The Two 'Eid Prayers
The status of the two; al-Fitr and al-Adha, is an emphasized Sunnah, to the degree that it is almost obligatory. Allah, the All mighty commanded it in his saying :
أنا أعطيناك الكوثر. فصل لربك وانحر.Verily, We have granted you (O Muhammad) Al-Kauthar (a river in Paradise). Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only) (102:1-2)
The prosperity of the Muslim depends on it. Allah, the almighty says:
قد أفلح من تزكى. وذكر اسم ربه فصلىIndeed whoever purifies Himself shall achieve success, and remembers (glorifies) the Name of His Lord and prays. (87:14 15)
The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was regular in its performance and he commanded it. He commanded even the women and children to attend it. It is one of the symbols of Islam and a manifestation of piety and belief.
Its time begins after sunrise, when the sun rises over the horizon about the height of a spear. It is more virtuous that the Adhha prayer be performed at the first part of its time
to enable the people to slaughter their sacrifices, and the Fitr prayer to be performed at its latter time to enable the people to pay Zakat Al-Fitr, for the Messenger of Allah used to do so.
Jundub, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to lead us in the Fitr prayer while the sun had risen about the height of two spears and the Adhha prayer when it had risen about the height of one spear."
Taking a bath, wearing perfume (for males) and wearing the best clothing.
Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) commanded us to put on the best clothes we had for the two 'Eid prayers, to wear the best perfume we have, and to slaughter the most valuable animals we have." (AI-Hakim, and there is no harm with its chain)
It is narrated that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used wear a decorative Yemenise wrap for each 'Eid.
Eating before leaving for the Fitr prayer, and eating from the sacrifice's liver after the Adhha prayer.
Buraydah, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Prophet would not leave for the Fitr prayer until he ate. On the day of Adhha he would not eat until he returned, and he would eat from his sacrifice." (At-Tirmithi and others, and Ibn Qattan said it is Sahih)
Saying the Takbir.
This begins the eve of the two 'Eids. For Adhha it lasts until the end of the days of Tashriq (on the thirteenth day of Dhul-Hijjah) and for Fitr, until the Imam appears for the 'Eid prayer. Its wording:
الله أكبر الله أكبر, لا اله الا الله, الله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد…..
Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, laa ilaaha illallaah, Allaahu Akbar, Alldhu Akbar, wa lillaahil-hamd.
"Allah is the Most Great, Allah is the Most Great. None has the right to be worshipped except Allah. Allah is the Most Great, Allah is the Most Great and all praise is Allah's."
It is important while going to the place of the prayer, and after the obligatory prayers during the three days of Tashriq, Allah the Almighty says:
واذكروا الله في أيام معدودات
And remember Allah during appointed days,"(2:203)
وذكر اسم ربه فصلى
Remembers (glorifies) the Name of His Lord and prays." (87:15)
لتكبروا الله على ما هداكم
That you may magnify Allah for His guidance to you." (22:37)
Going to the place of the prayer via one route and returning by another as done by the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Prophet used to alternate routes on the days of the 'Eids." (AlBukhari)
Congratulating each other by saying
تقب الله منا ومنك
Taqabbalallaah minnaa wa minka.
"May Allah accept our deeds and yours."
It is narrated that when the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would meet, they would congratulate each other saying: "May Allah accept our deeds and yours." (Ahmad with good chain of narration)
There is no harm in ample eating and drinking and lawful entertainment. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
أيام التشريق أيام أكل وشرب وذكر الله عزوجل
The days of Tashriq are days of eating, drinking and mentioning Allah the Almighty. (Muslim)
Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Prophet came to AI-Madinah and found they had two days of entertainment. On that he said:
قد أبدلكم الله تعالى بهما خيرا منهما يوم الفطر ويوم الأضحى
Allah has given you two days better than them; the day of Fitr and the day of Adhha." (An-Nasa'i, Sahih)
And the saying of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, when he scolded two girls for singing on the day of Eid:
يا أنا بكر! ان لكل قوم عيدا وان اليوم عيدنا
0 Abu Bakr! Every people have their Eid; and this day is our Eid. (Al-Bukhari)
How to perform the 'Eid Prayer
The people head for the place of prayer while reciting the Takbir until after the sun has risen a few meters, then the Imam performs two Rakahs without Adhan or Iqamah. He says the Takbir in the first Rakah seven times, including Takbir AI-Ihram and the people follow him in that. Then he recites Al-Fatihah and Surat Al-Alaa (87) in an audible voice. In the second Rakah, he says the Takbir six times, including the Takbir upon standing. Then he recites Al-Fatihah and the chapter entitled Surat Al-Ghashiyah (88) or Surat Ash-Shams (91) in an audible voice. When he says the Taslim, he stands to deliver the sermon with a light sitting between its two parts. In the sermon, he admonishes people and reminds them uttering the Takbir throughout it. The Imam starts the sermon by praising and expressing gratitude to Allah. If it is the Fitr prayer, he urges the people to adhere to it (to pay Zakat AI-Fitr( and explains its ruling and conditions. If it is the Adhha prayer, he urges them to slaughter the sacrifice, explaining to them whatever is necessary of its terms and conditions. Upon ending, the Imam and the people leave. It should be noted that there are no Sunnah prayers for it, neither before or after. But for the one who misses it; he is required to perform four Rak'ahs.
'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "Whoever missed the 'Eid prayer, let him perform four Rak'ahs. As for him who catches any part of it, even the last sitting, he stands after the Imam says the Taslim and completes two Rak'ahs."
Minhaaj ul-Muslim, By Abu Bakr Jabir Al-Jazaa’iry