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  1. #1
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    Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here: (OP)




    I am making this thread to help and motivate the brothers and sisters who want to lose weight.. I realize many of you actually want to pack on some pounds so this isn't for you..

    This is how we'll start:

    you click on this link:

    http://www.freedieting.com/tools/calorie_calculator.htm

    enter your weight height etc. and it will let you know how many calories you ought to be having per day.

    two

    portion control

    you can use this link:

    http://www.thecaloriecounter.com/

    enter the food you are having and don't exceed it in caloric intake..
    Now I wouldn't advise losing more than a pound a week but some of you might opt for two. Please be mindful that even though your body will breakdown your fat reserves to make up for the deficit it will also breakdown muscle and I won't get into the biochem of that perhaps one of those who newly entered medical school can wow us by listing their fatty acid synthesis and breakdown cycle but we are not interested in that for the purposes of this thread unless you really want to be convinced, know that your body on daily basis has to use energy to filter your waste, detoxify you and pump your tissues full of O2 amongst thousands of other physiological and biochemical pathways..

    so to cut down all the mumbo jumbo this is about all you need a diary:

    So you wake up and document what you have had I'd also advise a food scale for those of you awful at guesstimating with a single serving is but if you are not then you just put down everything and calculate:

    for instance today I had 225 calories for breakfast broken down to:

    One English Muffin 120 calories
    one Pastrami slice 30 calories
    one slice of american cheese 55 calories
    one coffee with coffee mate 20 calories
    taking the total to 225 for breakfast

    Dinner (or lunch) depending on your perspective I had
    1/4 cup white beans with tomato sauce 198 calories
    Indian fried rice 221 calories
    taking my dinner total to 419 calories for a total of 644 consumed

    the last meal of the day I'll probably have cereal but you get the picture my daily caloric intake doesn't exceed 1200 (and as I said you can determine that using the scale above) so I have 556 calories left on my scale which I guess I can also have a snack a banana or something if I want..
    _________________________________

    so if you want to carry on this thread at the end of the week you can report your energy level and weight loss (or not)

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  2. #61
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    May Allah have mercy on him رحمة الله عليه

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

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    I just want to encourage everybody to continue with your efforts. It can be frustrating as after a few weeks the results of any diet are not as noticeable as they were in the first week or 2. But this is because your body is adapting to a new life and like all things it will try to go back to what it has been familiar with. Just remember loosing even one ounce is better than gaining an ounce.

    May Allaah(swt) be with all of you as you make this noble endeavor. Success is within your reach.
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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    how is it going all you silent weight watchers? it has been three weeks since we started this thread..

    here are a few more tips:

    Tips for losing weight

    URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/e...cle/001940.htm

    To successfully lose weight, you must carry out a plan that balances the calories you eat every day with your activity and exercise. Ideally, dieting should be done by eating a nutritionally balanced, low-calorie diet and increasing physical activity.
    Related topics:



    Information

    Although there are many programs advertised to help you lose weight, the only proven long-term and safe method is to burn more calories than you consume.
    This is achieved either by reducing the caloric intake (eat less food or healthier food) or by increasing the energy expenditure (exercise more). Often, behavior modification techniques like eating smaller portions are used to help control eating habits. Once the weight is lost, these habits can be modified slightly for weight maintenance.
    If you have unintentional weight loss, it can be a symptom of various medical or psychiatric disorders, or it can be due to increasing your exercise or decreasing your food intake.
    HEALTHY CALORIE INTAKE
    The U.S. Committee on Dietary Allowance has published recommended energy intakes (number of calories) for various age and sex groups. These numbers also depend on your activity level and medical conditions, including pregnancy.
    WEIGHT LOSS TIPS
    One pound of fat contains approximately 3,500 calories, so to lose one pound a week, a person should consume approximately 3,500 fewer calories per week. This can be done by reducing the daily intake by 500 calories per day (500 x 7 days will provide a deficit of 3,500 calories per week). To lose 2 pounds per week, a deficit of 1,000 calories per day is required.
    If this seems impossible, remember that physical activity also contributes significantly to weight loss. The deficit of 500 to 1,000 calories can come from a combination of increased physical activity and reduced intake on a daily basis.
    Therefore, you don't need to experience significant food deprivation. The lowest intake per day recommended for women is 1,200 calories, unless they are in a medically-supervised, very low-calorie regimen which may have a daily level of 500 to 800 calories per day.
    The lowest level recommended for men is 1,500 calories per day. A very low-calorie diet can also be used by males if they are in a medically-supervised program.
    Tips for preventing weight gain:

    • Avoid foods that are high in fat and sugar.
    • Reduce how much alcohol you drink.
    • Avoid stress, frustration, and boredom.
    • If you are depressed, seek medical treatment.

