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'Abd-al Latif
09-18-2009, 03:04 PM
Meaning of belief in al-Qadar (the divine will and decree)


Q.What is the meaning of belief in al-Qadar (the divine will and decree)?.

A.Praise be to Allaah.

Qadar means that Allaah has decreed everything that happens in the universe according to His prior knowledge and the dictates of His wisdom.

Belief in al-Qadar includes four things:

1 – The belief that Allaah knows all things, in general and in detail, from eternity to eternity, whether that has to do with His actions or the actions of His slaves.

2 – The belief that Allaah has written that in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Book of Decrees).

Concerning these two matters Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Know you not that Allaah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz). Verily, that is easy for Allaah” [al-Hajj 22:70]

In Saheeh Muslim (2653) it is narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “Allaah wrote down the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.”

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The first thing that Allaah created was the Pen, and He said to it, ‘Write!’ It said, ‘O Lord, what should I write?’ He said: ‘Write down the decrees of all things until the Hour begins.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 4700; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

3 – The belief that whatever happens only happens by the will of Allaah – whether that has to do with His actions or the actions of created beings.

Allaah says concerning His actions (interpretation of the meaning):

“And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses” [al-Qasas 28:68]

“and Allaah does what He wills” [Ibraaheem 14:27]

“He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He wills” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:6]

And He says concerning the actions of created beings (interpretation of the meaning):

“Had Allaah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you”
[al-Nisa’ 4:90]

“If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it” [al-An’aam 6:112]

All events, actions and happenings occur only by the will of Allaah. Whatever Allaah wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen.

4 – The belief that all things that happen are created by Allaah in their essence, their attributes and their movements.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian) over all things”
[al-Zumar 39:62]

“He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements” [al-Furqaan 25:2]

And Allaah tells us that the Prophet of Allaah Ibraaheem (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to his people:

“While Allaah has created you and what you make” [al-Saaffaat 38:96 – interpretation of the meaning]

If a person believes in all these things then he believes correctly in the divine will and decree (al-qadar).

Belief in al-qadar as we have described it above does not contradict the idea that a person has free will with regard to actions in which he has free choice. He can choose whether to or not to do things that he is able to do of acts of worship or sinful actions. Sharee’ah and real life both indicate that people have this will.

With regard to sharee’ah, Allaah says concerning man's will (interpretation of the meaning):

“That is (without doubt) the True Day. So, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with (or a way to) His Lord (by obeying Him in this worldly life)!” [al-Naba’ 78:39]

“so go to your tilth, when or how you will” [al-Baqarah 2:223]

And He says concerning man’s ability (interpretation of the meaning):

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can” [al-Taghaabun 64:16]

“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned”
[al-Baqarah 2:286]

These verses confirm that man has a will and the ability to do what he wants and not to do what he does not want.

With regard to real life, everyone knows that he has a will and the ability to do what he wants and not to do what he does not want. And he can distinguish between the things that happen when he wants them to, such as walking, and those that happen without him wanting them to, such as shivering. But the will and ability of man are subject to the will and decree of Allaah, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.

And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:28-29]

But the entire universe is the dominion of Allaah, and nothing can happen in His dominion without His knowledge and will.

And Allaah knows best.

See Risaalat Sharh Usool al-Eemaan by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen.


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'Abd-al Latif
09-18-2009, 03:07 PM
Belief of Ahl al-Sunnah concerning
al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine Will and Decree)



Q.Could you explain to me the Islamic view of the Divine Will and Decree (al-qada’ wa’l-qadar)? What should I believe with regard to this topic?.

A.Praise be to Allaah.

Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.

We could talk at length about the Islamic view of the Divine will and decree but to make the subject easier to understand, we will start with an overview of this topic, then explain as much as space permits, asking Allaah to benefit us thereby and to accept our efforts.

Note that what is meant by belief in al-qada’ (the Divine will) is: certain belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will and decree of Allaah.

Belief in al-qadar (the Divine decree) is the sixth pillar of faith, and no one’s faith is complete without it. In Saheeh Muslim (8) it is narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) heard that some people were denying al-qadar. He said: “If I meet these people I will tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. By the One by Whom ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar swore, if one of them had gold equivalent to Mount Uhud and he spent it, Allaah would not accept it from him unless he believed in al-qadar.”

You should also note that belief in al-qadar is not valid unless you believe in the four aspects of al-qadar, which are as follows:

1 – Belief that Allaah knows all things, in general terms and in detail, from eternity to eternity. Not a single atom is unknown to Him in the heavens or on earth.

2 – Belief that Allaah has decreed all things in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.

3 – Belief that the will of Allaah is irresistable and His decree is comprehensive, so nothing happens in this universe, good or bad, but by His will.

4 – Belief that all that exists was created by Allaah. He is the Creator of all beings and the Creator of their attributes and actions, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Such is Allaah, your Lord! Laa Ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things”
[al-An’aam 6:102]

Correct belief in al-qadar also involves believing in the following:

That the individual has free will by means of which he acts, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight” [al-Takweer 81:28]

“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope” [al-Baqarah 2:286]

That a person’s will and ability do not operate outside the will and decree of Allaah, Who is the One Who has given him that ability and made him able to distinguish (between good and evil) and make his choice, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)” [al-Takweer 81:29]

That al-qadar is Allaah’s plan for His creation. What He has shown us of it, we know and believe in, and what He has hidden from us, we accept and believe in. We do not dispute with Allaah concerning His actions and rulings with our limited minds and comprehension, rather we believe in Allaah’s complete justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be asked about what He does, may He be glorified and praised.

