Tafsir Ibn Kathir: Ayat Al- Kursi (2:255)
[Quran: Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow), 2:255]
اللّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَاء وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَلاَ يَؤُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ (2:255
Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.
Ayat Al-Kursi has Ten Complete Arabic Sentences
1. Allah's statement,
اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ
Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He) mentions that Allah is the One and Only Lord of all creation.
2. Allah's statement,
(Al-Hayyul-Qayyum) testifies that Allah is the Ever Living, Who never dies, Who sustains everyone and everything. All creation stands in need of Allah and totally relies on Him, while He is the Most Rich, Who stands in need of nothing created.
Similarly, Allah said,
وَمِنْ ءَايَـتِهِ أَن تَقُومَ السَّمَآءُ وَالاٌّرْضُ بِأَمْرِهِ
[(And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command) 30:25]
3. Allah's statement,
لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ
(Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him) means, no shortcoming, unawareness or ignorance ever touches Allah. Rather, He is aware of, and controls what every soul earns, has perfect watch over everything, nothing escapes His knowledge, and no secret matter is secret to Him. Among His perfect attributes, is the fact that He is never effected by slumber or sleep.
Therefore, Allah's statement,
لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ
(Neither slumber overtakes Him) indicates that no unawareness due to slumber ever overtakes Allah.
Allah said afterwards,
(nor sleep), which is stronger than slumber. It is recorded in the Sahih that Abu Musa said, "The Messenger of Allah delivered a speech regarding four words:
«إِنَّ اللهَللهَلا يَنَامُ، وَلَا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَنَامَ، يَخْفِضُ الْقِسْطَ وَيَرْفَعُهُ، يُرْفَعُ إِلَيْهِ عَمَلُ النَّهَارِ قَبْلَ عَمَلِ اللَّيْلِ، وَعَمَلُ اللَّيْلِ قَبْلَ عَمَلِ النَّهَارِ، حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ أَوِ النَّارُ لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لَأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِه»
(Allah does not sleep, and it does not befit His majesty that He sleeps. He lowers the scales and raises them. The deeds of the day are resurrected in front of Him before the deeds of the night, and the deeds of the night before the deeds of the day. His Veil is light, or fire, and if He removes it, the rays from His Face would burn whatever His sight reaches of His creation.)
4. Allah's statement,
لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَـوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الاٌّرْضِ
(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth) indicates that everyone is a servant for Allah, a part of His kingdom and under His power and authority.
Similarly, Allah said,
إِن كُلُّ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ إِلاَّ آتِى الرَّحْمَـنِ عَبْداً - لَّقَدْ أَحْصَـهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدّاً - وَكُلُّهُمْ ءَاتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فَرْداً
[There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious (Allah) as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender)19:93-95]
5. Allah's statement,
مَن ذَا الَّذِى يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) is similar to His statements,
وَكَمْ مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ لاَ تُغْنِى شَفَـعَتُهُمْ شَيْئاً إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْضَى
[(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with) 53:26]
وَلاَ يَشْفَعُونَ إِلاَّ لِمَنِ ارْتَضَى
[(They cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased) 21:28.]
These Ayat assert Allah's greatness, pride, and grace, and that no one dares to intercede with Him on behalf of anyone else, except by His permission.
Indeed, the Hadith about the intercession, states that the Prophet said,
«آتِي تَحْتَ الْعَرْشِ فَأَخِرُّ سَاجِدًا، فَيَدَعُنِي مَا شَاءَ اللهُ أَنْ يَدَعَنِي. ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: ارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ، وَقُلْ تُسْمَعْ، وَاشْفَعْ تُشَفَّعْ قَالَ: فَيَحُدُّ لِي حَدًّا فَأُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّة»
(I will stand under the Throne and fall in prostration, and Allah will allow me to remain in that position as much as He wills. I will thereafter be told, "Raise your head, speak and you will be heard, intercede and your intercession will be accepted''. The Prophet then said, "He will allow me a proportion whom I will enter into Paradise.'')
6. Allah's statement,
يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ
(He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter) this refers to His perfect knowledge of all creation; its past, present and future.