    Avoid a sedentary lifestyle by increasing your activity level:

    • Perform aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week .
    • Increase physical activity by walking rather than driving.
    • Climb stairs rather than using an elevator or escalator.
    • Always talk to your health care provider before starting an exercise program.

    See also: Balanced diet
    FAD DIETS
    A fad diet is one that makes unrealistic promises. Most fad diets are very low in carbohydrates and in calories, causing fluid loss from the body, which indicates a loss of weight on the scale. Once the body gets rehydrated with water, the weight will come right back.
    Evaluation of a fad diet:

    • Is the diet medically and nutritionally safe? Get an opinion from a physician and a registered dietitian.
    • Red flags for fad diets include: overemphasis on a specific food group or groups, limited food choices, and a "calories do not count" approach.

    These are ways to decide whether to use a diet or not. If there is no nutritionally or medically reliable information provided, and if there are no statistics to back the claims, then it is not a good diet to consider. Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, then it probably is.
    SUMMARY
    For weight loss to be successful, here is a summary of basic guidelines:

    • Aerobic physical activity will assist in increasing muscle tissue which will burn more calories. You should plan on 20-minute sessions at least 3 times per week.
    • Gradual changes in eating habits will help encourage a permanent lifestyle change.
    • A slow weight loss of 1 or 2 pounds a week, until the desirable body weight is reached, is best.

    RESOURCES
    A registered dietitian is an excellent resource for individualized weight loss. Dietitians can provide information on classes and programs available in the community.
    By far, the most well-known community-based support group is Weight Watchers. Members meet every week and learn about healthy eating while encouraging each other in their weight loss goals.
    Consumer brochures can be obtained from the Federal Trade Commission on evaluation of commercial weight loss programs.


    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/e...cle/001940.htm
    Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

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  5. #63
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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    well i thin i may have lost a few kilograms but right now my scale isn't working!!! i'm still watching what i eat well (so long as i don't cook rice or pasta but even then i do try) & alhamdulillah i currently have a terrifc control on my eating and it has to do with fasting. I'm trying to fast at least two days a week (Monday & Thursday) and i see that fasting gives you great control over your eating. so all you weight watchers, if you want to seriously control yyour eating, then fast once or twice a week.

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    ^^ very true alternating fast is an excellent way to establish ones goals. I have an article on that I'll try to dig it later..

    Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    Assalaamu`Alaaykum

    wow awesome thread masha`Allaah, just discovered it

    I like exercise it is awesome : D, how many calories is it recommended to burn in a day? ( if that makes any sense )
    Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    "Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Hayyul-Qayyum (the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists).".."[Al Qur'aan 3:2]

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    it depends on your caloric intake and your weight gain/loss goals..

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    here we go although I don't know how many people are interested in reading this:

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 1, 7-13, July 2007
    © 2007 American Society for Nutrition

    REVIEW ARTICLE

    Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials1,2,3

    Krista A Varady and Marc K Hellerstein
    1 From the Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
    2 Supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
    3 Reprints not available. Address correspondence to KA Varady, Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, Morgan Hall, Room 308, Berkeley, CA 94720-3104. E-mail: [email protected].

    ABSTRACT


    Calorie restriction (CR) and alternate-day fasting (ADF) represent 2 different forms of dietary restriction. Although the effects of CR on chronic disease prevention were reviewed previously, the effects of ADF on chronic disease risk have yet to be summarized. Accordingly, we review here animal and human evidence concerning ADF and the risk of certain chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We also compare the magnitude of risk reduction resulting from ADF with that resulting from CR. In terms of diabetes risk, animal studies of ADF find lower diabetes incidence and lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, effects that are comparable to those of CR. Human trials to date have reported greater insulin-mediated glucose uptake but no effect on fasting glucose or insulin concentrations. In terms of cardiovascular disease risk, animal ADF data show lower total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, a lower heart rate, improved cardiac response to myocardial infarction, and lower blood pressure. The limited human evidence suggests higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower triacylglycerol concentrations but no effect on blood pressure. In terms of cancer risk, there is no human evidence to date, yet animal studies found decreases in lymphoma incidence, longer survival after tumor inoculation, and lower rates of proliferation of several cell types. The findings in animals suggest that ADF may effectively modulate several risk factors, thereby preventing chronic disease, and that ADF may modulate disease risk to an extent similar to that of CR. More research is required to establish definitively the consequences of ADF.