This is a summary of the belief of the first generations concerning this important topic. We will discuss some of this in more detail below, asking Allaah to help us to say the right thing:

1 – The meaning of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Arabic:

The word qada’ means perfection and completion, and the word qadar means evaluating and planning.

2 – Definition of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Islamic terminology:

Qadar means Allaah’s decree of all things from eternity, and His knowledge that they will come to pass at the times that are known to Him and in the specific manner that He has decreed and willed. They will happen the way they are meant to and the way they are created.

3 – Is there a difference between al-qada’ and al-qadar?

Some of the scholars said that there was a difference between them, but perhaps the most correct view is that there is no difference in meaning between al-qada’ and al-qadar, and that each of them points to the meaning of the other. There is no clear evidence in the Qur’aan or Sunnah to indicate that there is a difference between them. The scholars are agreed that the one may be applied to the other, but it should be noted that the word qadar is most usually used in the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, which indicates that we must believe in this pillar. And Allaah knows best.

4 – The status of belief in al-qadar in Islam:

Belief in al-qadar is one of the six pillars of faith which were mentioned in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when Jibreel (peace be upon him) asked him about faith (eemaan). He said: “(It is) to believe in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in the Divine will and decree (al-qadar) both good and bad.” Narrated by Muslim, 8. Al-qadar is also mentioned in the Qur’aan, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]

“And the Command of Allaah is a decree determined [qadran maqdooran]” [al-Ahzaab 33:38]

5 – Aspects of belief in al-qadar:

Note, may Allaah help you to do that which pleases Him, that belief in al-qadar cannot be complete until you believe in the following four aspects of this doctrine:

(a) Knowledge: this is the belief that the knowledge of Allaah encompasses all things and not a single atom in the heavens or on earth falls outside of His knowledge. Allaah knew all of His creation before He created them. He knew what they would do by means of His ancient and eternal knowledge. There is a great deal of evidence that points to this such as the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“He is Allaah, beside Whom Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”
[al-Hashr 59:22]

“and that Allaah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge” [al-Talaaq 65:12]

(b) Writing: this is the belief that Allaah has written the decrees concerning all created beings in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz. The evidence for that is the verse in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Know you not that Allaah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz). Verily, that is easy for Allaah” [al-Hajj 22:16]

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah wrote the decrees concerning all created beings fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” Narrated by Muslim, 2653.

(c) Will: this is the belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will of Allaah. Whatever Allaah wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen. Nothing exists outside of His will. The evidence for that is in the verses where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And never say of anything, ‘I shall do such and such thing tomorrow.’

24. Except (with the saying), ‘If Allaah wills!’”
[al-Kahf 18:23, 24]

“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”

[al-Takweer 81:29]

(d) Creation: this is the belief that Allaah is the Creator of all things, including people’s actions. Nothing happens in this universe but He is its Creator, because He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah is the Creator of all things” [al-Zumar 39:62]

“While Allaah has created you and what you make” [al-Saaffaat 37:96]

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah has made every doer and what he does.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in Khalq Af’aal al-‘Ibaad (25) and by Ibn Abi ‘Aasim in al-Sunnah (257 and 358); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Saheehah, 1637.

Shaykh Ibn Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Just as Allaah is the One Who created them – meaning people – He has also created that by means of which they act, namely their abilities and will, then they do various actions of obedience and sin, by the abilities and will which Allaah has created. (al-Durrah al-Bahiyyah Sharh al-Qaseedah al-Taa’iyyah, p. 18).

Warning against arguing about issues of al-qadar on the basis of (human) reasoning:

Belief in al-qadar is the real test of the extent of a person’s belief in Allaah. It is the true test of how much a person really knows about his Lord and what results from this knowledge of certain and sincere faith in Allaah, and His attributes of majesty and perfection. That is because al-qadar raises many questions for the one who gives free rein to his reasoning to try to fully comprehend it. There have been many disputes concerning the issue of al-qadar and many people have engaged in debates and misinterpreted the verses of the Qur’aan that mention it. Indeed, the enemies of Islam in all eras have provoked confusion in the Muslims’ beliefs by discussing the issue of al-qadar and stirring up doubts about it. So no one can have true and certain faith except the one who knows Allaah by His beautiful names and sublime attributes, submitting to His commands with peace of mind and trusting in his Lord. In that case no doubts or specious arguments can find a way into his heart. Undoubtedly this is the greatest proof that belief in al-qadar is more important than belief in the other pillars of faith, and that the human mind cannot independently come to understand al-qadar, because al-qadar is one of the mysteries of Allaah in His creation; whatever Allaah has disclosed to us in His Book or on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we know, accept and believe in, and whatever our Lord has not told us, we believe in and we believe in His perfect justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned.

