Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah
I am the strictest of the people... when it comes to takfîr, tafsîq, and tabdî' of specific individuals, unless it is known that the textual proof has been established on him in a way that shows, by way of his opposition to the proofs, that he is truly a kâfir or fâsiq. And I continually affirm that Allah has forgiven this nation for its mistakes, and this includes mistakes in statements and actions. And the Salaf went on differing over many issues without labeling eachother with disbelief, disobedience, sinning, etc..." (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 3/229)
Every punishment from Him is pure justice and every blessing from Him is pure grace. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 10/85)
Whoever desires everlasting bliss, let him adhere firmly to the threshold of servitude (quoted by Ibn Al-Qayyim, Madârij 1/531)
The Lord loves to be loved. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 1/54)
Guidance is not attained except with knowledge and correct diorection is not attained except with patience. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 10/40)
In this world there is a paradise, whoever does not enter it will not enter the Paradise of the Hereafter (quoted by Ibn Al-Qayyim, Al-Wâbil p.69)
The one who is [truly] imprisoned is the one whose heart is imprisoned from Allah and the captivated one is the one whose desires have enslaved him. (quoted by Ibn Al-Qayyim, Al-Wâbil p.69)
The whole religion revolves around knowing the truth and acting by it, and action must be accompanied by patience. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 10/38)
Worship is founded upon the Legal Law and following it, not upon ones base desires and innovation. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 1/80)
If you do not taste the sweetness of an action in your heart, suspect it, for the Lord, Exalted is He, is the Appreciative. (quoted by Ibn Al-Qayyim, Madârij 2/68)
The more the servant loves his Master, the less will he love other objects and they will decrease in number. The less the servant loves his Master, the more will he love other objects and they wil increase in number. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 1/94)
Perpetually is the servant either the recipient of a blessing from Allah, in which case he is in need of gratitude; or he is the perpetrator of a sin, in which case he is in need of repentance; he is always moving from one blessing to another and is always in need of repentance. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 10/88)
Sins cause harm and repentance removes the cause. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 10/225)
In this world, man finds in the remembrance of Allah, praising Him and worshipping Him, a delight that is incomparable to anything else. (Minhâj As-Sunnah 5/389)
Bearing witness to tawhîd opens the door of good and repentance from sins closes the door of evil. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 10/256)
The objective of zuhd (asceticism) is to leave all that harms the servant's hereafter, and the objective of 'Ibâdah (worship) is to perform all that will benefit his hereafter. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 14/458)
The Jihâd against the soul is the foundation for the Jihâd against the enemy disbelievers and hypocrites (quoted by Ibn Al-Qayyim, Ar-Rawdah p.478)
Sins are like chains and locks, preventing their perpetrator from roaming the vast garden of tawhîd and reaping the fruits of righteous actions. (Majmû 'ul-Fatâwâ, 14/49)
A man will never fear something besides Allah unless it be due to a disease in his heart. (quoted by Al-Bazzâr, p.74)
Trials and tribulations are like feeling the heat and cold: when one knows that they cannot be avoided, one will not feel anger at their onset, nor will they be distressed or disheartened. (quoted by Ibn Al-Qayyim, Madârij 3/289)
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhâb
As for ruling someone to be a kâfir, then I consider a kâfir to be the person who knows the religion of the Prophet (saws), then, after such knowledge, curses it, and prevents people from following it, and shows enmity to whoever follows it. So this is the one whom I consider to be a kâfir. And the majority of this nation - By Allah's blessings - are not like this!" (Al-Durrar Al-Saniyyah, 1/73)
Shaykh Abdur-Rahmân As-Sa'di
“It is not for a believer, man or woman” means: it is not appropriate or befitting for the one who is described as a believer to do anything other than to hasten to please Allaah and His Messenger, and to flee from incurring the wrath of Allaah and His Messenger, and to obey their commands, and to avoid that which they have prohibited. It is not appropriate for a believing man or a believing woman “when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed a matter” and enjoined it, “that they should have any option in their decision”. They do not have the choice of whether to do it or not, rather the believing man and the believing woman know that the Messenger is dearer to them then their own selves, so they should not let their own whims and desires form a barrier between them and obeying the command of Allaah and His Messenger.
