'Nawaqidul Iman' - The negations of Iman
By Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab
1. Shirk - Associating someone or something to Allah
Shirk is to associate anyone or anything to Allah (swt) such as to say Jesus is the son of God, Tony Blair is the legislator, ruling by kufr law (non-Islamic law) etc. Whether one denies it or not or whether he legalises it or not; anyone who commits Shirk Akbar he will go out of the Millah (Islam) after it is explained to him by an Alim.
Allah (swt) says, Luqman advised his son,
﴿ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴾
O my son! join not in worship (others) with Allah. for false worship is indeed the highest wrong-doing."
[Surah Luqman 31:13]
﴿ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاء وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيدًا ﴾
Verily Allah forgives not shirk (the sin of setting up partners in worship with him), but he forgives whom he wills sins other than that (sins of a lesser degree), and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah (commits shirk), has indeed strayed far away.” [Surah An Nisa 4: 116]
﴿ إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللّهُ عَلَيهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ ﴾
Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong*doers) there are no helpers. [Surah Al Maidah 5:72]
2. To take an Intercessor between you and Allah
For example, to go to the grave of a dead person and make him an intercessor for whom, the action is kufr and will take him outside of Islam.
﴿ أَلَا لِلَّهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاء مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَى إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ ﴾
Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allah only. And those who take Awliya' (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): "We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah." Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.
[Surah Az Zumar 39:3]
Another example is to seek such help from any so-called priest. In the time when the Ulema are alive you can ask them for dua but when they pass away it is not allowed to visit their graves and seek intercession, even from the Nabi (saw).
The Messenger Muhammad (saw) said "'O Allah! Do not make my grave a place of worship."
The Messenger Muhammad (saw) said "Do not deify me in the way the Christians deified the son of Mary. I am only a slave of Allah and His messenger" [Sahih Bukhari]
3. Whoever does not declare the kafir (non-Muslims) as kafir or doubts that they are kafir or says their religion is correct
There are some moderate 'Muslims' who believe that we should not call the Non-Muslims kafir (even though Allah does!) but rather 'Potential Muslims.' Whosoever doubts or believes the Kuffar are not kafir, they become kafir.
Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an:
﴿ لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ﴾
“Surely, they are kafir who say: ‘Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary).’" [Surah Al Maidah 5: 72]
﴿ لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ ثَـلِثُ ثَلَـثَةٍ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَـهٍ إِلاَّ إِلَـهٌ وَحِدٌ ﴾
Surely, they have disbelieved who say: "Allah is the third of three.'' And there is no god but One God (Allah).
[Surah Al Maidah 5:73]
﴿ وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللّهِ وَقَالَتْ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللّهِ ﴾
And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah.
[Surah At Taubah 9:30]
﴿ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ فِى نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَوْلَـئِكَ هُمْ شَرُّ الْبَرِيَّةِ ﴾
Verily, those who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture and idolaters will abide in the fire of Hell. They are the worst of creatures [Surah Al Bayyinah 98:6]
4. Anyone who believes any guidance to be more perfect, or a decision other than the Prophets (saw) decision to be better, is an unbeliever
An example of this is the one who believes that the British law is as good as, equal to, or even better than the law of Islam! Lord Nazir Ahmed is a good example of this. He left the fold of Islam (is an apostate) by declaring that Muslims must obey the British law and Shariah law.
﴿ أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُواْ لَهُمْ مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّهُ ﴾
Or have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not allowed
[Surah Ash Shura 42:21]
﴿ وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَى وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّى وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءتْ مَصِيرًا ﴾
If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,- what an evil refuge! [Surah An Nisa 4:115]
5. Whoever hates any of the Shariah rules (Hukm Shari) is a kafir
For example, those who hate to pray, to fast, to wear hijab, to call people to Islam, to work collectively in a group to establish the Islamic state etc. Allah (swt) says:
﴿ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ ﴾
That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down, so He has made their deeds fruitless.
[Surah Muhammad 47: 9]
6. Whoever ridicules any of the Deen of Islam, whether its rewards or its punishments
﴿ قُلْ أَبِاللّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِئُون لاَ تَعْتَذِرُواْ قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ َ ﴾
Say: ‘Was it at Allah (swt), and His Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (saw) that you were mocking?’ Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed.
[Surah At Taubah 9: 65-66]
`Abdullah bin `Umar said, "During the battle of Tabuk, a man was sitting in a gathering and said, `I have never seen like these reciters of ours! They have the hungriest stomachs, the most lying tongues and are the most cowardice in battle.' A man in the Masjid said, `You lie. You are a hypocrite, and I will surely inform the Messenger of Allah. ‘This statement was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah and also a part of the Qur'an was revealed about it.''' `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "I have seen that man afterwards holding onto the shoulders of the Messenger's camel while stones were falling on him, declaring, `O Allah's Messenger! We were only engaged in idle talk and jesting,' while the Messenger of Allah was reciting [EMQ 9:65-66]
7. As-Sihr - anyone involving himself or herself in magic
To communicate with the Jinns, to go to the magician or to seek help from him are all acts of shirk.
﴿ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّى يَقُولاَ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلاَ تَكْفُرْ ﴾
Suleiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayateen (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)." [Surah Baqarah 2:102]
8. Alliance with the kuffar and supporting them against the Muslims
﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاء بَعْضٍ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ﴾
O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Awliya (friends, protectors, helpers) they are but awliyaa' of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as awliyaa') then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (i.e. Kuffar).” [Surah Al Maidah 5: 51]
﴿ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمْ لاَ يَأْلُونَكُمْ خَبَالاً وَدُّواْ مَا عَنِتُّمْ قَدْ بَدَتِ الْبَغْضَاء مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَمَا تُخْفِي صُدُورُهُمْ أَكْبَرُ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا لَكُمُ الآيَاتِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴾
O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitanah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends, etc.) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses) if you understand.
[Surah Al Imran 3: 118]
9. Whoever believes they are not obliged to follow the messenger Muhammad (saw) or believes that they can leave Islam and go to another Deen is a kafir
Allah (swt) says:
﴿ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴾
And whatsoever the Messenger (SAW) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it), and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is severe in punishment. [Surah Al Hashr 59:7]
10.Whoever turns their back to the Deen of Islam
Allah (swt) says:
﴿ وَمَنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإسْلامِ دِينًا فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ ﴾
And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers. [Surah AL Imran 3: 85]
This can be done by not studying the Deen nor acting upon it. If someone says 'so and so is haram' we must go and check it.
Imam Abu Haifa (ra) was walking on the bank and he saw a child walking on the bank and he was almost falling in, Abu Hanifah said: 'be careful you may fall in' and in response the child said: 'you too, and if you make a mistake many others will also fall in!' Imam Abu Hanifah went home and reviewed all his Ahkam and said: 'Do not think that what I say today may not be changed tomorrow if I find a hadith.'
﴿ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن ذُكِّرَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ ثُمَّ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا إِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُنتَقِمُونَ ﴾
Who is more of an oppressor than the one who knows the Hukm and turns his back? Verily he is Mujrim (i.e. a criminal and kafir). [Surah As Sajdah 32: 22]