And Allaah knows best. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon His slave and Prophet Muhammad and upon his family and companions.

See: A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 147; al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar fi Daw’ il-Kitaab wa’l-Sunnah by Shaykh Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud; al-Eemaan bi’l-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Shaykh Muhammad al-Hamd.

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Salahudeen
09-18-2009, 05:43 PM
I'm confused :(

If I was to get up and throw my computer monitor on the floor or kick the wall or fall over as I'm walking does it mean those things were decreed by Allah to happen?? and I didn't make a choice, no matter what it would've happened because it was decreed by Allah.

Or Allah knew that I would do those things and wrote them down?

Some 1 also asked me, if everything is the will and decree of Allah is it our fault that we sin? we're only doing something that he decreed and willed. if it wasn't his will we wouldn't have done it. :statisfie:
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optimist
09-18-2009, 06:20 PM
Originally Posted by squiggle
I'm confused :(

If I was to get up and throw my computer monitor on the floor or kick the wall or fall over as I'm walking does it mean those things were decreed by Allah to happen?? and I didn't make a choice, no matter what it would've happened because it was decreed by Allah.

Or Allah knew that I would do those things and wrote them down?

Some 1 also asked me, if everything is the will and decree of Allah is it our fault that we sin? we're only doing something that he decreed and willed. if it wasn't his will we wouldn't have done it. :statisfie:
Salam,

If you fall down while you are walking....it is your problem....Allah is not responsible for this. You can do whatever you want but whatever but not free to alter the natural result of that action. If you walk carelessly and your legs hit on a rock, and if you are not trained to overcome this sudden incident, you are bound to fall down as per law of cause and effect. This is applicable to all, whether you are a believer in God or a non believer.

Ofcourse Allah says at another place in the Quran, “No calamity, misfortune or disaster befalls but by Allah’s permission”. مَا أَصَابَ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ Here 'Izn' “permission”, means “to let (something happen)” or “to allow (something to occur)”. Although Allah lets the calamities befall, the real CAUSE of all of man’s calamities is the man himself. There is a big difference between “to let something happen” and “to cause something to happen”. Allah has made laws for everything and one of His most important laws is the law of cause & effect. He has defined or pre-determined effect(s) for every cause. He has granted man the free will and empowered him with the ability to set off the cause(s). When a cause is triggered by man, Allah lets the (pre-determined) effect happen. In case of man’s calamities, the cause is always triggered by the man himself; Allah just lets the calamities befall. He says to man in the Quran, “Whatever calamity, misfortune or disaster befalls you, it is because of what your (own) hands have earned”. (42:30) وَمَا أَصَابَكُمْ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ The verse clearly points out that man is himself responsible for his calamities

Allah has set standards / measures to everything in the universe. These laws govern the creation, growth and death (or transformation) of all things. Through a simple example this point could be explained. Recently an incident is reported from one place in southern India called Kasarcode, where the government-owned plantation corporation, a few years before, aerially sprayed endosulfan pesticide (this is banned in several countries at the moment) in an area of nearly 5000 acres and today the villagers who live close to the plantation are paying the price, average one in a family is born with physical deformities, and the area is dotted with tragedy struck families battling physical deformities, cancers and disorders of the central nervous system. It is not that these people were pre-destined to be born in this way, but this happened according to measures and standards set by Allah in this universe. "Glorify the name of thy Guardian-Lord Most High Who hath created, and further, given order and proportion; Who hath ordained laws."(87:1-3)

wassalam
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Salahudeen
09-18-2009, 06:53 PM
^ I see, I think i'm beginning to understand. But what is destined for us then?, what are the things that are in our destiny that we have no control over? I remember reading a hadith that went

"being cautious is of no use against destiny, no matter how cautious you are if somethings desinted to befall you it will".

and I remember hearing that you should never say "what if" or

" I should've done that instead" because it opens the door for shaytaan.

For example something happened to my uncle that he could've avoided if he took another option and he said

" I should've done that instead" then he quickly said I shouldn't say that cos it opens the door for shaytaan.
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MSalman
09-18-2009, 08:09 PM
Originally Posted by squiggle
I'm confused :(

If I was to get up and throw my computer monitor on the floor or kick the wall or fall over as I'm walking does it mean those things were decreed by Allah to happen?? and I didn't make a choice, no matter what it would've happened because it was decreed by Allah.

Or Allah knew that I would do those things and wrote them down?

Some 1 also asked me, if everything is the will and decree of Allah is it our fault that we sin? we're only doing something that he decreed and willed. if it wasn't his will we wouldn't have done it. :statisfie:
:sl:

akhee, just to refer to earlier link I posted and other fatawas. Here is the link again, Belief in Qadr (Divine Decree), it explains very well what you are confused about. In short, Allah knows everything due to His Knowledge so He ordered the pen to write down everything which will happen until the time of hour. Some of things were fixed by Allah (birth, death, provisions etc.). Some are absolutely fixed (i.e., time of birth & death) whereas others change with our actions and dua'as (i.e., provisions). Rest is up to us, we make the choices and get consequently result. However, what we do and the choices we make are already written down due to Allah's knowledge. When we make a certain choice Allah wills/permits it to happen so it happens - this is what is meant by the phrase: "nothing happens without the Will of Allah". This does not mean that Allah had already decreed what we should do. He has decreed what we will do. There is a huge difference between the two. and Allah knows best