“And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plain error” means, an obvious error, because he has forsaken the Straight Path which leads to the reward of Allaah, and has strayed to another path which leads to a painful torment. So Allaah mentions first the reason for not going against the command of Allaah and His Messenger, which is faith, then He mentions the deterrent for that, which is fear of going astray, which leads to punishment and humiliation. (Tafseer al-Sa’di, p. 612.)
Shaykh Abdul-Azîz Ibn Bâz
From that which is known to everyone who has the slightest bit of common sense is that hijacking airplanes and kidnapping children and the like are extremely great crimes, the world over. Their evil effects are far and wide, as is the great harm and inconvenience caused to the innocent; the total effect of which none can comprehend except Allaah.
Likewise, from that which is known is that these crimes are not specific to any particular country over and above another country, nor any specific group over and above another group, rather it encompasses the whole world.
There is no doubt about the effect of these crimes; so it is obligatory upon the governments and those responsible from amongst the scholars and other than them to afford these issues great concern, and to exert themselves as much as possible in ending this evil. (Kayfa Nu'aalij Waaqi'unaa al-Aleem, pp. 108-109)
The responsibility of a Muslim towards non-Muslims are many, including:
First, he must call them to the way of Allah. This is to preach to them and to make clear to them the reality of Islam, according to his ability and if he has the knowledge to do so. This is the greatest and best good deed that one could do toward his fellow citizen and for those who live together with Jews, Christians and other disbelievers. On this point, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The one who guides to good gets the same reward as the one who performs it." [Muslim] The Prophet (peace be upon him) also told Ali, when he was sending him to Khaibar to encounter the Jews, to invite the Jews to Islam. He told him, "By Allah, if Allah guides one person by you, it is better for you than the best types of camels." [al-Bukhaaree, Muslim] The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said, "Whoever calls to guidance will have a reward similar to the reward of the one who follows him, without the reward of either of them being lessened at all." [Muslim, Ahmad, Aboo Daawood, an-Nasaa'ee, at-Tirmidhee, Ibn Maajah] Calling them to Islam, preaching Islam to them and advising them concerning that is one of the most important deeds and is one of the best ways to get closer to Allah.
Second, [the Muslim] may not wrong the other person with respect to his life, wealth or honor, if the non-Muslim is a citizen of the Islamic state or has attained other protection. He must fulfill the other's rights. He may not wrong him with respect to his wealth by stealing from him, deceiving him or cheating him. He cannot harm him in his body by beating or killing him. His protection from the state guarantees his safety from such things.
Third, there is no prohibition concerning buying, selling, renting or other such business transactions with them. It has been authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) bought things from the polytheistic disbelievers. He also purchased items from Jews. In fact, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) died, his shield was being held as collateral with a Jewish person in exchange for food for his family.
Fourth, one should not give them the greetings of peace first. However, one responds to their greetings. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Do not give the greetings of peace first to the Jew or Christian." [Muslim] He also said, "If the people of the book give you the greeting of peace, then say, 'Wa Alaikum (and upon you)."' [al-Bukhaaree] Therefore, a Muslim does not greet a non-Muslim first. But when a Jew, Christian or other disbeliever greets him, he replies, "And upon you also," as the Prophet (peace be upon him) has ordered. This is from the rights of conduct between a Muslim and a disbeliever. He also must be neighborly toward his non-Muslim neighbor. If your neighbor is good to you, you do not harm him and you may even give him charity if he is poor or give him a gift if he is rich. You may also advise him
concerning what is good for him. All of this may lead him to want to learn about Islam and become a Muslim and because neighbors have very great rights. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The Angel Jibreel (Gabriel) kept advising me concerning the neighbor until I thought he was going to inherit [from his neighbor]." [al-Bukhaaree, Muslim] Allah also says in the Quran, "Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and drove you not from your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity" [al-Mumtahinah (60):7].
It is recorded in an authentic hadith from Asma bint Abu Bakr that her mother, who was a polytheist, visited her and asked for her assistance - this was during the time of the peace treaty between the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the disbelievers so she went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) to ask him about that and he told her to keep the
ties of kinship with her and be righteous towards her.