    Key Words: Alternate-day fasting • calorie restriction • type 2 diabetes • cardiovascular disease • cancer • animal models • humans

    INTRODUCTION


    Calorie restriction (CR), defined as a reduction in energy intake without malnutrition, has been shown to increase life span, improve numerous functional indexes, and reduce metabolic risk factors for chronic disease in several mammalian species (1, 2). CR regimens have consisted of reducing food intake to 60–85% of daily energy needs. As an alternative to traditional CR, another dietary regimen, termed alternate-day fasting (ADF), has also been tested. ADF regimens generally involve a "feast day" on which food is consumed ad libitum that alternates with a "fast day" on which food is withheld or reduced. The feast and fast periods are typically 24 h each, but they may vary. A key point about the ADF approach is that overall calorie intake need not be limited; instead, the frequency of food consumption is altered (3).
    The purpose of this review is to summarize the relatively sparse but highly suggestive literature on ADF regimens. Although the effects of CR on chronic disease prevention were discussed in reviews conducted in the past few years (4-6), the ability of ADF to alter chronic disease risk has not yet been summarized. In particular, the key question—whether ADF has effects on risk modulation comparable to those of CR—remains uncertain. Accordingly, our objective was to review the evidence from both animal and human trials concerning ADF and the risk of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. In addition, when possible, the magnitude of risk reduction due to ADF will be compared with that due to CR.

    BENEFITS OF CALORIE RESTRICTION REGIMENS


    A large body of evidence for the physiologic benefits and life-extending properties of CR now exists. Restricting daily energy intake by 15–40% has been shown in both animals and humans to improve glucose tolerance and insulin action, which indicates an enhancement in insulin sensitivity (7, 8); to reduce blood pressure and the heart rate, which is consistent with benefits for cardiovascular health (9-11); and to reduce oxidative damage to lipids, protein, and DNA, which implies a protective effect against oxidative stress (12-15). Many other effects of CR have been documented, including increased average and maximal life span (12), reduced incidence of spontaneous and induced cancers (13), resistance of neurons to degeneration (14), lower rates of kidney disease (15), and prolongation of reproductive function (16).
    Although the precise mechanisms responsible for such effects are still not clear, several general hypotheses have been proposed—most prominent are the stress resistance hypothesis, the oxidative stress hypothesis, and the induction of a scarcity program hypothesis (3, 17-19). The first hypothesis suggests that, after prolonged dietary restriction, increased resistance to different types of stressors occurs, which permits the cells of many tissues to resist injury induced by genotoxic, metabolic, or oxidative insults (20-22). The second hypothesis proposes more specifically that fewer free radicals are produced in the mitochondria of cells, because dietary restriction generally limits energy utilization, which results in less cellular oxidative damage (3). The third hypothesis proposes that CR induces intrinsic cellular and organismal programs for adaptation to scarcity, which result in the slowing of metabolic processes such as cell proliferation that contribute to senescence; this hypothesis has been strengthened by findings in yeast (19). The effects of ADF on these proposed mechanisms have not been explored as extensively as have the effects of CR, but some evidence has been generated, and that will be reviewed here.

    EFFECT OF ALTERNATE-DAY FASTING ON TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK


    Animal studies
    To date, 12 studies using animal models have examined the effect of ADF on chronic disease risk (23-34; Table 1). Approximately half of these studies examined variables related to diabetes, such as fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, fat oxidation, degree of insulitis, and occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Fasting glucose concentrations have generally been reported to decrease in response to ADF in animal models. Three studies found reduced circulating glucose concentrations after a 20–24-wk intervention (27, 30), whereas one study reported no effect on glucose concentrations after a 16-wk treatment (24). In the trials that measured insulin concentrations, consistent reductions were noted after ADF regimens that lasted 20 (27) and 24 (28) wk. It is interesting that, in the study of Anson et al (27), both glucose and insulin concentrations decreased to a similar extent in the ADF and the 40% CR groups. Increases in fat oxidation in liver and muscle have also been observed after relatively short periods (8 wk) of ADF (33).

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    TABLE 1 Animal trials examining the effect of alternate-day fasting (ADF) on chronic disease risk factors1

    Because impaired fat oxidation may contribute to ectopic accumulation of intracellular lipid and the development of insulin resistance (35), these increases in fat oxidation may increase insulin sensitivity. Also noted by Anson et al was a doubling of the plasma concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyrate in the ADF group but no change in the control group. In contrast, concentrations of this metabolite decreased in the 40% CR group but not in the control group (27). These results suggest that high rates of fatty acid oxidation leading to ketogenesis occurred with ADF but not with 40% CR. Moreover, reduced occurrence of insulin-dependent diabetes in response to ADF has been reported by Pedersen et al (30). These authors found that 77% of the BB rats fed ad libitum control diets developed diabetes, whereas only 52% of the animals fasted for 24 h on alternate days became diabetic. The degree of insulitis, however, was not affected, which suggested that the mechanism most likely did not involve modulation of this inflammatory variable (30).
    Human trials
    Risk factors for type 2 diabetes were measured in each of the 3 published human studies of ADF (36-38; Table 2). Evidence from these trials suggests that ADF does not alter fasting concentrations of glucose but may beneficially modulate other indexes of diabetes risk, such as insulin sensitivity. Specifically, Halberg et al (38) observed that, when normal-weight persons fasted for 20-h periods (fast day) and then ate their habitual diet ad libitum on alternate days (feast day), the insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased after 2 wk of intervention, as measured by using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. These results are supported by a study conducted by Heilbronn et al (36), which found that, after 3 wk of ADF, insulin response to a test meal was reduced, which implied improved insulin sensitivity. It is interesting that this effect on insulin sensitivity occurred only in male subjects (36).

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    TABLE 2 Human trials examining the effect of alternate-day fasting (ADF) on chronic disease risk factors1

    Another diabetes risk factor that has shown a sex-specific effect is glucose tolerance. After 3 wk of ADF, women but not men had an increase in the area under the glucose curve (36). This unfavorable effect on glucose tolerance in women, accompanied by an apparent lack of an effect on insulin sensitivity, suggests that short-term ADF may be more beneficial in men than in women in reducing type 2 diabetes risk. However, because minimal data and no longer-term studies are available to support this important hypothesis, more studies are needed. The effect of ADF regimens on insulin concentrations appears equivocal (37, 38). Specifically, Halberg et al (38) found that 2 wk of ADF had no effect on fasting insulin concentrations, whereas Heilbronn et al (37) found that 3 wk of this intervention decreased insulin concentrations, but only after a 32-h fast. Further research examining the time course of ADF effects on such diabetes-related variables could help clarify this matter. Also examined was the responsiveness of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to ADF (38). A 2-wk ADF regimen had no effect on intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTG) concentrations in normal-weight men (38). In adipose tissue, an inhibitory effect of insulin on adipose tissue lipolysis was observed after 2 wk of intervention (38). Because increased concentrations of free fatty acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (39), this decrease in lipolysis and circulating concentrations of free fatty acids may represent an indirect protective effect of ADF on diabetes risk.

    EFFECT OF ALTERNATE-DAY FASTING ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK


    Animal studies
    As a means of assessing cardiovascular response to ADF, trials in this area have examined heart rate, blood pressure, circulating lipids, and ischemic injury. In a recent study by Mager et al (24), reductions in heart rate were observed in Sprague-Dawley rats after 16 wk of ADF. Similar effects on heart rate were also found by Wan et al (28) after 24 wk of ADF. In both of these trials, treatment-induced decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were noted after 4 wk, and the lower blood pressures persisted throughout the course of the studies. Moreover, the magnitude of the effect on heart rate and blood pressure was similar in the ADF group and a 40% CR group, which suggests that ADF may be as beneficial as CR in modulating these variables (24).
    In addition, Krizova and Simek (32) observed decreases in circulating lipid concentrations, and, after 8 wk of ADF, both total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations decreased in adult mice. Moreover, the cardiac myocyte response to myocardial infarction (MI) induction has been studied by Ahmet et al (25). MI was induced by coronary artery ligation after 12 wk of ADF or control ad libitum diet in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 h after MI induction, the number of apoptotic myocytes in the affected area was one-fourth that in the ad libitum–fed controls, and the size of the MI in the ADF goup was half that in the ad libitum–fed controls. Also noted was a distinct reduction in neutrophil infiltration, which suggested a decrease in inflammatory response (25).
    Human trials
    Heilbron et al (37) examined the effect of ADF on CVD risk. When human subjects fasted on alternate days for a short period (3 wk), circulating concentrations of HDL cholesterol increased, whereas triacylglycerol concentrations decreased (37). It ispossible that these effects resulted from the decreases in body weight (2.5%) and fat mass (4.0%) observed in these subjects, who were unable to consume sufficient calories on the feast day to maintain an isocaloric state (37). It is interesting that the shifts in lipid concentrations were shown to be sex specific: ie, only the women had an increase in HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and only the men had a decrease in triacylglycerol concentrations (37). There is no clear explanation for these sex-based differences. The effect of ADF on blood pressure was also examined in this study. After 3 wk of intervention, neither systolic nor diastolic blood pressured changed in either the male or female subjects (37). This study included only normotensive persons, however. It will be of interest in future studies to examine the effect of this dietary regimen on blood pressure in other patient groups, such as those who are hypertensive, overweight, obese, and hyperlipidemic.

    EFFECT OF ALTERNATE-DAY FASTING ON CANCER RISK: ANIMAL TRIALS


    The protective effect of ADF on cancer survival was first described by Seigel et al (34). In this study, 3–4-mo-old rats were administered an ADF regimen beginning 1 wk before inoculation with MAT 13762 acsites tumor cells (34). Twelve of the 24 rats (50%) in the diet-restricted group survived 10 d after tumor inoculation, in comparison with only 3 of 24 animals (12.5%) in the control group, which had been fed ad libitum (34). The response to ADF of certain biomarkers of cancer risk, ie, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), has also been investigated (27, 28), but the results have been inconsistent. Whereas Anson et al (27) reported increases in IGF-1 in response to 20 wk of ADF, Wan et al (28) reported a clear decrease after 24 wk of treatment. IGF-1 is a potent promoter of cell proliferation and has been shown to decrease in response to CR (40). The animals in the study of Anson et al (27) did not lose any weight, whereas animals in the study of Wan et al (28) did lose weight; the lack of overall net negative energy balance may explain the different IGF-1 responses in those studies.
    More recently, the protective effect of the ADF restriction protocol on age-associated lymphoma and hepatocarcinogenesis was examined in mice (26). After 16 wk, the incidence of lymphoma in OF1 mice administered an ADF regimen was 0% and that in the control group was 33%. Because the ADF group mice consumed roughly the same total amount of food as the control mice, the efficacy of ADF was independent of total calorie intake (26). Also noted in that study was a significant, treatment-induced increase in spleen mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, which was associated with reduced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The effect of ADF on hepatocarcinogenesis has also been examined (29) after 4 wk of ad libitum feeding. In that study, Wistar rats were injected with diethylnitrosamine to initiate liver carcinogenesis and then fed on alternate days for 48 wk. When compared with ad libitum feeding, ADF inhibited the development of preneoplastic lesions and also decreased the number and size of liver nodules (29). These findings strongly support the hypothesis that long-term ADF may exert an antipromotional effect on experimental carcinogenesis, as has been shown in many studies of CR. Moreover, strong physiologic evidence in favor of the antipromotional effects of ADF was recently reported by Hsieh et al (23). After 12 wk of treatment, reduced rates of proliferation of several cell types, including mammary epithelial cells, skin epithelial cells (keratinocytes), and splenic T-cells, was observed (23). These changes induced by ADF were similar to, though not quite as potent as, those seen in the CR groups.
    ADF regimens have also been shown to increase mean and maximal life span in certain strains of mice (31). When ADF regimens were initiated in C57BL/6J mice at ages 2, 6, and 10 mo, body weight decreased and maximal life span was extended (31). It is interesting that, when the same ADF protocol was administered to A/J mice, body weight was not affected, and life span was increased only in the group that began ADF at age 2 mo (31). These findings suggest that ADF-induced changes in body weight and maximal life span may be strongly influenced by genotype and the age at which ADF is initiated.

    EFFECT OF ALTERNATE-DAY FASTING ON OTHER METABOLIC VARIABLES: HUMAN TRIALS


    The effect of short-term ADF regimens on other metabolic variables, such as body temperature, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and various hormone and cytokine concentrations, has also been examined in human subjects (36, 37). In the study by Heilbronn et al (37), neither body temperature nor RMR was affected by 3 wk of treatment. On the other hand, overall fat oxidation was shown to increase by an average of 15 g/d over the course of the trial, according to indirect calorimetry. The authors also observed a positive correlation between fat oxidation and weight loss, which suggested that those subjects with a greater ability to oxidize fat may have lost more weight (37). Thus, whether the weight loss noted is a result of ADF may depend on a person's ability to oxidize fat. Heilbronn et al (36) also examined treatment-induced changes in the expression of certain skeletal muscle genes involved in fat oxidation, including ß-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, fatty acid translocase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and uncoupling protein 3, as well as the expression of genes implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis, including peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and cytochrome C. They reported that a 3-wk treatment had no effect on the expression of any of these genes. The response of circulating concentrations of certain adipokines—ie, adiponectin, leptin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)—has also been examined (38). Concentrations of leptin, IL-6, and TNF-α did not change in response to ADF; in contrast, concentrations of adiponectin increased by 37% (38). Cnop et al (41) and Higashiura et al (42) both reported that circulating concentrations of adiponectin are positively correlated with insulin sensitivity, which suggests a possible role of this adipokine in the insulin-sensitizing effect noted in the present trial (38).

    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: ALTERNATE-DAY FASTING IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TRIALS


    Some discrepancies between human and animal ADF data are evident. With regard to the effect of ADF on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the results to date from human trials have been inconsistent, whereas the animal evidence suggests favorable alterations. Fasting glucose concentrations in rodents, for example, consistently were lower after 20 wk of treatment (27, 28, 30), whereas, in humans, no effect was seen after 2–3 wk of ADF (37, 38). It may be that longer intervention periods are required to alter glucose concentrations in human subjects. In the case of fasting insulin concentrations, equivocal findings were noted in humans (37, 38), whereas consistent decreases have been seen in animals (27, 28). Moreover, animal data indicate that ADF is just as efficacious in decreasing fasting glucose and insulin concentrations as is daily CR (27). Although neither glucose nor insulin concentrations were affected in the brief human trials carried out to date, it is interesting that findings such as increased insulin-mediated glucose uptake and reduced adipose tissue lipolysis have been reported (38). In animal models, fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle is increased with ADF (33); this may indicate that ectopic accumulation of intracellular lipid could be decreased, which in turn may lead to improved insulin sensitivity (43). Nevertheless, it should be noted that, in obese human subjects, CR does not affect intramyocellular lipid content but does result in decreased lipid accumulation in liver (44). Complementary to this evidence, the incidence of type 2 diabetes risk was lower in rodents fed on alternate days than in ad libitum–fed controls (30). In sum, the favorable effects noted in animal studies suggest that prolonged ADF is a beneficial means of lowering type 2 diabetes risk. Results from human studies, however, are less clear. It seems reasonable to expect that ADF will improve insulin sensitivity in humans, but the conflicting findings make it difficult to be certain about this. Longer intervention trials (ie, ≥20 wk) in human subjects may help to clarify this issue.
    Although overall beneficial modulations in risk factors for vascular disease have been found, with respect to blood pressure, the evidence from animal studies has shown a consistent decrease in both systolic and diastolic readings (24, 28), whereas data from human trials have shown no effect on either variable (37). One possible explanation for this inconsistency may be the differences in the duration of intervention. Because an effect on blood pressure readings was identified only after a 4-wk treatment in animals (24, 28), treatment for 3 wk in the human study may not have been long enough. Alternatively, weight loss, ie, negative energy balance, may be required for a blood pressure effect in humans. In the case of circulating lipid concentrations, beneficial modulations have been noted in both human and animal studies (32, 37). Specifically, human data show treatment-induced increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reductions in triacylglycerol concentrations (37), and results in rodents show decreases in total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations (32). Also shown, although only in rodent models, were improvements in cardiac response to MI induction (25) and decreases in heart rate (24, 28). In addition, the decreases in heart rate and blood pressure induced by ADF were similar to those induced by CR (24). Taken together, these improvements suggest that ADF may help reduce the risk of CVD.
    To date, the direct effect of ADF on cancer has been tested only in animal models. Most of those trials suggest a pronounced beneficial effect on cancer risk factors, including substantial decreases in lymphoma incidence (26), increases in spleen SOD activity accompanied by reductions in ROS generation (26), inhibition of hepatic preneoplastic lesion development (29), and a greater survival rate after tumor inoculation (34). The physiologic evidence of clear reductions in proliferation rates of several cell types—including mammary epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and splenic T-cells—induced by ADF regimens also supports the antipromotional actions of this intervention (23). The antiproliferative mechanism remains unknown, however, because the effects of ADF on IGF-1 concentrations have been inconsistent (27, 28). Nevertheless, most of these studies have reported a protective effect, so it is reasonable to propose that ADF will prove to be an effective means of decreasing cancer risk. Studies in human subjects are still required to answer this important question.
    An interesting but unresolved issue is the effect of ADF on body weight. Body weight has been shown to be highly variable in response to ADF in both human and animal models. In some animal models, when ADF regimens have been applied in the short term, no effect on body weight has been noted after 2 wk (34), whereas gains in weight were noted in other trials after 8 wk (32, 33). It is possible that the animals in the 8-wk trial may have overcompensated for the lack of food on the fast day by eating more than twice their average daily intake on the feast day. In other studies, when ADF regimens were administered for 12 wk, body weight was found to decrease (23, 25), but, when ADF regimens were administered for 16 wk, no effect on body weight was observed (24, 26). Trials examining the effects of long-term (>20 wk) ADF in animals (28-31) have fairly consistently found decreases in body, although the study by Anson et al (27) did not. Such findings suggest that the animals were unable to consume twice their daily food intake on the feast day for longer periods, which resulted in a loss of body weight. There clearly is variability in the capacity of animals, even within the same strain of mouse, to compensate for a fast day on the feast day (27). A variety of factors, such as housing conditions, palatability, or energy density of diet, and genetics can be hypothesized as influencing compensation. Understanding the factors controlling compensation is an important area for future research.
    The effect of ADF on body weight in humans is difficult to infer because of the very short trial durations and the small number of studies published to date. As was seen in animal trials, 2 wk of ADF had no effect on body weight in normal-weight human subjects (38). Nevertheless, when the intervention period in humans was extended to 3 wk, a decrease in body weight (≈2.5 kg) was noted (36, 37). This decrease in body weight may have resulted from an inability to consume an adequate amount of food on the feast day to sustain body weight. Similar findings were noted in animals, but only after much longer trial durations (>20 wk). An important study design issue is whether weight loss should be prevented in human ADF studies by "forced" maintenance of calorie intake. Forcing maintenance of intake may produce harmful effects over the long term, so this approach cannot currently be recommended. It is also possible that weight loss in humans following an ADF regimen will prove to be minor or transient. In contrast, striving for full compensation of calorie intake (ie, no weight loss) in studies lasting only weeks or a few months is unlikely to have significant adverse health consequences. The absence of weight loss would allow useful comparisons and distinctions between ADF and CR. These issues will require consideration by investigators who conduct future human trials with ADF.