I do not advise anyone to listen to brother optimist's explanations due to many problems in his creed. Sometime he may say things which are agreed upon by us and maybe little bit difference in terms of semantics but other times he is completely out of the way.

akhee optimist, you know I have nothing personal against you - I am only against your speech and speaking about issues for which you have no knowledge and interpreting the Shari'ah when you are not qualified for it.
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Salahudeen
09-18-2009, 08:12 PM
^ thank you jazakallah khair
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THE END
09-18-2009, 08:22 PM
Originally Posted by islamiclife
:sl:

akhee, just to refer to earlier link I posted and other fatawas. Here is the link again, Belief in Qadr (Divine Decree), it explains very well what you are confused about. In short, Allah knows everything due to His Knowledge so He ordered the pen to write down everything which will happen until the time of hour. Some of things were fixed by Allah (birth, death, provisions etc.). Some are absolutely fixed (i.e., time of birth & death) whereas others change with our actions and dua'as (i.e., provisions). Rest is up to us, we make the choices and get consequently result. However, what we do and the choices we make are already written down due to Allah's knowledge. When we make a certain choice Allah wills/permits it to happen so it happens - this is what is meant by the phrase: "nothing happens without the Will of Allah". This does not mean that Allah had already decreed what we should do. He has decreed what we will do. There is a huge difference between the two. and Allah knows best

I do not advise anyone to listen to brother optimist's explanations due to many problems in his creed. Sometime he may say things which are agreed upon by us and maybe little bit difference in terms of semantics but other times he is completely out of the way.

akhee optimist, you know I have nothing personal against you - I am only against your speech and speaking about issues for which you have no knowledge and interpreting the Shari'ah when you are not qualified for it.
:ace:

there is also a you tube video explantion of qadr and the four components of it

Knowledge
Writing
Will
Creation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDyVKfgXHSQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNenUVPxkkE
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
09-18-2009, 08:47 PM
:sl:

It is important to not delve into matters of Qadr unless and until we do it with the proper methodology and with a scholar who can repel and remove the doubts that come from the whisperings of the devil.

Ibn Abbas said: "Qadr is the secret of Allah that He has concealed from His servants. So whoever attempts to unlock this secret will end up disbelieving in Allah."
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optimist
09-19-2009, 06:25 AM
Originally Posted by islamiclife
:sl:

akhee, just to refer to earlier link I posted and other fatawas. Here is the link again, Belief in Qadr (Divine Decree), it explains very well what you are confused about. In short, Allah knows everything due to His Knowledge so He ordered the pen to write down everything which will happen until the time of hour. Some of things were fixed by Allah (birth, death, provisions etc.). Some are absolutely fixed (i.e., time of birth & death) whereas others change with our actions and dua'as (i.e., provisions). Rest is up to us, we make the choices and get consequently result. However, what we do and the choices we make are already written down due to Allah's knowledge. When we make a certain choice Allah wills/permits it to happen so it happens - this is what is meant by the phrase: "nothing happens without the Will of Allah". This does not mean that Allah had already decreed what we should do. He has decreed what we will do. There is a huge difference between the two. and Allah knows best

I do not advise anyone to listen to brother optimist's explanations due to many problems in his creed. Sometime he may say things which are agreed upon by us and maybe little bit difference in terms of semantics but other times he is completely out of the way.

akhee optimist, you know I have nothing personal against you - I am only against your speech and speaking about issues for which you have no knowledge and interpreting the Shari'ah when you are not qualified for it.
Salam,

What do you mean when you say "This does not mean that Allah had already decreed what we should do. He has decreed what we will do"?
Explain clearly.

Suppose I hit a man with a knife. Is this something "Allah has decreed "what I will do"? Or is it something I myself doing? I will ask the question in other way. Is it because Allah has decreed I am hitting this man with knife? Or is it that Allah has simply recorded that at so and so time I will hit so and so man out of my free will?

Please answer this question.

Wassalam
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'Abd-al Latif
09-19-2009, 03:03 PM
Ruling on citing al-qadar (divine will and decree) as an excuse for committing sin or failing to do obligatory duties



Q.
Is it correct for a sinner to excuse his falling into sin by saying that this is what Allaah has decreed for him?.

A.Praise be to Allaah.

Some sinners and some who fall short (in religious commitment) make excuses for their shortcomings and sins by saying that Allaah is the One Who has decreed this for them, so they should not be blamed for it.

What they say is not correct under any circumstances. There can be no doubt that belief in al-qadar is no excuse for failing to do obligatory duties or committing sins, according to the consensus of the Muslims and all those who are wise.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “No one has the right to make excuses for sin by referring to al-qadar, according to the consensus of the Muslims and the followers of other religions, and all those who are wise. If this were acceptable, then anyone could do whatever crosses his mind of murder, seizing people’s wealth and any kind of spreading mischief in the land, and quote al-qadar as his excuse. If a person who quotes al-qadar as an excuse were attacked by another person who also quoted al-qadar as an excuse for that, he would not accept that, and thus he would contradict himself, which in itself is proof that that this logic is false. So using al-qadar as an excuse is cleared flawed, as is obvious to anyone who has any common sense." Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 8/179.

