The scholars have divided the types of mistakes one might fall into when reciting the Qur'an into two types:
لحن جلى

• The Clear mistakes must be avoided by all and to avoid them one must know the rules
of Tajweed.
• If a person falls into the Clear Mistakes, this is considered a sin and Ibn Taymiyyah even
regarded it undesirable for a Student of Knowledge (i.e. someone who knows Tajweed)
to pray behind a person who makes clear Mistakes in their Salaah.
• Very Obvious and can be felt
• Changes the meaning of Quran‟s Words
• Must Avoid it at every Cost
• These mistakes are Haram

لحن خفى

• The ruling on Hidden/ unobvious is lighter and the recitation of a person falling into this type of
mistake is regarded as lacking in completeness.
• A mistake that although does not change the meaning of Quranic words but the beauty of the words diminishes
• Reading against the rules of different letters falls under this category.
• This mistake is “makrooh” (disliked) Also it could be Haram if done intentionally.
Examples : -To overlook the rules of the thick / full mouth (tafkheem) letters and the thin / empty mouth.
(tarqeeq) letters.
• Not to adhere to the rules of ith’har, idghaam and ikhfaa in their respective places whilst reciting the Qur’an.

The two most common tajweed mistakes made by non-Arabs are the timings of the vowels, and medd letters, and in the letters themselves, meaning using the wrong articulation point for a letter, as well as improper timing of vowels (i.e. lengthening a vowel longer than one vowel count), and natural lengthening (making them shorter than they should be). Each vowel over a letter receives one count.
Medd letters have two vowel counts if they are not followed by a hamzah or a sukoon.
The second type of mistake, that in the letters themselves, is a major problem that needs to be addressed by all non-Arabs, whether they are Westerners, Europeans, Africans, from the Indo Pakistani subcontinent, or from Eastern Asia. At the outset, the letters that occur in Arabic that are not common in other languages would be what one would imagine to be a problem, but in fact, there are letters that occur in Arabic, that are not common in other languages are:
ض ص غ ع خ ح ط ظ

It is vital that the Muslim learn the Arabic letters and vowels and recite the Qur’an using them, NOT a transliteration. Transliterations do not take into account the various letters that sound similar to the untrained ear, but are very different in pronunciation. You can learn Quran and Arabic online at Firdaws Academy.
The Qur’an is the word of Allah, revealed to man as a guidance, and we have to be extremely careful to read it, as best we can, with proper pronunciation. Reading a transliteration can lead to changing the meaning of the Arabic Qur’an by mispronouncing.

Common Mistakes of the beginners


Mistakes Examples
Articulation points Mixing up the letters that have similar shapes: ب – ي – ت –ث –ن
Mixing up the pronunciation of:
هاء - حاء عين - همزة
ذال - زاي – سن
Heavy and light letters طاء - تاء ضاء - دال
Emalah to make the letters light باء - تاء
Not emphasizing the Dhammah and Kasrah أَ ِذ َن - َك ُب َر
Prolonging the Harakah more than one count / the timings of the vowels َك َت َب
Missing the Qalqalah of the Qalqalah letters ذق - بطش
Making Qalqalah when pronouncing some Saakin letters which are not letters of Qalqalah أَن - إذ - شئتم
Not emphasising the Kasrah and Dhammah of the Tanween ظل ل - ول د
Not prolonging the natural Madd two Harakas قال - أعوذ
Not pronouncing the Shaddah as two letters صفا - رب
Missing the Ghunnah of the Noon and Meem Mushaddah منا - ظن
The laam of Allah is pronounced light or not pronounced with Shaddah رسول هللا

Mistakes Examples
Khaishum (pronouncing some letters from the nose) االم of الحمد العين of أعوذ
Making Dhammah while pronouncing the heavy letters طغى


Mistakes Examples
Makharij وضحاها هاء تنطق مثل الحاء أو العكس
ضاء تنطق مثل الدال
Not applying the rules of Noon Saakin and Tanween, Meem Saakin, Noon and Meem Mushaddad
or not prolonging the Ghunnah as it should be
or making Ghunnah where it should be Izhaar
أنتم - إ ن - ءامنهم من
)missing the Idghaam( لكل ويل
من أعطى
Not applying the rules of Madd or not giving it enough time السماء - وال الضالين
Missing the Qalqalah especially the Sughra يدخلون
Not emphasising the Dhammah and Kasrah أعوذ باهلل من الشيطان الرجيم بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم
Khaishum يعملون Stopping at the end of the Ayahs that have Waaw Madd before the last letter
Making Qalqalah when pronouncing Laam Qamariyyah and some Saakin letters that shouldn’t have Qalqalah حتى زرتم المقابر
Mistakes Examples
Pronouncing the Alif following the heavy letters light قال - صالحين
Ikhtilas the timing of the Harakas َر َز َق ُكم
Skipping the natural Madd and the Sella Sughra while reciting or making them more than 2 Harakas لترونها عين
إنه هو
Shortening the Madd at the end of the Ayah, or changing it to Haa, or pronouncing Hamza after the Madd عبس وتولى
Some students say:
وتو َل - وتوله - وتوالء
Not pronouncing the Raa clearly at the end of the Ayah القدر - شهر
The student doesn't know when the Raa is heavy and when it is light especially then stopping on a Raa القمر - مستقر
Making the light letters heavy when followed or proceeded by a heavy letter الحطب - أرءيت - رسول
Tashil the Hamza while reciting ثم أماته فأقبره
Missing the Madd Ewad صفا صفا
Very quick recitation
Lack of fluency and unable to link the words to read the Ayah
The student doesn’t know where to stop if the Ayah is long so they take their breath while reading Some Ayahs of Surah Al-Bayyinah or many Ayahs in Juz 28