Fifth, a Muslim should not participate with them in their greetings and festivals. However, one may give them condolences upon the death of someone if he finds some legal benefit in doing so. He may say to them, "May future bring good to you," or something of that nature. He may not say, "May Allah forgive him," or, "May Allah have mercy on him," if the
person who died was a disbeliever (see Quran 9:113). That is, one may not make prayers for a dead disbeliever although one may ask for guidance for those who are alive and so forth. (Answers to Common Questions from New Muslims, IANA)
Shaykh Abdul-Azîz Âl Ash-Shaykh
Firstly: the recent developments in the United States including hijacking planes, terrorizing innocent people and shedding blood, constitute a form of injustice that cannot be tolerated by Islam, which views them as gross crimes and sinful acts. Secondly: any Muslim who is aware of the teachings of his religion and who adheres to the directives of the Holy Qur'an and the sunnah (the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad) will never involve himself in such acts, because they will invoke the anger of God Almighty and lead to harm and corruption on earth. (Saudi Embassy 9/15/01)
You must know Islam’s firm position against all these terrible crimes. The world must know that Islam is a religion of peace and mercy and goodness; it is a religion of justice and guidance…Islam has forbidden violence in all its forms. It forbids the hijacking airplanes, ships and other means of transport, and it forbids all acts that undermine the security of the innocent. (Public Statements by Senior Saudi Officials Condemning Extremism and Promoting Moderation
, p. 10)
Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Sâlih Al-'Uthaymîn
Islam does not restrict freedom, but it is a means of regulating and channelling it in the correct way, such that the freedom of one person does not clash with the freedom of another. This is what occurs when freedom is granted without any boundaries, because any person who desires absolute freedom without any boundaries will inevitably fulfill this at the expense of other people's freedom. As a result of this, discord occurs when people's freedoms clash, chaos spreads and corruption sets in. It is for this reason that Allah named the injunctions of the religion "limits" (hudood)...
...Therefore, there is a difference between the restriction of freedoms that this group of people assume, and the channelling and regulating of these freedoms that the Most Wise, the Most Acquainted, legislates for His servants.
Consequently, there is no reason to raise such an issue, as systematisation is a reality in all domains, and man is by nature submissive to this systematic reality. He is submissive to the sway of hunger and thirst, and to the organization of his food and drink. Thus, he is forced to organize his food and drink as far as quantity, quality and type is concerned, so that he may safeguard his health and welfare.
In the same way, he is submissive to the system that his society lays out for him, holding on to the customs of his country in his dwellings, garb and modes of transport... If he does not subject himself to this system, he will be considered as being abnormal, and he will be treated in the way abnormal people are treated.
Consequently, life is by nature a form of submission to specified limits, so that everything may progress according to its intended purpose. Since this submission to a social system is something necessary in order to maintain the integrity of the community and prevent chaos, similarly, submission to the system of Islamic legislation [in matters of worship and dealings] is a necessary matter for the uprightness of the Islamic nation. So how is it that some people become dissatisfied with it and deem it to be something that restricts their freedom? Verily, this is a great untruth and a false, evil presumption.
Furthermore, Islam does not surpress people's capabilities. On the contrary, it is a comprehensive way of life that encourages physical, rational and intellectual advancement...
...Islam calls people to reasoning and reflection, so that mankind may contemplate and their minds and thoughts may develop, however it does not confine itself to calling towards contemplation and deep thought. Rather, it also denounces those who do not observe, contemplate and use their sense of reason.
Allah the Most High says: Do they not look in the dominion of the heavens and the earth and everything that Allah has created? [7:185]
And Allah the most High says Do they not reflect upon the creation of their own selves? Allah did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, except in truth, and for an appointed term. [30:8]
The order to observe and ponder is but an unfastening of the mind's ability to think and reason; so how can some people say that it restricts people's capablities?