Both the texts of sharee’ah and common sense indicate that it is invalid to give al-qadar as an excuse for committing sin or not doing obligatory actions.

The evidence of sharee’ah includes the following:

1 – The verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Those who took partners (in worship) with Allaah will say: ‘If Allaah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will).’ Likewise belied those who were before them, (they argued falsely with Allaah’s Messengers), till they tasted Our Wrath. Say: ‘Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie’” [al-An’aam 6:148]

These mushrikoon quoted al-qadar as an excuse for their shirk, but if their excuse had been valid Allaah would not have caused them to taste His Wrath. Whoever gives al-qadar as an excuse for sin and shameful behaviour might as well justify the ways of the kuffaar and attribute injustice to Allaah as well – exalted be Allaah far above that.

2 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allaah after the (coming of) Messengers. And Allaah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise” [al-Nisa’ 4:40]

If al-qadar were an acceptable excuse for committing sin, definitive proof would not have been established by the sending of the Messengers, and indeed there would have been no point in sending the Messengers.

3 – Allaah issues commands and prohibitions to His slaves, but He does not burden them with more than they can bear:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can” [al-Taghaabun 64:16]

“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope” [al-Baqarah 2:286]

If a person were forced to do things, he would be obliged to do things over which he had no control and this is not right. Hence whatever wrongs he commits due to ignorance or being compelled to do them, there is no sin on him for that, because he has an excuse. If this excuse (of al-qadar) were valid, then there would be no difference between one who is forced to do something, one who is ignorant and one who does it deliberately. But what is in fact known from real life and basic common sense, is that there is a great difference between them.

4 – Al-qadar is something secret and concealed which no one in creation knows until it has come to pass. When a person does something, his will precedes his action, so his will to do it is not based on knowledge of the decree of Allaah. So his claim that Allaah has decreed that he should do such and such is a false claim, because it is a claim to have knowledge of the unseen, but no one knows the unseen except Allaah. So this argument is flawed, because no man can base his evidence on something of which he knows nothing.

5 – Quoting al-qadar as an excuse for sin implies that the laws of Allaah are pointless and that the reckoning, resurrection, and reward and punishment will not happen.

6 – If al-qadar were a valid excuse for sin, the people of Hell would have used it, when they see the punishment and realize that they are going to fall into it and when the angels start to rebuke them. But in fact they do not use it as an excuse, rather they say – as Allaah tells us (interpretation of the meaning) –

“ ‘Our Lord! Respite us for a little while, we will answer Your Call and follow the Messengers!’” [Ibraaheem 14:44]

“ ‘Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us’” [al-Mu’minoon 23:106]

“ ‘Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!’” [al-Mulk 67:10]

“We were not of those who used to offer the Salaah (prayers)” [al-Muddaththir 74:43]

etc.

If al-qadar were a justifiable excuse for sin, they would use it, for they are in the most desperate need of an excuse that would save them from the Fire of Hell.

7 – If al-qadar were a valid excuse for sin, it would have been an excuse for Iblees who said:

“ ‘Because You have sent me astray, surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path’” [al-A’raaf 7:16 – interpretation of the meaning]

And Pharaoh the enemy of Allaah would have been equal with Moosa, the one with whom Allaah spoke.

8 – Another point that refutes this argument and demonstrates it to be invalid, is the fact that we see how people are keen to get what benefits them in this world. You never see anyone who ignores worldly things that are good for him and doing things that harm him on the grounds that this is what Allaah has decreed. Why would anyone turn away from that which will benefit him in spiritual terms and turn to that which will harm him, and then claim that this is what Allaah has decreed for him?

I will give some examples which will clarify that for you: if a person wants to travel to some country, and there are two routes to this country, one of which is safe and secure, and the other is remote and dangerous, with the risk of murder and robbery, which route will he take?

Undoubtedly he will take the first route. So why, with regard to the Hereafter, does he not take the road to Paradise and avoid the road to Hell?

9 – Another point that may be used to refute the one who quotes al-qadar as evidence, is to follow his own line of reasoning and tell him: “Do not get married, and if Allaah has decreed that you should have a son, you will have one, otherwise you will never have a child. Do not eat or drink, and if Allaah has decreed that you should be satisfied, that will happen, otherwise it will never happen. If a wild animal attacks you, do not run away from it, and if Allaah has decreed that you should be saved, then you will be, and if He has not decreed that you will be saved, running away will not help you. If you fall sick, do not seek treatment, and if Allaah has decreed that you will recover then you will do so, but if He has not then medicine will never help you.”

Will he agree with such comments or not? If he agrees with us, then we will know that his reasoning is not sound. If he disagrees with us, we will know that what he says and the excuses he gives are not valid.

10 – The one who quotes al-qadar as an excuse for sin is likening himself to the insane and minors, who are not accountable and will not be taken to task, but if he were to be treated as they are in this world he would not accept that.

11- If we accept this excuse, there would be no need to pray for forgiveness, or repent, or make du’aa’, or strive in jihad, or enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil.

12 – If al-qadar were an excuse for shameful behaviour and sin, then there would be anarchy and chaos. There would be no need for hudood and ta’zeer punishments, or other types of penalties, because the wrongdoer would be able to quote al-qadar as an excuse and we would not need to punish wrongdoers and bandits or to have courts and a judiciary system, because everything that happens happens only by the decree of Allaah. But no wise man would say such a thing.

13 – The one who gives al-qadar as an excuse says: We will not be taken to task, because Allaah has decreed this for us, and how can we be taken to task for something that has been decreed for us?

We say to him: We will not be taken to task for that which has already been decreed for us, but we will be taken to task for what we do and earn. We are not commanded to do that which Allaah has decreed for us, rather we are commanded to do that which is enjoined upon us. There is a difference between what Allaah wills for us and what He wants from us. What He wills for us He has kept secret, but what He wants from us He has commanded us to do.

The fact that Allaah knows what we will do from eternity and has written that down is not an excuse, because His all-encompassing knowledge means that He knows what His creation will do, but that does not imply any kind of compulsion. By way of example – and for Allaah is the highest description (cf al-Nahl 16:60) – if a teacher knows that one of his students will not make the grade this year because he is too careless and lazy, then this student fails just as the teacher knew he would, would any wise person say that the teacher forced him to fail, or would the student have any right to say “I did not succeed because this teacher knew that I would never succeed”?!

In conclusion, quoting al-qadar as an excuse for committing sin or for not doing obligatory duties is a false excuse, according to sharee’ah, common sense and reality.

It is worth pointing out that many of those who use this excuse do not do so out of conviction and faith, rather they base their argument on whims and desires and stubbornness. Hence one of the scholars said to one such person: “When it comes to obedience you are a Qadari and when it comes to sin you are a Jabari; whatever school of thought suits your whims and desires, you follow it.” (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 8/107). In other words, when he did an act of worship or obedience he attributed it to himself and denied that Allaah had decreed that, but when he committed a sin he quoted al-qadar as an excuse.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said of those who quote al-qadar as an excuse: If these people persist in this belief they will be worse disbelievers than the Jews and Christians. (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 8/262)

Based on this, there is no justification for a person to quote al-qadar as an excuse for his faults and sins.

Rather al-qadar may be invoked when calamities befall a person such as poverty and sickness, loss of a loved one, destruction of crops, loss of wealth, accidental killing, and so on. This is a sign of full acceptance of Allaah as one’s Lord. In this case referring to al-qadar is only valid when it has to do with calamities, not faults. The fortunate one is the one who seeks forgiveness for faults and is patient in the face of calamity, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“So be patient (O Muhammad). Verily, the Promise of Allaah is true, and ask forgiveness for your fault” [Ghaafir 40:55]

The doomed one is the one who panics at the time of calamity and quotes al-qadar as an excuse for sin.

The following example will help to explain this further: if a man is speeding in his car and fails to drive safely and causes an accident, then he is blamed for that and called to account, and he gives al-qadar as an excuse, that excuse will not be accepted from him, whereas if a person’s car is struck whilst stationary, and another person blames him and he responds by refering to al-qadar, this will be acceptable, unless he was parked in the wrong place.

The point is that whatever a person does and whatever choices he makes cannot be excused by referring to al-qadar, but whatever is beyond his will and control may correctly be attributed to al-qadar.

Hence Adam and Moosa (peace be upon them) disputed, as is described in the hadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “Adam and Moosa disputed. Moosa said to him: ‘You are Adam whose sin caused you to be expelled [?] from Paradise.’ Adam said to him: ‘You are Moosa whom Allaah chose to convey His message and to speak to; are you blaming me for something that Allaah decreed for me before I was created?’ So Adam won the argument with Moosa.”

Narrated by Muslim, 2652.

Adam (peace be upon him) did not quote al-qadar as an excuse for his sin as may be imagined by those who do not think about the meaning of the hadeeth, and Moosa (peace be upon him) did not blame Adam for his sin, because he knew that Adam had asked his Lord for forgiveness and repented, and his Lord had accepted his repentance and guided him, and the one who repents from sin like one who did not sin.

If Moosa had blamed Adam for his sin, he would have replied: “I sinned but then I repented, and Allaah accepted my repentance,” or he would have said: “You, O Moosa, also killed a soul, and you threw down the Tablets,” and so on. Rather Moosa referred to the calamity and Adam responded by referring to al-qadar. See al-Ihtijaaj bi’l-Qadar by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, 18-22.

Whatever calamities are divinely decreed, we must accept them, for that is part of full acceptance of Allaah as one’s Lord. With regard to sins, no one has the right to sin; if he does commit sin then he has to seek forgiveness and repent, so he should repent from sin and be patient in the face of calamity.” Sharh al-Tahhaawiyyah, 147.

Note:

Some of the scholars said that one of those who are justified in referring to al-qadar as an excuse is the one who repents from sin, so if anyone blames him for a sin from which he has repented, he may refer to al-qadar in this case.