Similarly, Allah said that the angels proclaimed;
وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلاَّ بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَمَا خَلْفَنَا وَمَا بَيْنَ ذلِكَ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيّاً
[(And we (angels) descend not except by the command of your Lord (O Muhammad ). To Him belongs what is before us and what is behind us, and what is between those two; and your Lord is never forgetful) 19:64]
7. Allah's statement,
وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَآءَ
(And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills), asserts the fact that no one attains any part of Allah's knowledge except what Allah conveys and allows. This part of the Ayah indicates that no one ever acquires knowledge of Allah and in His Attributes, except what He conveys to them.
For instance, Allah said,
وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْماً
(But they will never compass anything of His knowledge)20: 110]
8. Allah said,
وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَـوَاتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ
(His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth.)
Waki` narrated in his Tafsir that Ibn `Abbas said, "Kursi is the footstool, and no one is able to give due consideration to (Allah's) Throne.'' Al-Hakim recorded this Hadith in his Mustadrak from Ibn `Abbas, who did not relate it to the Prophet . Al-Hakim said, "It is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Sahihs, and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.'' In addition, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, "If the seven heavens and the seven earths were flattened and laid side by side, they would add up to the size of a ring in a desert, compared to the Kursi.''
9. Allah said,
وَلاَ يَؤُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا
(And He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them) meaning, it does not burden or cause Him fatigue to protect the heavens and earth and all that is in between them. Rather, this is an easy matter for Him. Further, Allah sustains everything, has perfect watch over everything, nothing ever escapes His knowledge and no matter is ever a secret to Him.
All matters are insignificant, modest and humble before Him. He is the Most Rich, worthy of all praise. He does what He wills, and no one can ask Him about what He does, while they will be asked. He has supreme power over all things and perfect alertness concerning everything. He is the Most High, the Greatest, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, and no Lord other than Him.
10. Allah's statement,
وَهُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْعَظِيمُ
(And He is the Most High, the Most Great) is similar to His statement,
(the Most Great, the Most High) 13:9]
Tafsir Ibn Kathir Surah Noor [The Light, (24:35)]
اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونِةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاء وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (24:35)
Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as (if there were) a niche and within it a lamp, the lamp is in glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east (i.e. neither it gets sun-rays only in the morning) nor of the west (i.e. nor it gets sun-rays only in the afternoon, but it is exposed to the sun all day long), whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it. Light upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.
The Parable of the Light of Allah
`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said:
[اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ](Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) means, the Guide of the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth.
Ibn Jurayj said: "Mujahid and Ibn `Abbas said concerning the Ayah:
[اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]
(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.)He is controlling their affairs and their stars and sun and moon.''
As-Suddi said concerning the Ayah:
[اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ](Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth
.) by His Light the heavens and earth are illuminated.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "When the Messenger of Allah got up to pray at night, he would say:
«اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ، أَنْتَ قَيِّمُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ، وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ أَنْتَ نُورُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ»
(O Allah, to You be praise, You are the Sustainer of heaven and earth and whoever is in them. To You be praise, You are the Light of the heavens and the earth and whoever is in them. ) It was narrated that Ibn Mas`ud said, "There is no night or day with your Lord; the Light of the Throne comes from the Light of His Face.''
[مَثَلُ نُورِهِ](The parable of His Light)
There are two views concerning the meaning of the pronoun (His). The first is that it refers to Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, meaning that the parable of His guidance in the heart of the believer is
[كَمِشْكَاةٍ](as a niche)
This was the view of Ibn `Abbas. The second view is that the pronoun refers to the believer, which is indicated by the context of the words and implies that the parable of the light in the heart of the believer is as a niche. So the heart of the believer and what he is naturally inclined to of guidance and what he learns of the Qur'an which is in accordance with his natural inclinations are, as Allah says:
[أَفَمَن كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّهِ وَيَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِّنْهُ]
(Can they who rely on a clear proof from their Lord, and whom a witness from Him recites it (can they be equal with the disbelievers)) [11:17]. The heart of the believer in its purity and clarity is likened to a lamp in transparent and jewel-like glass, and the Qur'an and Shari`ah by which it is guided are likened to good, pure, shining oil in which there is no impurity or deviation.
