Bismillah Ir-Rahman, Ir-Raheem. I begin with ALLAH's auspiciousness, whose Name is the Best among all the names. All Revences, All Sanctities and All Worships are due to ALLAH alone. Ashahadu An Laa illaahaillalllahuWa Ash Hadu Anna Muhammadan Abdu Hu WaRasooluhu ''I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah who is without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) is the Rasool.''
"O Allah, Shower Your Peace come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have brought peace to Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. O Allah, Shower your blessing upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious". I am Satisfied with ALLAH as My Rabb and Cherisher, I am Satisfied With Islam as My Din (religion) and I am satisfied with Muhammad as a Rasulallah (Messenger)sallallahualaihi was salam.(Amin!)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------{Imam Malik – The Scholar of Madinah}--------------------------------------------------------------The collection and codification of Islamic law has historically been one of the most important, and challenging, tasks that the Muslim community has undertaken in 1400 years of history. To be considered a faqih (an expert in Islamic law – fiqh), one must have mastery of the Quran, the sayings of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, other sources of law, as well as other subjects such as grammar and history.
One of the giants of Islamic law was the 8th century scholar of Madinah, Malik ibn Anas. At a time when the Muslim community desperately needed the sciences of fiqh and hadith (sayings and doings of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ) to be organized, Imam Malik rose to the occasion. His legacy is manifest in his continued influence throughout the Muslim world, both through his own works and the works of those he helped guide on a path of scholarship and devotion to Islam.

Early Life and Education

Imam Malik was born in 711 in the city of Madinah, 79 years after the death of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in that same city. His family was originally from Yemen, but his grandfather had moved to Madinah during the reign of
Umar ibn al-Khattab. Both his father and grandfather had studied religious sciences under the Companions of the Prophet who still lived in Madinah, and thus young Malik was raised in an environment that was based on Islamic scholarship, learning from his father and uncle.
Imam Malik’s uncle, Nafi’, was an eminent scholar in his own right, and narrated hadith from Aisha, Abu Hurairah, and Abdullah ibn Umar, all companions who are noted for their vast knowledge of hadith. Although the political center of the Muslim world shifted away from Madinah during the caliphate of Ali in the 650s, it remained the intellectual capital of Islam. In this capital of Islamic knowledge, Imam Malik mastered the sciences of hadith, tafsir (interpretation of the Quran), and fiqh.
The Scholar of Madinah

After an immense amount of study that extended into his 20s and 30s, Imam Malik became known as the most learned man in Madinah at his time. He became a teacher, attracting a huge number of students to lectures, which he held in the mosque of the Prophet ﷺ. He used to sit on the pulpit of the mosque with the Quran in one hand and a collection of hadith in the other and offer legal rulings and opinions based on those two sources.
Students flocked to his lectures from all corners of the Muslim world. Among his more notable students were Abu Yusuf, Muhammad al-Shaybani (they were
Abu Hanifah’s two most important students as well), and Imam al-Shafi’i.
Imam Malik held his classes in the Masjid al-Nabawi in Madinah

The most unique aspect of Imam Malik’s methodology in fiqh was his reliance on the practices of the people of Madinah as a source of law. In the study of fiqh, there are numerous sources that are used to derive laws. The first and second most important sources are always the Quran and Sunnah. After those two, however, the great scholars of fiqh differed on the next most important source of law. Imam Malik believed that the practices of the people of Madinah should be seen as an important source.
His reasoning for this was that Madinah at that time was not far removed from the Madinah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. It had been spared the political and social upheaval that much of the rest of the Muslim world dealt with. And the people living in the city had been taught Islam by their ancestors who had been Companions of the Prophet ﷺ or students of the Companions. He thus reasoned that if all of the people of Madinah practiced a particular action and it did not contradict the Quran and Sunnah, then it can be taken as a source of law. He is unique among the four great imams of fiqh in this opinion.
In order to ease the study of fiqh and hadith, Imam Malik compiled a book known as the al-Muwatta. This was the first book that attempted to compile only sound and reliable sayings of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ into one book. Imam Malik said that he showed his book to seventy scholars in Madinah, who all approved it, thus he gave it the name al-Muwatta, meaning “The Approved”.
Al-Muwatta was a landmark book. It helped establish the science of hadith, particularly the judging of chains of narrations for hadith. Imam Malik was so thorough in his selection of hadith that it has been placed on the same level (and sometimes above) the hadith compilations of Imams Bukhari and Muslim. Imam Shafi’i even stated that there is no book on earth, after the Quran, that is more authentic than the Muwatta.
Imam Malik’s work was so influential as a book of fiqh that the caliph of the time, Harun al-Rashid, demanded that it be mass-printed and made the official book of fiqh for the Abbasid Empire. Imam Malik, however, refused. He knew that no one interpretation of Islamic law was perfect and all-encompassing. As such, he refused to allow his fiqh to become official, even under threat of persecution and imprisonment.
Imam Malik’s Character