If it is said to one who has repented: “Why did you do such and such?” and he responds by saying, “That happened by the will and decree of Allaah, but I have repented and asked forgiveness,” this excuse is acceptable in his case, because in his case the sin is like a calamity that befell him, and he did not quote al-qadar as an excuse for his negligence, rather he is referring to the calamity that befell him, which is disobedience towards Allaah. Undoubtedly sin is a kind of calamity, and he is referring to al-qadar after the sin took place, and he is admitting his sin. So no one has the right to condemn the one who has repented from sin. What matters is how a person ends up, not the shortcomings that he may commit in the beginning.

And Allaah knows best.

See A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 147; al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar fi Daw’ il-Kitaab wa’l-Sunnah by Shaykh Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud; al-Eemaan bi’l-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Shaykh Muhammad al-Hamd; and the summary by al-Shaykh Sulaymaan al-Khuraashi of the belief of Ahl al-Sunnah in al-Qadar as discussed in his book Turki’l-Hamd fi Meezaan Ahl al-Sunnah.

Islam Q&A

http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/49039/qadar
Reply

'Abd-al Latif
09-19-2009, 03:05 PM
Belief in al-Qadaa’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine will and decree)



Q.What is the status of sabr (patience) in Islam? What should the Muslim bear with patience?

A.Praise be to Allaah.

Belief in al-Qadaa’ wa’l-Qadar (Divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith. The Muslim’s faith is not complete unless he knows that whatever befalls him could not have missed him, and whatever misses him could not have befallen him. Everything is subject to the will and decree of Allaah, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al Lawh Al Mahfooz)." [al-Qamar 54:49]

The position of patience in relation to faith is like that of the head in relation to the body. Patience is a noble attribute with good consequences. Those who are patient will have an unlimited reward, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning”
[al-Zumar 39:10]

All the disasters and tribulations that happen on earth, or happen to the individual, or to his wealth or family, etc., were known to Allaah before they happened, He has written them in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al Lawh Al Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah” [al-Hadeed 57:22]

No matter what disasters befall a person, it is good for him, whether he knows that or not, because Allaah does not decree anything but it is good, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Say: ‘Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allaah has ordained for us. He is our Mawlaa (Lord, Helper and Protector).’ And in Allaah let the believers put their trust” [al-Tawbah 9:51]

Every disaster that happens, happens by Allaah’s leave. If He had not willed it, it would not have happened, but Allaah permitted it to happen and decreed it, and so it happened. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“No calamity befalls, but by the Leave [i.e. Decision and Qadar (Divine Preordainments)] of Allaah, and whosoever believes in Allaah, He guides his heart [to the true Faith with certainty, i.e. what has befallen him was already written for him by Allaah from the Qadar (Divine Preordainments)]. And Allaah is the All-Knower of everything” [al-Taghaabun 64:11]

Once a person knows that all calamities happen by the will and decree of Allaah, then he has to believe and submit and be patient. The reward for patience is Paradise, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And their recompense shall be Paradise, and silken garments, because they were patient” [al-Insaan 76:12]

The call to Allaah (da’wah) is a great mission, and the one who undertakes it is exposed to a great deal of harm and calamities. Hence Allaah enjoined patience upon His Messenger and other Prophets:

“Therefore be patient (O Muhammad) as did the Messengers of strong will” [al-Ahqaaf 46:35 – interpretation of the meaning]

Allaah has guided the believers, if some matter worries them or some calamity befalls them to seek help with patience and prayer, so that Allaah will relieve their distress and give them a way out:

“O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salaah (the prayer). Truly, Allaah is with As-Saabiroon (the patient)” [al-Baqarah 2:153 – interpretation of the meaning]

The believer must bear with patience that which Allaah has decreed, and be patient in obeying Allaah, and be patient in keeping away from sin. Whoever is patient, Allaah will give him an immeasurable reward on the Day of Resurrection, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Only those who are patient shall receive their reward in full, without reckoning”
[al-Zumar 39:10]

The believer in particular is rewarded in both good times and bad. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for all his affairs are good, and that is for no one except the believer. If something good happens to him, he gives thanks, and that is good for him, and if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience and that is good for him.” (Narrated by Muslim, no. 2999)

Allaah has taught us what we should say when calamity strikes, and has stated that those who are patient will have an honourable position with their Lord. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“… but give glad tidings to As Saabiroon (the patient).

Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return’”
[al-Baqarah 2:155-156]

From Usool al-Deen al-Islami by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem al-Tuwayjri

http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/12380
Reply

'Abd-al Latif
09-19-2009, 03:08 PM
Is man’s fate pre-destined or does he have freedom of will?



Q.Is our fate completely pre-destined? Some say we have a choice of which path to choose but what you will find at the end of the path has been chosen for you by Allah. I have also read that qadar was perhaps created by Jahm b. Safwan, not Allah.
Where can I find the information in the Quran and if there is a set destiny how much of it is chosen by God? Is there really a set day on which I will have birth and another for earthly death, for whom I will marry?
What if I did meet the man I am supposed to marry but I somehow choose the wrong path (so I may believe) only to realize I did wrong. Will he come in my path again or have I altered my destiny so that my punishment may be that I can not have this person in my life?.

A.Praise be to Allaah.

Belief in al-qadar (the divine will and decree) is one of the pillars of faith, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, when he answered Jibreel’s question about faith: “(It means) believing in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day, and to believe in al-qadar (the divine decree) both good and bad.”