[كَمِشْكَاةٍ](as (if there were) a niche)
Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b and others said, "This refers to the position of the wick in the lamp.'' This is well-known, and hence Allah then says:
[فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ](and within it a lamp.)
This is the flame that burns brightly. Or it was said that the niche is a niche in the house. This is the parable given by Allah of obedience towards Him. Allah calls obedience to Him as light, then He calls it by other numerous names as well. Ubayy bin Ka`b said, "The lamp is the light, and this refers to the Qur'an and the faith that is in his heart.''
As-Suddi said, "It is the lamp.''
[الْمِصْبَاحُ فِى زُجَاجَةٍ](the lamp is in a glass,)
means, this light is shining in a clear glass. Ubayy bin Ka`b and others said, "This is the likeness of the heart of the believer.''
[الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّىٌّ](the glass as it were a star Durriyyun,)
Some authorities recite the word Durriyyun with a Dammah on the Dal and without a Hamzah, which means pearls, i.e., as if it were a star made of pearls (Durr). Others recite it as Dirri'un or Durri'un, with a Kasrah on the Dal, or Dammah on the Dal, and with a Hamzah at the end, which means reflection (Dir'), because if something is shone on the star it becomes brighter than at any other time. The Arabs call the stars they do not know Darari. Ubayy bin Ka`b said: a shining star. Qatadah said: "Huge, bright and clear.''
[يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَـرَكَةٍ](lit from a blessed tree,)
means, it is derived from olive oil, from a blessed tree.
(an olive,) This refers to the blessed tree mentioned previously.
[لاَّ شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلاَ غَرْبِيَّةٍ](neither of the east nor of the west,)
means, it is not in the eastern part of the land so that it does not get any sun in the first part of the day, nor is it in the western part of the land so that it is shaded from the sun before sunset, but it is in a central position where it gets sun from the beginning of the day until the end, so its oil is good and pure and shining. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on:
[زَيْتُونَةٍ لاَّ شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلاَ غَرْبِيَّةٍ](an olive, neither of the east nor of the west,)
"This is a tree in the desert which is not shaded by any other tree or mountain or cave, nothing covers it, and this is best for its oil.'' Mujahid commented on:
[لاَّ شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلاَ غَرْبِيَّةٍ](neither of the east nor of the west, )
saying; "It is not in the east where it will get no sun when the sun sets, nor is it in the west where it will get no sun when the sun rises, but it is in a position where it will get sun both at sunrise and sunset.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr commented:
[زَيْتُونَةٍ لاَّ شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلاَ غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِىءُ](an olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself))
"This is the best kind of oil. When the sun rises it reaches the tree from the east and when it sets it reaches it from the west, so the sun reaches it morning and evening, so it is not counted as being in the east or in the west.''
[يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِىءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ](whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it.)
`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said (this means) because the oil itself is shining.
[نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ](Light upon Light!)
Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas that this meant the faith and deeds of a person
. As-Suddi said:
[نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ](Light upon Light!)
"Light of the fire and the light of the oil: when they are combined they give light, and neither of them can give light without the other. Similarly the light of the Qur'an and the light of faith give light when they are combined, and neither can do so without the other.''
[يَهْدِى اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ](Allah guides to His Light whom He wills
.) means, Allah shows the way to the ones whom He chooses, as it says in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Amr, who said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
«إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى خَلَقَ خَلْقَهُ فِي ظُلْمَةٍ ثُمَّ أَلْقَى عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ نُورِهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ، فَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ نُورِهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ اهْتَدَى وَمَنْ أَخْطَأَ ضَلَّ فَلِذَلِكَ أَقُولُ: جَفَّ الْقَلَمُ عَلَى عِلْمِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ»
(Allah created His creation in darkness, then on the same day He sent His Light upon them. Whoever was touched by His Light on that day will be guided and whoever was missed will be led astray. Hence I say: the pens have dried in accordance with the knowledge of Allah, may He be glorified.)''
[وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الاٌّمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلَيِمٌ](And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.)