    CONCLUSIONS


    Findings to date from both human and animal experiments indicate that ADF may effectively decrease the risk of CVD, whereas results from animal studies suggest a protective effect on cancer risk. In terms of diabetes prevention, animal data suggest a beneficial effect, but human data have been equivocal. However, it is important to note that the human studies examined in this review are limited; they all lacked control groups and used short trial lengths. Future studies with longer trials and including control groups are needed to answer these important questions. The effect of ADF regimens in insulin-resistant or diabetic populations also should be determined, because they could help to clarify the role of ADF as a treatment for preexisting diabetes rather than as a protection against diabetes.
    Moreover, human ADF trials in modestly overweight persons, who are at greater risk of chronic disease, are warranted. In this context, it is important to note that the control animals in both the CR and ADF studies are likely to have been obese, because they were fed ad libitum.
    ADF regimens also may be as efficacious as daily CR in improving certain indexes of risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD, although the number of studies directly comparing the 2 regimens is small. Further analysis of the mechanisms responsible for beneficial effects of ADF is clearly warranted, particularly if these effects occur in the absence of negative energy balance. Novel mediators and therapeutic strategies may thereby be uncovered. Finally, it seems intuitively likely that persons will find it easier to fast or reduce intake on alternate days than to reduce their intake every day. For this reason, ADF regimens may allow better compliance than would CR regimens and may represent an attractive area for investigation.
    It will also be important to understand whether the mechanisms by which ADF protects against chronic disease risk are similar to those of CR. Indirect evidence suggests that the 2 regimens may share mechanisms. For instance, the study of Descamps et al (26) reported increases in spleen mitochondrial SOD activity accompanied by decreases in mitochondrial generation of ROS as a result of ADF. Such findings suggest that ADF may act by increasing resistance to oxidative insult, which is a key feature of the stress resistance hypothesis.
    In summary, this still nascent literature suggests that ADF may effectively modulate metabolic and functional risk factors, thereby preventing or delaying the future occurrence of common chronic diseases, at least in animal models. The effect of ADF on chronic disease risk in normal-weight human subjects remains unclear, however, as do the mechanisms of action. Much work remains to be done to understand this dietary strategy fully.


    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


    The authors' responsibilities were as follows—KAV: collected, analyzed, and interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript; MKH: contributed to the analysis and interpretation of the data. Neither of the authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest.

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    Received for publication October 9, 2006. Accepted for publication January 15, 2007.


    Articles citing this article


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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    My parent's hid the scale from me. I think i might die =((((( ...!!!

    Did u know that your brain doesn't tell you that you're full until you've eaten twice as much as you need? That's why it's better to eat super slowly. So like if you normally have a giant bowl of cereal in the morning and you feel full by the time you're done - you've eaten too much. Split everything that you eat in half, and eat it slowly. Drink water ALOT and drink it with meals so it can keep you full. When i get hungry i load my stomach with water and it keeps me full.

    When i look in the mirror im quickly motivated to work out and stop eating.
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    ^^ Subhann Allah! I heard a hadith that states that the best manner of fasting is to fast on alternate days and that was the way Prophet Dawood (AS) used to fast. and the Prophet (SAW) told a sahabi (who said he could fast more than that) that more than that isn't better! (not exact words of hadith).
    Last edited by Muhaba; 12-23-2010 at 09:41 AM.
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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    Any exercise tips guys?

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    Quote Originally Posted by Musalman View Post
    Any exercise tips guys?

    walking briskly everyday is simple and effective.. if you want Muscle tone I recommend the resistance bars shared in the previous posts.. btw how is everyone's progress? Have you managed to lose at least 7pds?

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    Does working at gym help gain weight. Because good intake of food is next to impossible for me, I want other means to gain weight.

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    Quote Originally Posted by abdulmājid View Post
    Does working at gym help gain weight. Because good intake of food is next to impossible for me, I want other means to gain weight.

    Get married.. I have seen many a fit members of my family pack on the pds once they got married, now they wish they'd their svelte body back!
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    Quote Originally Posted by τhε ṿαlε'ṡ lïlÿ View Post



    Get married.. I have seen many a fit members of my family pack on the pds once they got married, now they wish they'd their svelte body back!
    To get married I need to gain weight first. who's gonna plan to live with a skinny fellow?