Dreadful is the word that issues forth from their mouths. They utter nothing but they lie. [18:5]
For Islam has indeed rendered lawful for its adherents all thinga which do not harm the individual's body, religion or intellect..." (Min Mushkilât Ash-Shabâb, pp. 21-25)
Shaykh Salmân Ibn Fahd Al-'Awdah
Islam teaches us to have a good opinion about others and to instead be critical and suspicious of ourselves. This attitude places a buffer between ourselves and those with whom we disagree, so that instead of transgressing against one another, we complement and complete one another. It is comparable to the way that irrigated water benefits us all, even if the sources of that water, the pathways that it takes, and the specific sites that the water nourishes are different.
Consider for a moment what would happen if a good deal of the effort being used to perpetuate conflicts between Muslims was channeled into something good – like conveying guidance, disseminating knowledge, promoting economic development or using the media in a positive way? What if it was used to call non-Muslims to Islam? If this were to happen, the state of Islamic work – and of Muslims as a whole – would be far better indeed.
There is no use crying over spilled milk. Nor is there any use for us expecting too much at this time. Nevertheless, we can try to be more balanced in our personalities. We can soften our speech, purify our intentions, remain God-fearing when we disagree, and afford to our brethren in faith the same good opinion that we afford to ourselves. We can accept the fact that the realities of the world today require all of us to think deeply and make decisions that will often take us down different paths. Our paths might not always converge, but neither do they have to be mutually exclusive or detrimental to one another. (Numerous Paths
The Sunnah is not there to test people about the smallest particulars and minute details. It is not there to impose upon people a host of regulations and theoretical assumptions that they cannot bear to uphold. People should not find themselves in a state of worry and anxiety about matters that would otherwise not even have crossed their minds or would have passed beneath their notice. It is worse when investing those matters with such a serious emotional commitment causes people to violate the limits of Islamic Law with respect to the sanctity of other people, their rights, and the good treatment that is due to them. It is wrong when attention to such matters causes people to neglect their duty to others and the need for unity and the nurturing of faith.
The Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is something great and profound. It is not limited to the particulars of our acts of worship, even though those particulars are certainly part of the Sunnah. Its is far broader in scope and far more general in its relevance. It encompasses all the noble ideas by which the purpose of the Prophetic Message is realized. The Sunnah provides the means to achieve the noble purpose for which Allah created the human being. Allahh says: “I only created the jinn and humanity so that they would worship me.” [Sûrah al-Dhâriyât: 56]
The Sunnah is there so people will uphold the meaning of their faith, go forth in carrying out good works, and conducting themselves in a good manner. (The Sunnah of All the Prophets
Inner peace requires that a person’s relationship with himself is clear, and that his goals and objectives are understood and at harmony with his inner being. Indeed, after knowledge of the Lord, the most important thing for a person to have knowledge of is knowledge of his self and how to perfect it and purify it. He needs to be sensitive to his own gifts and talents, aware of his weaknesses and strengths. Would he describe himself as patient or hasty, forthright or timid, tenacious or easily bored? A person needs to know the truth about himself so he can go make good progress in a direction where he can best capitalize on his strengths and potential. (Inner Peace
The Muslim is taught by his book, the Qur’ân, to hate falsehood, distorted beliefs, and deviance, and consequently, to hate the representation of falsehood and deviant beliefs at the hands of the unbelievers. He does not, however, hate the people themselves. In fact, he should wish for them every possible good and hope that they will attain guidance and be saved from the Hellfire.
When one of the unbelievers attains guidance, the Muslim should be as joyous for his sake as our Prophet (peace be upon him) was when a Jewish boy converted to Islam just before he died. The Prophet (peace be upon him) left his home saying: “All praises are for Allah who saved him from the Hellfire.”
The hatred one should have is for their deviance or sinful behavior, not for the people themselves.
This is why a Muslim cannot be blamed for his affection towards his son, wife, and others, even if they are not Muslims. However, such affection should not cause him to neglect any part of his religion. That is why the Muslims who, on account of their wives and children, failed to emigrate to Madinah as they were commanded were rebuked for staying behind. Indeed, Allah describes our wives and children as a trial.
In fact, the ones who encourage hatred are certain Western and other non-Muslim politicians and media personalities who seem to be doing everything in their power to instigate conflicts against Muslims in various parts of the world. By their practices, they seem to be trying to give the Muslims lessons in hatred and rancor.