What is meant by al-qadar is that Allaah has decreed all things from eternity and knows that they will happen at times that are known to Him, and in specific ways, and that He has written that and willed it, and they happen according to what He has decreed. [al-Qada’ wa’l-Qadar by Dr ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Mahmoud, p. 39].

Belief in al-qadar is based on four things:

1 – Knowledge, i.e., that Allaah knows what His creation will do, by virtue of His eternal knowledge.

2 – Writing, i.e., that Allaah has written the destiny of all creatures in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz.

3 – Will, i.e., that what Allaah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. There is no movement in the heavens or on earth but it happens by His will.

4 – Creation and formation, i.e., that Allaah is the Creator of all things, including the actions of His slaves. They do their actions in a real sense, and He is the Creator of them and of their actions.

Whoever believes in these four believes in al-qadar.

The Qur’aan affirms these things in numerous verses, such as the verses in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And with Him are the keys of the Ghayb (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record” [al-An’aam 6:59]

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allaah” [al-Hadeed 57:22]

“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)” [al-Takweer 81:29]

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al‑Lawh Al‑Mahfooz)”
[al-Qamar 54:49]

Muslim (2653) narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “Allaah wrote down the decrees of creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.” He said: “And His Throne was upon the water.”

Hence it should be clear to you that the view that al-qadar was invented by al-Jahm ibn Safwaan is a view that has no sound basis. Al-qadar was not created, rather creation comes under the heading of belief in al-qadar. Al-Jahm went to extremes in affirming the divine will and decree, and claimed that people are compelled to do what they do and have no choice. This is a false view.

The belief of Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaa'ah is that a person has freedom of will, and hence he will be rewarded or punished. But his will is subject to the will of Allaah, and nothing can take place in the universe that is not willed by Allaah.

What some people say, that we have the choice to follow whatever path we want but at the end of this path you will find what Allaah has decreed for you, is a correct view. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful” [al-Insaan 76:3]

“And shown him the two ways (good and evil)?” [al-Balad 90:10]

“And say: “The truth is from your Lord.” Then whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve” [al-Kahf 18:29]

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, explaining the view of Ahl al-Sunnah with regard to man’s deeds:

People act in a real sense, and Allaah is the Creator of their actions. A person may be a believer or a kaafir, righteous or immoral, he may pray and fast. People have control over their actions, and they have their own will, and Allaah is the Creator of their control and will, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight.

And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:28-29]

al-Waasitiyyah ma’a Sharh Harraas, p. 65.

Marriage is one of the things that Allaah has decreed. The person whom you will marry is known to Allaah: He knows who he is, when he was born, where and when he will die, how he will be towards you, and other details. All of that is known to Allaah and He has written it in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Book of Decrees), and it will inevitably come to pass as Allaah has decreed.

If Allaah has decreed that you will marry one person, but you choose someone else, then no matter how long it takes, you will marry that person. But your marriage to someone else is also decreed, because there is nothing that is not decreed by Allaah. It may be decreed for a woman to marry So and so the son of So and so, and he comes to propose marriage but she refuses him, and marries someone else, then he (the second man) dies or divorces her, then she accepts the first one. All of that is decreed, and it is decreed for her to marry So and so the son of So and so after initially refusing him and after some experience or trials etc.

It may be decreed for a woman that a righteous man will propose marriage to her, but she will refuse him and he will never come back to her, and she will marry and live with someone else who is more or less righteous, according what Allaah has decreed.

Because man does not know what is decreed for him, what he must do is to adhere to sharee’ah and abide by its commands and prohibitions, and to seek the help of Allaah and pray to Him for guidance (istikhaarah) concerning all his affairs, whilst implementing the means, one of the most important of which is consulting sincere people who have relevant experience.

If a righteous man proposes marriage to a woman, she should pray to Allaah for guidance (istikhaarah) and agree to marry him. If things then go smoothly, this is an indication that what is good for her is to marry him.

In conclusion, man should study the sharee’ah of Allaah and follow the commands of Allaah even if he feels reluctant, and avoid what Allaah has forbidden even if he is attached to it. All goodness is to be found in obeying sharee’ah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Jihaad (holy fighting in Allaah’s Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allaah knows but you do not know” [al-Baqarah 2:216]

He should not look at al-qadar as an excuse to ignore commands and do forbidden things, rather he should look at it in a way that will make him content with whatever painful experiences happen to him.

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A

http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/20806
Reply

'Abd-al Latif
09-23-2009, 10:13 AM
Originally Posted by Maalik
:sl:

It is important to not delve into matters of Qadr unless and until we do it with the proper methodology and with a scholar who can repel and remove the doubts that come from the whisperings of the devil.

Ibn Abbas said: "Qadr is the secret of Allah that He has concealed from His servants. So whoever attempts to unlock this secret will end up disbelieving in Allah."
This is a key point that must not be missed. I will be closing this thread and will not allow any further discussion unless the other posts are by myself or other members of the staff.
Reply

'Abd-al Latif
02-13-2013, 09:28 PM
:salamext:

By Salim Al-Amry

Part 1



Part 2

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