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    Quote Originally Posted by abdulmājid View Post
    To get married I need to gain weight first. who's gonna plan to live with a skinny fellow?
    women who need alot of work done around the house, that requires a speedy skinny guy.. believe me you'll have no problems..

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    i've seen that doing situps helps lower appetite. so doing even just 12 situps three times a day helps.

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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    I must admit that I have overindulged a little over Christmas.

    So I am trying to get back on track with keeping an eye on what I am eating and with exercising regularly.

    I find that as long as I don't snack on really 'evil' food, such as cakes and biscuits (how do so many calories fit into a small chocolate muffin??!), I'm okay and don't have to restrict myself too much.

    For exercise I love walking and - when I get round to it - running too.
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    ^speaking of chocolate, i really need to get a really evil chocolate cake. it's been so long since i've had one. i think i will indulge today!

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    How to Cheat on Your Diet Every Day and Still Lose Weight

    By marymeyerwrites, eHow Member

    Cheat on Your Diet Every Day and Still Lose Weight
    How to Cheat on Your Diet Every Day and Still Lose Weight



    User-Submitted Article
    It's difficult enough to lose weight, so do we really need unrealistic diets that don't allow us to eat things that we like? Ridiculous restriction almost always leads to failure, so why not allow yourself to cheat and still see results?


    Difficulty: Moderately Easy
    Instructions



    1. 1
      First and foremost, you need to know how MUCH you can cheat. In the same way you need to know how many miles per gallon your car gets, you need to know how many calories you can eat each day and still lose weight. A simple calculator can be found at http://nutrition.about.com
    2. 2
      Next you need to know the caloric value of the food you eat. Many people say "I don't want to count calories", but again that is the same as saying "I don't want to know how much gas I need in my car". If you keep a food log, tracking everything you eat each day along with its caloric value (easy to do at www.sparkpeople.com) for one week, you will be well equipped to easily "guesstimate" from that point on how many calories a certain food has. Trust me, it will become second nature!
    3. 3
      Once you know how many calories you can eat each day based on your desired weight, figure 10% of those calories as your daily cheat. In other words, if you are eating 1,700 calories a day, 170 of those can be cheat calories. How many people would be happy to say they ate healthfully 90% of every day? Much easier to do so if you plan ahead for your cheat.
    4. 4
      To plan ahead, determine what your cheat will be before your day starts. Otherwise it's too easy to "overcheat". Choose what will satisfy your usual cravings and when you are usually most susceptible. For instance, if you always crave something sweet right after lunch at work, pack a few Hershey's Kisses in your lunch bag. If you always like a crunchy/salty snack with your sandwich, measure out how many chips you are going to have with it--don't take the whole bag with you. Of course, you can make your cheat healthier by choosing low-fat, low-sugar options. Why not try a chocolate protein drink if you like sweets or baked vegetable chips if you need a crunch?
    5. 5
      Make sure the other 90% of your calories are as close to nature as possible and unprocessed. Fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy and meats and whole grains are the foods that allow you to cheat well, so be sure you fill the rest of your day with these. You will soon find that your "diet" has become your "live-it" and that you can maintain a healthy weight for the rest of your life.

    http://www.ehow.com/how_5204885_chea...se-weight.html
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    Re: Do you want to lose weight? If yes then enter here:

    Burning Calories - How to Walk for Weight Control

    By Wendy Bumgardner, About.com Guide
    Updated October 24, 2007
    About.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by our Medical Review Board

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    Weight is determined mostly by the balance of calories - how many you burn vs. how many you eat each day. To lose weight, you need to increase your activity to burn more and/or eat fewer calories each day. Calories and Weight

    A pound of fat equals 3500 calories. To lose 1 pound a week you will need to expend 3500 more calories than you eat that week, whether through increased activity or decreased eating or both. Losing 1-2 pounds of fat a week is a sensible goal, and so you will want to use the combination of increased activity and eating less that will total 3500 calories for 7 days. How You Burn Calories

    Your weight x distance = energy used walking. Time does not matter as much as distance. If you speed up to walking a mile in 13 minutes or less, you will be burning more calories per mile. But for most beginning walkers, it is best to increase the distance before working on speed. A simple rule of thumb is 100 calories per mile for a 180 pound person. Note About the Calories Chart
    You burn more calories per mile at very low speeds because you are basically stopping and starting with each step and your momentum isn't helping to carry you along. Meanwhile, at very high walking speeds you are using more muscle groups with arm motion and with a racewalking stride. Those extra muscles burn up extra calories with each step. Running may burn more calories per mile as there is an up and down motion lifting your weight off the ground as well as moving it forward.
    Calorie Calculator by Distance
    Calorie and Distance Calculator
    Pedometer Steps Calorie and Distance Calculator


    http://walking.about.com/cs/howtolos...howcalburn.htm
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