Besides being one of the greatest scholars of fiqh in history, Imam Malik was an incredibly humble and meticulous Muslim. Out of respect for the Prophet ﷺ and his words, he would refuse to narrate a hadith while walking. Instead, when asked about a hadith, he would stop, sit down, and give the hadith the attention it deserved, out of respect for Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. He would also refuse to ride any animal in the city of Madinah, seeing it as unfathomable that he would ride on the same dust that Muhammad ﷺ’s feet walked on. This type of extra respect and meticulousness out of respect for Prophet Muhammad ﷺ certainly is not mandatory according to Islamic law, but simply a sign of the emphasis Imam Malik placed on the importance of Muhammad ﷺ.
Imam Malik’s seminal work, al-Muwatta

Among Imam Malik’s sayings are:
“The Sunnah is the ark of Nuh. Whoever boards it is saved, and whoever remains away perishes.”
“Knowledge does not consist in narrating much. Knowledge is but a light which Allah places in the heart.”
“None renounces the world and guards himself without then ending up speaking wisdom.”
When Imam Malik embarked on the study of Islamic sciences with a teacher, his mother advised him to “learn from your teacher his manners before you learn from him his knowledge.”
Imam Malik’s ideology on fiqh developed into the Maliki madhab (school). As Imam Malik wished, it was not imposed on Muslims as the sole school of Islamic law. Instead, it complemented the other three schools that took precedence in the Sunni Muslim world – the Hanafi, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools. The Maliki school became very popular in North and West Africa, as well as Muslim Spain. Today it remains the main madhab of North and West Africa.
Imam Malik died at the age of 85 in the year 795. He was buried in the Baqee’ Cemetary in Madinah.
Bibliography:
Haddad, Gibril. The Four Imams and their Schools.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Imam Malik was one of the most respected scholars of Fiqh also known as Imam Darul Hijrah. His great grandfather Abi Aamer, who was from Yemen, embraced Islam in 2 AH and migrated to Madinah. He participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) except the Battle of Badr. Malik was born near Madinah in 93 AH. He received his education in Madinah and contacted about 900 scholars for collecting Hadiths. He acquired a great amount of knowledge from the disciples of the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

He mastered the science of Hadith at the age of 17 and began to issue Fatwa after 70 scholars confirmed his eligibility for the purpose. He collected over 100,000 Hadiths written by his hand.
Imam Abu Hanifa met Imam Malik and recognized his scholarship. Imam Shafie was a disciple of Imam Malik.
Imam Malik was the first to compile an authentic book of Hadith named “Al-Muwatta.” It contained 1,720 Hadiths. The book was approved by 70 scholars and thus called Muwatta (The approved). Many commentaries have been written on the book. Imam Shafie, who was one of Malik’s students for nine years, said: “Imam Malik is like a star among scholars.” Imam Malik memorized the Qur’an in his youth and studied under famous scholars like Hisham ibn Urwah, Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri and Imam Jafar Al Sadiq, the descendant of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him).
He served and protected the science of Hadith for over 70 years in Madinah and expired at the age of 87. He was so attached to the city of the Holy Prophet that he performed Haj only once and never went outside the city. His jurisprudence was later developed into the Maliki School of Thought, which was promoted in Morocco, Algeria and Spain.
Imam Malik compiled Al-Muwatta in the course of 40 years, having started with 10,000 narrations until he reduced them to their present number. Imam Bukhari said that the most authentic chain of transmission of Hadith is called Silsalat Al Zahabi (golden chain), which has only three links — “Malik from Nafi from Ibn Umar and then from the Holy Prophet” (peace be upon him).
There are 80 narrations with this chain in this book. Imam Shafie regarded Al-Muwatta as the most authentic book on earth after the Holy Qur’an.
Imam Malik was very strong in defending Shariah and did not care for the likings of the ruling class.
Madinah governor during Abbasid Caliphate arrested and flogged him publicly for issuing a Fatwa against ruling Caliph Mansur. When the caliph came to know about it, he dismissed the governor and apologized to Imam Malik. He also sent 3,000 dinars and invited Imam Malik to live in Baghdad but he refused the offer saying that he preferred to live in the city of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him).
Imam Malik also issued a Fatwa against the will of Caliph Haroon Rashid for which he was severely punished. But once, when the caliph came to Madinah he asked him to teach Hadith to his princes. But Imam replied that the wealth of knowledge does not go to the doors of others.
Haroon Rashid was wise enough, he came with his princes to the gathering of Imam Malik and attended his lecture like others.
Haroon Rashid had suggested that Imam Malik’s book, Al-Muwatta, should be put in the Holy Kaaba and all Muslims be told to follow it in all matters of jurisprudence. But Imam Malik refused, saying “Refrain from this as the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) themselves held opposing views on subsidiary issues.”
Imam Malik’s daughter Fatima had memorized Al-Muwatta.
Imam Malik fell ill and died on 14th of Rabiul Awwal 179 AH. Emir of Madinah Abdul Aziz Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem led his funeral prayers. He was buried in Jannatul Baqee.
It is reported that the Holy Prophet had said: “Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of knowledge, and they shall find no one more knowledgeable than the knowledgeable scholar of Madinah” (Sunan Al-Tirmidhi). Scholars consider that the scholar referred to was Malik ibn Anas. (May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon them all).