Having mentioned this parable of the Light of His guidance in the heart of the believer, Allah ends this Ayah with the words:
[وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الاٌّمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلَيِمٌ](And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.)
meaning, He knows best who deserves to be guided and who deserves to be led astray.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
«الْقُلُوبُ أَرْبَعَةٌ: قَلْبٌ أَجْرَدُ فِيهِ مِثْلُ السِّرَاجِ يُزْهِرُ، وَقَلْبٌ أَغْلَفُ مَرْبُوطٌ عَلَى غِلَافِهِ، وَقَلْبٌ مَنْكُوسٌ، وَقَلْبٌ مُصْفَحٌ. فَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْأَجْرَدُ: فَقَلْبُ الْمُؤْمِنِ سِرَاجُهُ فِيهِ نُورُهُ، وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْأَغْلَفُ فَقَلْبُ الْكَافِرِ، وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْمَنْكُوسُ فَقَلْبُ الْمُنَافِقِ، عَرَفَ ثُمَّ أَنْكَرَ، وَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ الْمُصْفَحُ فَقَلْبٌ فِيهِ إِيمَانٌ وَنِفَاقٌ، وَمَثَلُ الْإِيمَانِ فِيهِ كَمَثَلِ الْبَقْلَةِ يُمِدُّهَا الْمَاءُ الطَّيِّبُ،وَمَثَلُ النِّفَاقِ فِيهِ كَمَثَلِ الْقَرْحَةِ يُمِدُّهَا الدَّمُ وَالْقَيْحُ، فَأَيُّ الْمدَّتَيْنِ غَلَبَتْ عَلَى الْأُخْرَى غَلَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ»
(Hearts are of four kinds: the heart that is clear like a shining lamp; the heart that is covered and tied up; the heart that is upside-down; and the heart that is clad in armor. As for the clear heart, it is the heart of the believer in which is a lamp filled with light; as for the covered heart, this is the heart of the disbeliever; as for the upside-down heart, this is the heart of the hypocrite, who recognizes then denies; as for the armor-clad heart, this is the heart in which there is both faith and hypocrisy.
The parable of the faith in it is that of legume, a sprout that is irrigated with good water, and the likeness of the hypocrisy in it is that of sores that are fed by blood and pus. Whichever of the two prevails is the characteristic that will dominate.) Its chain of narrators is good (Jayyid) although they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir Surah Al-Hashr (The Gathering), 59:22-24]
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ (59:22)
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ (59:23)
هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (59:24)
He is Allah, than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen (open). He is the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
He is Allah than Whom there is La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.
He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, the Bestower of forms. To Him belong the Best Names . All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
Glorifying Allah the Exalted by mentioning His Names and Attributes
Allah the Exalted said,
[هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِى لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَـدَةِ هُوَ الرَّحْمَـنُ الرَّحِيمُ ](He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.)Allah states that He Alone is worthy of worship, there is no Lord or God for the existence, except Him. All that is being worshipped instead of Allah are false deities. Allah is the All-Knower in the unseen and the seen, He knows all that pertains to the creations that we see, and those we cannot see. Nothing in heaven or on earth ever escapes His knowledge, no matter how great or insignificant, big or small, including ants in darkness.
[هُوَ الرَّحْمَـنُ الرَّحِيمُ]
(He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) asserts that Allah is the Owner of the wide encompassing mercy that entails all of His creation. He is Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim of this life and the Hereafter.
Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,
[وَرَحْمَتِى وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ]
(And My mercy embraces all things.)(7:156),
[كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ]
(Your Lord has written (prescribed) mercy for Himself.)(6:54), and,
[قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُواْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ ]
(Say: "In the bounty of Allah, and in His mercy; -- therein let them rejoice.'' That is better than what (the wealth) they amass.)(10:58) Allah the Exalted said,
[هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِى لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْمَلِكُ]
(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, Al-Malik.)
