View Full Version : Thread: Migration to Allah ( Ibn Qayyim ) Part3)

07-05-2019, 11:16 PM
Bismillah,ir-Rahman,ir-Rahim. Ashahadu An Laa illaaha illal llahu
Wa Ash Hadu Anna Muhammadan Abdu Hu Wa Rasooluhu

''I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah
who is without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) is the Rasool.''
"O Allah, Shower Your Peace come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have brought peace to Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. O Allah, Shower your blessing upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious." I am Satisfied with Allâh as My Rabb and Cherisher, I am Satisfied With Islam as My Din(religion) and I am satisfied with Muhammad as a Rasulallah (Messenger)sallallahu alaihi was salam .--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fair Testimonies-----
The above ayah has, " ... as witnesses to Allah ... ". A witness is a reporter. If he reports truthfully then he is acceptable and just; if he reports falsehoods then he is a false witness.
In addition to establishing justice, Allah requires one to be a witness for Him alone. Thus the testimony should be: with justice and for Allah alone. In another ayah Allah ta'ala said:

"Believers! Stand out firmly for Allih as witnesses to fair dealing."[Al-Qur'an 5:8]
Together, these two ayat require four things: establishing justice, doing it for Allah, maintaining truthful testimonies, and doing this for Allah as well.
The ayah in Surah an-Nisa' emphasizes fairness and maintaining the testimonies for Allah, while that of Surah al-Ma'idah emphasizes standing out firmly for Allah and maintaining fair testimonies. This difference (between the two ayat) has an important reason that cannot be dealt with here.
The Test of Fairness

The above ayah (An-Nisa' 135) then says, " ... even if it be against your own selves, your parents or your kin ... ".
Allah ta'ala commands to establish justice and to maintain fair testimony against everyone, including the most beloved ones. One is required to be fair against himself, his parents who are his roots, and his relatives who are usually closer and better supporters for him than other people.
A person's love for himself, his parents, and his kin, tends to prevent him from establishing the right and justice against them, especially when the right is for someone whom he hates and loathes. Thus, it is obvious that no one will establish this justice except he to whom Allah ta'ala and His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam are more beloved than anything else.
One can use this to test the strength of Iman in his heart, and his status of Iman.
On the other end, one should be just toward his enemies and those whom he dislikes. His hatred should not cause him to be unjust to them, just as his love for himself and his kin should not prevent him from establishing justice against them. This hatred should not make him do wrong, just as that love should not stop him from doing right. One of the salaf{qluetip title=[16]}Salaf: The early pious Muslims of the Sahabah (companions) and their true followers.{/qluetip} said:
"A just person is one whose anger does not cause him to do wrong, and whose pleasure does not prevent him from doing right."
Thus these two ayat (of An-Nisa' and Al-Ma'idah) together require two things: establishing justice, and maintaining fair testimony with friends and enemies.
Wealth-Based Bias

The above ayah (An-Nisa' 135) then says, " ... be he rich or poor, Allah is closer to both of them ... ".
[The meaning of this is that,] "Allah is the Lord and Master of both the rich and the poor; they are His 'abid (subjects), just as you are his 'abd. So, do not be prejudiced toward a rich man because of his wealth, nor toward a poor man because of his poverty; Allah ta'ala is closer than you to both of them."
A possibly better interpretation of this is the following: "People may be reluctant to establish justice and to testify against the rich or the poor; as for the rich, they fear to cause him a loss in wealth; and as for the poor, they tend to take the matter lightly with him because of his poverty and that he possesses nothing. So they are told, 'Allah is closer than you to both the rich and the poor; He is more knowledgeable of, and more merciful toward both; thus do not stop establishing truthful testimony against either of them.' "
Two Motivations for Hiding the Truth

The next portion of the above ayah (An-Nisa' 135) says, " ... So do not follow the lusts, lest you may be reluctant to establish justice ... "
Another possible (but not as strong) interpretation of this ayah says, " ... lest you may be unjust ... "
This ayah (An-Nisa' 135) continues, " ... if you distort your testimony, or refuse to provide it, verily, Allah is ever Well-Acquainted with what you do."
Allah ta'ala mentions here the two incentives for hiding the truth, warning against committing either of them. These are: distorting the testimony and refusing to provide it.
When the truth becomes clear and evident, a person who likes to hide it does so in one of two ways: he either turns away from it and abstains from mentioning it, acting by this as a mute devil, or he changes and distorts it.
The distortion of truth is either in words or in meaning. Distorting the words is done by adding, dropping, or replacing them with other words. It can also be done by uttering other words in such a way as to make the listener think that he heard something different from what was actually meant. This is similar to what the Jews did in greeting the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam or on some other occasions.{qluetip title=[17]}When greeting the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, some Jews used to fake "As-Salamu 'Alaykum" (Peace be on you) by saying "As-Sammu 'Alaykum" (Death be to you) instead [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]. Also, review Al-Mujadalah 58:8.{/qluetip}
Distorting the meaning is done by interpreting the words differently from what the speaker intended, introducing that which he did not mean, dropping some of what he meant, and so on.

Thus Allah ta'ala warns against all kinds of distortion in the testimony. A witness is required to provide a precise testimony, without hiding or distorting it.
Just contemplate then on the great amount of wisdom and knowledge contained in this ayah.
In summary, Iman is not complete, or not even present in a person, unless he submits the Texts [of the Qur'an and Sunnah] with acceptance and pleasure, proclaims them, and invites people to them. He should never respond to them with rejection or distortion.
Decisions of Allah and His Messenger

Allah ta'ala said:
"It is not befitting for a believing man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision." [Al-Qur'an 33:36]
This ayah indicates that when it is confirmed that Allah ta'ala or His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam have made a decision or have informed about a particular matter, then no believer, male or female, may choose differently. Any opposing choice would contradict Iman.
Ash-Shafi'i reported a consensus among the scholars of the Sahabah, the Tabi'in, and their followers, that:
"If a sunnah of Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallambecomes manifest to a person, he does not have any choice but to follow it, regardless of what other people say."
No Muslim scholar disputes or doubts the truth of this statement. The only evidence that people are required to follow [besides Allah's Book] is the words of the Infallible (Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) "who does not say anything out of (his own) desire" [Al-Qur'an 53:3].
Other people's talks could, at best, be acceptable to follow. But in no way may they oppose or outweigh the Texts (of the Qur'an and Sunnah). We ask Allah ta'ala to protect us from the failure [incurred on those who do not abide by this].
The Guidance is in Obeying the Messenger

Also, Allah ta'ala said:
"Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger: but if you turn away then he (the Messenger) is only responsible for the duty placed on him, and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on right guidance. The Messenger's duty is only clear deliverance [of the Message]." [Al-Qur'an 24:54]
Note that repeating the verb 'obey' here has an important significance that will be discussed below.
Here Allah ta'ala makes obeying the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam a condition for guidance; guidance cannot be acquired without this obedience. The duty of the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallamis to deliver the Message; and people's duty is to follow, obey, and submit to him. Al-Bukhari reported that Az-Zuhri{qluetip title=[18]}One of the Tabi'in. He is a famous scholar of Hadith and one of the important teachers of Al-Bukhari.{/qluetip} said:
"From Allah [comes] the knowledge; from the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam [comes] the deliverance [of the knowledge]; and from us [comes] the submission [to the Message]."
Thus if people neglect their duty of belief and obedience, they would harm themselves not him; his responsibility is not to make them believe, but only to deliver the Message to them; it is not required from him that people be guided and successful.
Addressing the Believers

And Allah ta'ala said:
"Believers! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you; if you differ in anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger (for judgment) if you (truly) believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination." [Al-Qur'an 4:59]
Allah ta'ala is requiring obedience to Him and to His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. He starts the ayah with an address to the "believers", hinting that what is required thereafter is a consequence of that name with which they are addressed.
This is similar to saying, "You whom Allah has favoured and enriched with His bounties, be good to others as Allah has been good to you." And like, "Learned man, teach people what would benefit them." And, "Ruler, rule with justice." And so on.
For this reason, legislative matters in the Qur'an are frequently addressed to the believers, starting the address with "Believers". For example Allah says:
"Believers, fasting is prescribed for you ... " [Al-Qur'an 2:183]
And He says:
"Believer, when the call is proclaimed for prayer on Friday, hasten earnestly to the remembrance of Allah ... " [Al-Qur'an 62:9]
And He says:
"Believers, fulfill the contracts ... " [Al-Qur'an 5:1]
Addressing the believers like this carries the implication that: "If you are true believers, you should perform the following action, because it is a requirement for the integrity and sincerity of Iman."
To Obey the Messenger is to Obey Allah

In the above ayah (An-Nisa' 59), Allah demands obedience to Him, the Messenger, and those of authority. The verb 'obey' is applied only once in regard to the Messenger and those of authority. One might expect the opposite - [that it would be applied only once in regard to both Allah and the Messenger] because:
"He who obeys the Messenger obeys Allah indeed." [Al-Qur'an 4:80]
However, this usage here has a subtle meaning. It implies that the Messenger must be obeyed in all that he commands, even if it were not something specifically required in Qur'an.
Let one then not imagine that the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam should only be obeyed when his commands confirm the Qur'an, otherwise he need not be obeyed. [In refutation of such fallacy,] Al-Miqdam ibn Ma'di Yakrib narrated that he sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallamsaid:
"There will be a man with full stomach, reclining on his pillow, who will hear a command from me and say, 'Let the judge between us (in this matter) be Allah's Book: we obey whatever we find in it.' [Know that] indeed, I have been given the Book and, with it, that which is similar to it (the Sunnah)."{qluetip title=[19]}Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and others; judged authentic by Al-Albani (Sahih al-Jami' no. 2640).{/qluetip}
However, obeying the people of authority is not required independently, but as part of obeying the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. This fact is confirmed by the hadith (narrated by Ibn 'Umar):
"One should listen and obey (those charged with authority) whether it were something he liked or hated, as long as he is not commanded to disobey Allah ta'ala. If he is commanded to disobey Allah, he should neither listen nor obey."{qluetip title=[20]}Recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.{/qluetip}
Toward the end of this ayah (An-Nisa' 59), Allah emphasizes obeying the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam by saying (what means), " ... refer it to Allah and the Messenger ... " rather than saying, " ... and to the Messenger ... ". Referring matters to the Qur'an is equivalent to referring them to Allah and the Messenger. Also, Allah's judgement is the same as His Messenger's; and the Messenger's judgment is the same as Allah's.
Thus if you refer your disputes to Allah, i.e. to His Book, then you refer to His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam as well. And if you refer to His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, then you refer to Allah as well. This is one of the subtleties of the Qur'an.
The People of Authority

Two views have been expressed by the Sahabah and the 'ulama(scholars) as to who are the ones "charged with authority". The first is that they are the 'ulama and the other is that they are the rulers.
In reality, it applies to both groups, because both the 'ulama and the rulers are in charge of the affairs concerning which Allah has sent His Messenger.
As for the 'ulama, they are charged with protecting the Din, explaining it, teaching it, and refuting those who deviate from it or try to alter it. Allah ta'ala gave them this charge, as He said:
"These [prophets] were the men to whom We granted the Book and Judgement and Prophethood; if these people [of the Scripture] reject them, behold! We shall entrust their charge to a new people who do not reject them ... " [Al-Qur'an 6:89]
This is indeed a great assignment to the 'ulama that requires from people to obey and follow them.
And as for the rulers, they are charged with establishing the Din, safeguarding it, compelling people to adhere to it, and punishing those who deviate from it.
Thus these two groups are in charge of the affairs of people, and other people are their followers and subjects.
Matters of Dispute

Furthermore, there is in the above ayah (An-Nisa' 59) a clear evidence that all matters of disagreement, in all aspects of the Din, should be referred to Allah and His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and to no one else.
Anyone referring disputes to other than Allah and His Messenger opposes this command by Allah. And anyone who calls to other than Allah's and His Messenger's judgment to resolve disagreements, calls indeed with the call of Jahiliyyah{qluetip title=[21]}Jahiliyyah: The state of ignorance and disbelief which prevailed in the Arab Peninsula before Islam.{/qluetip}.
One does not truly enter the realm of Iman until he refers all differences arising among people to Allah and His Messenger. For this reason, this ayah continues as, " ... if you believe in Allah and the Last Day ... ".
Thus if this condition (of referring disputes to Allah and His Messenger) is not satisfied by a person, this implies the absence of Iman in him.
This ayah should be a sufficient clarification and guidance in this matter (of obeying the Messenger). It constitutes a protection and a support for those who abide by it; and it is a powerful refutation and attack against those who deny it, as Allah ta'ala said:
" ... That he who would perish might perish in clear evidence [of the truth], and that he who would remain alive might live in clear evidence [of the truth]. And verily Allah is All-Hearing, All Knowing ... " [Al-Qur'an 8:42]
The earlier and later Muslims agreed that referring matters to Allah means referring them to His Book, and referring matters to the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam means referring them to him personally during his life, and to his Sunnah after his passing.


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