If there are some moderate and reasonable voices in the West and in places like India, they are being drowned out by the overwhelming clamor of extremism and anti-Islamic rhetoric. Admittedly, the same thing can be said for the Muslims as well. However, I must stress that the West is suffocating the moderate and temperate voices in the Muslim world who are on the correct Islamic methodology, the methodology that is the way of salvation for the Muslim nation. (Fatwa
Advancements in science and technology are among the ways and means to achieve the upliftment of the Muslim world. Much of the backwardness and many of the defeats that from which we have been suffering is but the result of our lagging behind in scientific knowledge, our paucity of general understanding, and our inability to appreciate the true relationship between cause and effect.
Muslim history abounds with examples of scientific and cultural ingenuity. The Muslims inherited the knowledge of the nations that came before them and developed it and placed it in the context of a precise moral framework. Muslim scholarship made a vital contribution to the enrichment and advancement of human civilization.
Sadly, there are serious shortcomings in or efforts to teach the Muslims that the Qur'ân is concerned with these sciences that give humanity the ability to benefit from the world around them. It is indeed from Allah's wisdom behind placing humanity up on Earth that we would develop it and cultivate it. (Islam and the Pursuit of Wordly Knowledge
The scholars of the Sunnah are targeted from all directions. The media likes to stereotype them as “dervishes” and “gluttons” and foist upon them a host of other ignoble epithets. Too often we find people speaking about a scholar who is distinguished in knowledge and respectable of character, yet they do nothing but seek out faults to attribute to him. They seem to have to accuse him of either hypocrisy, avarice, or simple-mindedness, though in truth he could be as far removed from these qualities as any person could hope to be. If they cannot find anything to criticize him with personally, we often hear them saying that his children are impious.
Some novice students of Islamic knowledge seem to have no qualms about speaking ill of the scholars or of making light of their status and speaking of them as if they were fellow classmates. They say things like “So-and-so is of little consequence.” Or “He made a serious mistake.” Some of these students who possess neither an inkling of understanding in the field of Islamic Studies nor any idea of how to conduct themselves with the Qur’ân and Sunnah have the audacity to mention an opinion of one of these scholars that they disagree with and follow it up by reciting Allah’s words: “And they took their priests and monks as Lords beside Allah.” All too often, the opinion they deride in this dubious fashion is the correct one, or is at least one that is strongly supported by clear evidence from the Qur’ân and Sunnah. (Where is the respect for our scholars?
Shaykh Sa'ûd Ash-Shuraym
Her job in this life and in the society is not based on enslaving her or exploiting her body. The woman rather has rights in the society and family. She has right to attend mosques, she has right to eliminate illiteracy, she has right to give and receive admonition and in receiving and imparting knowledge and education. She has right to enjoin virtues and forbid vices. She has right to improve herself whenever she has a job that is suitable for her naturally and religiously like in the fields of useful knowledge and righteous deeds. For the Ummah is in dire need of female Muslim teachers, Muslim female nurses and doctors and Muslim female writers. The woman herself needs to fill her head with knowledge and righteous sciences and not to strip her head and her body naked and to regard her religion with displeasure. (Friday sermon, 6/11/04)
Haneef James Oliver
Expressed in another way, the pluralistic belief that Thomas Friedman and many other people hold today - namely that there are many paths that lead to God - can be refuted in the following manner: If somebody came to rob Friedman’s home, he would certainly object to this occurring. Were he to have the opportunity to speak to the robber and scold him for his action, Friedman would certainly be taken aback if the robber suddenly told him that there was nothing wrong in taking his belongings. It could be argued by the robber that each person has the right to choose their own path in life, and that it is part of his own system of belief which he has formulated for himself that there is nothing wrong with stealing.
Under this pluralistic pretext, the robber would be able to tell Friedman that he tolerates Friedman’s belief that nobody should steal his things, but that Friedman should also understand that he has his own personal way which he has formulated that does not consider this action to be a crime. This approach to morals and beliefs necessitates that no absolute truth exists, and as such, it is not possible for anybody to impose their opinion on anyone else, as no clear criterion exists to justify this. Just as Friedman would object to this kind of moral anarchy taking place amongst his society, how can he be pleased to relegate this kind of philosophical chaos to an All-Knowing, All-Wise God?
Surely, the incredible unity and order that exists from one end of the universe to the other indicates that the Creator’s creational will within His creation is a single will, not multiple ones with each section of the universe having separate truths, laws and ways. Likewise, the Creator’s will on matters related to our lives and worship is one of unity and order, not disorder with each incredibly limited individual being left to figure out their own truths and ways. Had Allah allowed His creation to be subjected to the pluralistic belief that Friedman has referred to, the whole universe would cease being a place of unity and order, and would become a place of turmoil and disruption.
“And if the truth had been in accordance with their desires, truly, the heavens and the earth, and all beings therein would have been in a state of confusion and corruption. Nay, We have brought them their admonition, but they turn away from their reminder.” [23:71]
(Sacred Freedom, pp. 31-32)
Although women in the West are allowed to dress as they like, they do not have absolute freedom in doing so to the point that they may walk around topless or bottomless. However, wearing just a bra-like garment with a tight mini-skirt is completely acceptable in many parts of Western society. One wonders how this distinction is made, what mankind’s reference point in doing so should be, and who decides why exposing these private parts completely is a criminal offence, yet covering them slightly is a sign of liberation for women.
Beyond the obvious contradictions that arise from human moral legislation, it can be understood that Westerners and practicing Muslims can agree upon one thing in this case. One of the reasons why people do not accept that a woman can simply walk around naked is that it infringes on other people’s rights. There is a traditional Arabic saying, which states, “Your freedom ends when the freedom of others begins.” What this essentially means is that an individual’s freedom must be halted as soon as it starts to infringe on someone else’s freedom. For that reason, Westerners feel offended if they are forced to view somebody else’s private parts in a public place, just as practicing Muslims feel offended if they are forced to see someone who is scantily clad.
Hence, Muslims and Westerners both agree that freedom has its bounds, but one group holds that mankind has the right to decide in this matter, as according to them, they are free to do whatever they choose. The other side contradicts this belief, holding that the Creator is most acquainted with what is good for His creation, and that He alone has the right to decide what goes on within His dominion. Only one of these two positions can be correct.
The principle that people’s freedom should be checked if it infringes on the rights of others can be observed in practice in many facets of Western society. For example, relatively new legislation has been passed in the West that curtails people’s rights to smoke in public places, as this compels non-smokers to smoke, and thus infringes on other’s freedoms. As a result, it is rightfully understood that this freedom must be eliminated.
Likewise, human legislation legitimately bans prostitution, as this form of sex for money has, for the meantime, been deemed immoral. Prostitution is also considered detrimental to the lives of the young women who partake in this trade. At the same time, sex for money is considered legal and acceptable, so long as it is being made into a movie for others to see. This incredible contradiction exists because banning pornography would be interpreted by contemporary minds as being an infringement of freedom and personal expression.
Liberalist ideologies hold that mankind can be left to figure out what is best for itself. However, disturbing contradictions start to appear when these ideologies are implemented. For example, moral values come into mode for a certain amount of time, and then years later, these same moral values which were held to be sacred and correct before, are suddenly overturned and deemed flawed. This necessitates that the particular value system that was originally created by this group was faulty, and that they were living by and believing in something that was incorrect to begin with.
Conversely, these same people will say that something is wrong and immoral one year, and then a decade later, they will deem it to be something that everyone must accept as being good and progressive. New legislation is drawn up, and democratically elected politicians rush to bend to the latest social trend, as if they believe wholeheartedly in it; all of this based solely upon the latest opinion polls.
A prime example of this would be the recent changes many societies have taken to accept gay rights. A few decades ago, homosexuality was considered a disorder, whereas now, anyone who holds this view is considered to be suffering from a disorder called homophobia. This new classification puts such an individual in the same category as racists.
At the same time, many of these people who have recently changed their opinions are still hesitant to allow homosexuals the right to legally marry. Is this not from the infringement of peoples’ freedom? (Sacred Freedom, pp. 53-54, 57)