (along with his Sahabah) went to the Banu Qurayzah who had broken their agreement with Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) and sided with the Meccan forces against the Muslims. This tribe was an ally of the Banu Aws in the pre-lslamic period. The men of Aws requestedRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) to show the same leniency toward their former allies as he had shown toward Banu Qaynuqa' who had been the allies of Banu Khazraj. He said, "Would you be satisfied if one of you pronounces judgment upon them?" They agreed. He entrusted it to their chief Sa'd ibn Mu'adh who was injured during the Battle of the Trench and whose wounds had not yet healed.Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) had placed him in the tent of Rufaydah in his mosque at Medina so that he might visit him more often. Rufaydah was a nurse from Banu Aslam. This expert Muslim lady used to tend and treat the wounded people. Some of the clansmen of Sa'd went to him and mounted him on a donkey. They brought him toRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) saying to him on their way, "Do well to your confederates for Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) has set you in judgment upon them merely to treat them with kindnesses." When they repeated their request again and again, he said, "The time has come for Sa'd to give no heed to the blame of the blamer in the cause of Allah.''Sa'd was a man of majestic and handsome appearance and a mighty stature. When he approached the camp,Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)said, “Stand up in the honor of your chief.” They rose to greet him and said, “Father of 'Amr,Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) has appointed you to judge the case of your confederates.” He said, “Do you swear by Allah and make by Him your covenant that my judgment will be the verdict upon them?” “We do”' they answered. “And is it binding upon him who is here?” He added, with a glance in the direction ofRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), but not mentioning him out of reverence. “It is,” saidRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). “Then I judged.” said Sa'd, “that the men of Banu Qurayzah should be slain, the property divided and the women and children made captive.”Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)said to him: “You have judged with the judgment of Allah from above the seven heavens.”334. On the occasion of BadrRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) along with his men camped at the first well he came to, near the field of Badr. One of his Sahabah, Hubab ibn al-Mundhir al-Khazraji, who was famous for his solidity of opinion and skillfulness in the war affairs, said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , this place where we are now, has Allah revealed it to you to halt here then we should neither advance nor retreat from it, or is it a matter of opinion and strategy of war?” He replied it was merely a matter of opinion and strategy of war, whereupon Hubab said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) then this is not the place to halt, but take the people on until you come to the well which is nearest to the enemy. Let us halt there, and stop up the wells that lie beyond it, and make there for ourselves a cistern and fill it up with water, then we will fight the enemy. We will drink the water while they will have nothing to drink.”Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) considered this opinion as the best one and carried out the plan of Hubab in every detail.345. When Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) moved closer to the valley of Badr, another Sahabah Sa'd ibn Mu'adh the chief of Banu Aws, came to him and said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , let us build for you a shelter behind the battle field where you should stay, and put beside you your riding camels in readiness. Then we will meet our enemy. If Allah strengthens us and makes us victorious over them, that is what we fervently desire. But if something else happens you can mount your camels, and join those people who are left behind. For, Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , our love for you is not greater than those Muslims who are left behind. If they had known that you would meet with war they would have not stayed behind. Allah will protect you through them. They will give you good counsel and fight at your side.”Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) appreciated his concern and invoked blessings upon him. Then the shelter was built with branches of palms, and he stayed there during the fighting.356. The Battle of Badr left seventy soldiers of the enemy dead and seventy captured. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)consulted his Sahabah regarding the treatment of the captives. The Sahabah expressed various opinions. Abu Bakr suggested their release on ransom. He said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , they are your people, and your family. Preserve them alive. Maybe Allah would turn to them with His mercy. Take from them ransom and strengthen your followers by that money.”36 'Umar ibn al-Khattab advised him to kill all of them. He said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), these people accused you of lying, expelled you from Mecca and fought against you. They are the leaders of infidelity. Allah has made you free from the money of their ransom. Bring them forward and cut their heads off.”37‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , find a valley of plentiful firewood and burn up these captives in the fire.”38 Sa'd ibn Mu'adh insistently said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , kill them and do not take the ransom.”39Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) accepted the suggestion of Abu Bakr and released the captives for ransom.407. On the occasion of Hudaybiyah, when the Quraysh did not letRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)enter Mecca to perform the pilgrimage to its holy shrine, a treaty was signed between him and the Quraysh on their terms. According to it, the Muslims had to return to Medina that year without performing the pilgrimage, however, they were allowed to come back next year and perform the ritual rites of the holy shrine of the Ka'bah. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)asked his Sahabah to rise, sacrifice their sacrificial animals, and then shave their heads. He repeated it a second and a third time, but no one moved. They were perplexed by this demand because, according to pilgrimage tradition, the sacrifices had to be performed within the sacred territory of Mecca after some special ritual rites. The field of Hudaybiyah was outside of the Meccan sanctuary, and they had not yet performed the other special rituals. Besides this, perhaps, they regarded the sacrifice at Hudaybiyah as a victory for the Quraysh, which they did not like.Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) was somewhat dismayed by their silence. He withdrew to his tent and told his wife Umm Salamah about the situation, wondering what was the matter with the people. She said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)you know their deep sadness and grief which has seized them. Say no word to any man. Go to your sacrificial animal and sacrifice it, then call for your barber who should shave your head.” Carrying out the advice of Umm Salamah, Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) went out and did not speak to anyone. He sacrificed his animal, and then called for his barber who shaved his head. Upon seeing this, the Sahabah leaped to their feet and raced falling over each other in eagerness to follow the practice of their beloved Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam).418. Abu Qatadah reported, “We went along with the Messenger of Allah in the year of Hunayn. When we met the enemy, we suffered a reverse. I saw one of the polytheists getting the better of one of the Muslims. I struck him on his shoulder blade with my sword and cut his coat of mail. He turned to me and pressed me to him so hard that I felt death was near. However, he let me go when he was overtaken by death. I then saw 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and asked him what was the matter with the people, to which he replied that it was what Allah had decreed. Then the Muslims returned and defeated the enemy. After thatRasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)sat down and said, “Anyone who killed an enemy, and could prove it, he will get his share of the spoils.” I asked “Who will testify for me?” and then sat down. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)made the same announcement a second time, and I again askeed, “Who will testify for me?” and sat down. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)repeated his word a third time, and I again got up. He saw me and said, “What is the matter with you, Abu Qatadah?” When I told him my story, a man verified my statement and said, “He had spoken the truth, Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). I have his share of the spoils, so gratify him by giving something else in exchange.” Upon this, Abu Bakr said, “Never, I swear by Allah, Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)will never do so in the case of one of the Allah's heroes who fights for Him and His Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), and then he should give you his share of the spoils.” Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) said “He (Abu Bakr) has had spoken the truth” and asked the man to hand it over to me.42In this report we find two persons exercising their personal opinions in the presence of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). The first person is the one who was keeping the plunder. He considered it proper for Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) to let him keep it, and to give Abu Qatadah something else in exchange. The second one is Abu Bakr in whose opinion it was not proper to deprive Abu Qatadah, the hero of Islam, from the spoils.
9. When Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) migrated from Mecca to Medina, the Muslim Ummah at that time did not have any regular system of calling the people for the prayers. He consulted his Sahabah regarding this matter. Some suggested the use of a bell as the Christians did, while others advised him to use a horn like that of the Jews. At first,Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)was inclined towards the horn, but then, he did not like it and ordered a bell to be made so that it might be struck to gather the Muslims for prayers. Meanwhile, one night Abdullah ibn Zayd, a Sahabah of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), had a dream. Early in the morning, he rushed to the mosque, met Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)and said, “Ya Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , last night when I was sleeping, I had a dream. A man dressed in two green garments carrying a bell in his hand appeared to me. I said to him, “O servant of Allah will you sell me this bell?" He asked, “What would you do with it?” I replied that we would use it to call people to the prayers. He then asked, “Shall I show you something better?” I said, “What is that?” So he told me the words of the adhan' (call to prayers).Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) said, “It is a true vision.” He then ordered Zayd to get up along with Bilal so that Bilal should repeat the words because his voice was louder than Zayd.43This report shows that the Sahabah exercised their ijtihad in the presence of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)and suggested the utilization of the bell or horn for the call to prayers.10. Ibn 'Abbas reported that Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) used to lean against a dry trunk of a datepalm during his sermons. When the number of audience increased, one of his Sahabah Tamim al-Dari suggested for him to have a pulpit similar to the Syrians. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)approved it and Maymoon, a carpenter of Medina was ordered to make a wooden Pulpit, which Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)used during his sermons afterwards.

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