Al-Malik, meaning "The Owner and King of all things,'' Who has full power over them without resistance or hindrance. Allah's statement,
meaning "The Pure,'' according to Wahb bin Munabbih, while Mujahid and Qatadah said that Al-Quddus means "The Blessed.'' Ibn Jurayj said that Al-Quddus means "He Whom the honorable angels glorify.''
meaning "Free from any defects or shortcomings that lessen or decrease His perfect attributes and actions.''
[الْمُؤْمِنُ](Al-Mu'min,)means "Who has granted safety to His servants by promising that He will never be unjust to them,
'' according to Ad-Dahhak who reported it from Ibn `Abbas. Qatadah said that Al-Mu'min means that "Allah affirms that His statements are true,'' while Ibn Zayd said that it means, "He attested to His faithful servants' having faith in Him.'' Allah's statement,
means, according to Ibn `Abbas and others, "The Witness for His servants actions,'' that is, the Ever-Watcher over them.
Allah said in similar Ayat,
[وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ شَهِيدٌ]
(And Allah is Witness over all things.)(58:6),
[ثُمَّ اللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَى مَا يَفْعَلُونَ]
(and moreover Allah is Witness over what they used to do.)(10:46), and,
[أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَآئِمٌ عَلَى كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ]
(Is then He (Allah) Who takes charge (guards) of every person and knows all that he has earned)(13:33) Allah said,
[الْعَزِيزُ](Al-`Aziz,)meaning that "He is the Almighty, Dominant over all things.'' Therefore, His majesty is never violated, due to His might, greatness, irresistible power and pride. Allah said;
[الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ](Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir
), meaning "The Only One worthy of being the Compeller and Supreme.'' There is a
Hadith in the Sahih Collection in which Allah said,
«الْعَظَمَةُ إِزَارِي، وَالْكِبْرِيَاءُ رِدَائِي، فَمَنْ نَازَعَنِي وَاحِدًا مِنْهُمَا عَذَّبْتُه»
(Might is My Izar and pride is My Rida; if anyone disputes any one of them with Me, then I will punish him.) Allah the Exalted said,
[سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ](Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.)
, then He said,
[هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَـلِقُ الْبَارِىءُ الْمُصَوِّرُ](He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir.)Al-Khaliq refers to measuring and proportioning, Al-Bari refers to inventing and bringing into existence what He has created and measured. Surely, none except Allah is able to measure, bring forth and create whatever He wills to come to existence.
[الْخَـلِقُ الْبَارِىءُ الْمُصَوِّرُ](Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir
.) means, if Allah wills something, He merely says to it "be'' and it comes to existence in the form that He wills and the shape He chooses,
[فِى أَىِّ صُورَةٍ مَّا شَآءَ رَكَّبَكَ ]
(In whatever form He willed, He put you together.)(82:8) Allah describing Himself as being Al-Musawwir, Who brings into existence anything He wills in the shape and form He decides.
Allah the Exalted said,
[لَهُ الاٌّسْمَآءُ الْحُسْنَى](To Him belong Al-Asma' Al-Husna (the Best Names).)
We explained the meaning of this Ayah in the Tafsir of Surat Al-A`raf. The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِنَّ للهِ تَعَالَى تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ اسْمًا، مِائَةً إِلَّا وَاحِدًا، مَنْ أَحْصَاهَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ، وَهُوَ وِتْرٌ يُحِبُّ الْوِتْر»
(Allah the Exalted has ninety-nine Names, one hundred less one; whoever then preserves them, will enter Paradise. Allah is Witr (One) and He likes the witr.)
Everything praises and glorifies Allah
[يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ]
(All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him.) is similar to His other statement,
[تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَـوَتُ السَّبْعُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ وَإِن مِّن شَىْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدَهِ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا ](The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him
and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft--Forgiving.)(17:44) Allah's statement,
[وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ](and He is Al-`Aziz)The Almighty, meaning, His greatness is never humbled,
the All-Wise, in His legislation and decrees. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hashr. All praise is due to Allah.
These and similar Ayat and authentic Hadiths about Allah's Attributes must be treated the way the Salaf (righteous ancestors) treated them by accepting their apparent meanings without equating them ﴿with the attributes of the creation﴾ or altering their apparent meanings.
Tafsir of verses of the Quran: