Asalaam alaikum waRahmatulah waBarakatuh
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Surah Jumuah is a muSabihaat surah - a surah which begins with the Glorification of Allah. It is a Madani surah (revealed in Medinah).
"yuSabihu lillah" or "sabaha lillah" - glorifies Allah..
"..maa fis-samaawaati wa'l arD" - what is in the heavens and the earth.
Allah is comparing the Universe to the human race. Us humans have been favoured and preferred more than any other creation.
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا
And We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference. [Israa' 17:70]
So Allah is comparing us to much more greater creations than us (i.e. the skies, the planet Earth, and all that is within them etc.) and hinting to us that they glorify Allah by being obedient to Him, so why don't us humans glorify Him by being fully obedient to Him when we have been favoured even more than them?
Keep in mind that this is a Madani surah - with the primary audience being Muslims (and not disbelievers). So this surah is intended by Allah to give advice to Muslims on how to be correctly guided.
Allah is going to tell us in this surah what the Muslims should hold onto in the religion for correct guidance, and if they do not - the consequences of that.
يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ
yuSabbihu lillaahi maa fi-'samaawaati wa maa fee-'l ArDi-'l Maliki-'l Quddoosi-'l Azeez-il Hakeem
Glorifies Allah what is in the heavens and what is in the Earth - the King, the Pure, the Authority, the Wise.
Everything in the heavens and Earth declares the perfection of Allah;
al Malik - the king
al Quddoos - the source of all Purity. The Pure and Sanctified.
Azeez - Ultimate Constant Authority
al Hakeem - the Constantly (All) Wise.
Normally we find only 2 names of Allah, but in this surah - we find 4 Names of Allah being mentioned.
Then immediately, Allah moves onto talk about His Messenger;
هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ
huwwa aladhee ba'atha fee al Ummiyyeena Rasoolan minhum yaTluw alayhim aayaatihi wa yuZakeehim wa yu'Alimuhumu-'l Kitaaba wa-l Hikmah. wa in kaanoo min Qablu la fee Dalaalin mubeen
He is the One who appointed among the Unlettered (the unlearned) a Messenger (Rasool) who came among them..
Rasool (Fa'ool [Mubalaghah]) - a Messenger has a Strong message and who Continues to convey the message.
yaTluw 'alayhim Aayaatihi - he Recites onto them His (Allah's) Miraculous signs.
The first Name of Allah which was mentioned was al Malik [the King]. The first thing which the Messenger recited onto the people was the Signs of the King, these miraculous signs of Allah showed His Kingdom on the Earth, just as a king of the world has his signs (i.e. flags, signs, armies etc.) which show his kingdom.
..wa yuZakeehim - and he Purifies them..
al Quddoos was the 2nd Name of Allah mentioned. Al Quddoos is the 'Source of all Purity'.
wa yu'Alimmuhum al Kitaaba wa-'l Hikmah - and he taught them the Law and the Wisdom.
Kitaab - does not just mean 'Book', but can also refer to 'the Law' (i.e. that which is Dictated/prescribed/legislated = Kutiba.)
The 3rd name of Allah mentioned was 'al Azeez' - the Authority.
The One who gives the Law is the Authority.
the Messenger who teaches them the Law (Kitab) and the Wisdom (Hikmah).
The 4th Name Allah used to describe Himself was - al Hakeem (the Constantly Wise).
Prophet Ibraheem made a Du'a;
رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
Rabbanaa wab'ath feehim Rasoolan min hum yaTluw 'alayhim aayaatika wa yu'alimmuhum al kitaba wal hikmah wa yuZakkeehim -
Our Master, send in them a Messenger from them who will  read on them Your signs and  teach them the Law and the Wisdom and  Purify them.
Allah changed the order at the beginning of this surah; He mentioned 'Purify them' 2nd, and then 'teach them the Law and the Wisdom' 3rd.
This shows that Prophet Ibraheem's du'a (prayer) was accepted by Allah, however, Allah perfected his du'a by Purifying the people first, and then teaching them the Law and Wisdom.
What is the wisdom behind this
the Ultimate thing is that what changed the people who would bury their daughters alive and murder for worthless things to the best humans on the planet were 2 things;
The Best Human with the Best of Morals and Mannerisms - Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (sal Allah alayhi wasalam).
The Best of Speech being recited to these People - the Qur'an, the speech of Allah.
These are the 2 components which made the most foolish of characters into the people best in morals and leaders for humanity in all aspects.
ba'ath feehim RASOOLAN ('Messenger' mentioned 1st) min hum, yaTluw alayhim AAYAATIHI (HIS SIGNS/QUR'AN)..
We see that these 2 components, if followed by any human - can make them from the worst of people - to the best of mankind.
So if anyone wants to be a Da'ee (Caller to Islam) - he has to
1 - Follow the Sunnah (Prophetic way) in Action.
2 - Recite the Aayaat (Signs/verses) of Allah to the people. Not your own philosophies or ideas, but introducing people to the Words of Allah and explaining them.
As a consequence, what will happen;
wa yuZakkeehim - and he Purifies them..
What do you cleanse? You clean that which is dirty.
So whenever you feel dirt in yourself, you need to clean yourself. You need to Purify yourself (get rid of that which makes you dirty - i.e. bad morals, bad characteristics etc).
The way to purify was to always get tips from the Sunnah/Wisdom revealed to Prophet Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) and good companions. (i.e. the Mosque etc.)
So good company has a good effect to purify you to their level. Especially company of scholars in your Community.
AFTER the Cleansing is Education
; Purification, 'Aqeedah (Beliefs), Tafseer (explanation of Qur'an), Fiqh (jurispudence) etc.
However, we see in the list that Learning was mentioned last. Before that, purification was mentioned - giving it more priority.
There was a nation before us who was concerned only about knowledge and less about Purification
Who were they? - Bani Isra'eel (the Jews).
Doesn't this remind you of many of us 'practising' Muslims today? We continue to learn but we hardly implement that knowledge or make any practical changes to society.
The Jews were so knowledgable
, that Allah says about them;
"wa hum ya'lamoon" - and they know.
"ya'rifoona hu" - they recognise him (Prophet Muhammad as a Messenger from Allah).
"min ba'di 'maa 'aqaloohu" - even after they understood it.
"aataynaahu aayaatinaa" - We gave him our Signs.
Knowledge after knowledge after knowledge.
wa yu'AL-liMuhum - and he TEACHES ['ILM - Knowledge].
He does not yuKhbiru - inform News (Khabr).
Since teaching Knowledge (yu'al-limu) is more powerful than yuKhbiru.
And Allah's Messenger, Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) yu'al-limu - Taught the Law and Wisdom.
Teaching is more powerful than just Informing.
is [taf'eel] - with Shadda/tashdeed
, which implies; a Teaching which is repeated continuously, over and over
and over again (i.e. Ta'leem - Regular teaching; classes, Q&A's etc.).
Allah does not even say
yu'Teehim-ul 'Ilm - he gives them Knowledge.
This shows us Muslims today that we need to have teaching of the Qur'an and Wisdom (sunnah) in our Masaajid (mosques). Because this is what the Messenger of Allah is described as doing to purify his companions.
The Qur'an is extremely powerful. The people who hear it on the spot become emotional, even when they don't understand it. Yet when you understand it, you know that no human can speak like the speech of the Qur'an.
..wa in kaanoo min qablu la fee Dalaalin mubeen.
- and they were before that - immersed in clear /misguidance/lost.
وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
wa aakhareena min hum lammaa yalhaqoo bihim. wa huwwa-'l azeezu-'l hakeem
And there are many others beside them who have not joined them, and He is the Constant Authority, the Constantly Wise..
This is showing that there will be people in other lands and future generations who will come after the Companions, and they too will (have to) be Taught the Law (Qur'an) and Wisdom (Sunnah), and through application of them - purify themselves, although before that they were immersed in clear error.
This is a powerful strategy to fix any society, and to purify them.
..wa huwwa al Azeez ul Hakeem
- and He is the Constant Authority, the Constantly Wise.
ذَٰلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
dhaalika faDlu-llahi yu'teehi man yaShaa'. waAllahu dhuw-'l faDli-l aDheem
That is the favour of Allah He gives it whoever He wills, and Allah is possessor of great/strong favours.
the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam).
the Manhaj (methodology) of the Messenger;
he Reads to them His signs/verses.
he purifies them
he teaches them the Law and Wisdom.
Allah gives it to whoever He wants;
He could have given (the Qur'an and Sunnah) to whoever He wants, yet He chose us by favouring us with them. Alhamdulillah!
waAllahu dhu-'l faDli-'l aDheem -
And Allah is the Owner of the Ultimate favour.
Now Allah talks about a people who lost this Process and Favour
(although before they had a similar favour of recieving the Law and Wisdom of Musa/Moses.)
مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوْرَاةَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَحْمِلُوهَا كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا ۚ بِئْسَ مَثَلُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
mathalu-'ladheena hummilu-Tawraata thumma lam yaHmiloohaa ka mathali-'l Himaari yaHmilu asfaara. Bi'sa mathalu-'l Qawmi-'ladheena kadh-dhaboo bi aayaat-illah. wa-Allahu laa yahdi-'l Qawma-'l-Dhaalimeen
The example of those who were given the burden of the Torah/Taurat, then they did not carry them, like donkeys carrying piles of books on their backs. Horrible is the example of a Nation who lies against the signs of Allah. And Allah does not guide the Wrongdoing nation.
Just like many people have books/softwares/links of Tafseer and Ahadeeth and Fataawa today but their Emaan does not increase when the aayaat are Recited to them. Rather, it is only interesting information to be used in speeches, or like any other piece of research and information.
Just like the example of a donkey which has books piled on its back..
Bi'sa mathalul Qawm-iladheena kadh-dhabu bi aayaatillah -
how horrible (Bi's) the example of a nation who denies the signs of Allah
Allah did not say Bani Isra'eel, he said (Qawm), using a general word - so it refers to any Nation who has these characteristics. What a horrible nation it is!
This is scary because these characteristics apply to many of us today. And anyone who fits this description falls into such a category.
They lied against the aayaat/signs of Allah, they did not do justice to the aayaat of Allah, they were not true to the aayaat of Allah.
waAllahu laa yahdee al Qawmi-dhaalimeen - and Allah does not guide the wrong doing nation.
Allah does not guide a people who do not appreciate Allah's book, who do not thank Him through Implementing it.
If someone does not appreciate Allah's book, He will not guide them - so He will make them get guidance from elsewhere, and that is from other than Allah - which is misguidance leading to the fire.
قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ هَادُوا إِن زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ لِلَّهِ مِن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
Qul yaa ayyuha-aladheena haadoo in Za'amtun annakum awliyaa'u-Allahi mini dooni-naasi fa taMannawu-l mawta in kuntum Saadiqeen
Say; O Jews - if you are convinced that you are close/dear friends of Allah, (min doon-in-naas) - in opposition to Mankind, then wish for death if you are truthful.
When the community has the true essence of the Guidance, you have a Love and Awe/Fear/remembrance of Allah, but when you lose those feelings of Allah and only knowledge remains, they are replaced with other false assumptions and feelings. You begin to get a false sense of false hope in the Mercy of Allah.
So you begin to gradually do more evils, and still have false hope that Allah will forgive you because 'you still say the Kalimah' (testimony of Belief.)
(fa tamannawu-'l mawt) -
..then wish for death
In comparison; the true believer prays (waTawaffanaa ma'al abraar - وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ الْأَبْرَارِ
- give us death among the righteous
[aal Imran 3:193
If you really do believe that a Paradise is waiting for you, that you are friends and close to Allah (awliyaa') - then why don't you wish for death? Isn't the Paradise a better life than this world? So why are you still clinging onto it so tightly?
False hopes delude them. They think they can enjoy this world without doing much good, and then get enjoyment in the world to come too.
This is False hope which even enters into the heart of the believer who does not keep a healthy relationship with Allah (i.e. His Book, and also through Du'a).
..in kuntum saadiqeen.. - if you are truthful.
وَلَا يَتَمَنَّوْنَهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
wa laa yatamannawnahu abadan bi maa Qadamat aydeehim. wa Allahu 'aleemun bi-dh-Dhaalimeen
And they will never wish for it, ever - because of what their hands have sent forward. And Allah is fully Knowing of the Wrongdoers.
wa laa yaTamannawnahu 'abdan - and they will never wish for it ever
bi maa Qadamat aydeehim - with what their hands sent forward
(i.e. when you click the 'send' button on email, you have sent the message and cannot undo that.
Similarly, once you have done an action - you have sent it forward and cannot undo that [except if you are sincere to Allah and repent.])
The Psychology of the Faasiq (Evildoer)
They have done SO MUCH evil things, that they do not even want to think of it. It is so scary and so much evil - that they block it out in their mind.
They cover their mind with false hopes, thinking they will be forgiven by Allah and punished only for a little while.
وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةًۚ قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ عَهْدَهُ ۖ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And they say, "Never will the Fire touch us, except for a few days." Say, "Have you taken a covenant with Allah ? For Allah will never break His covenant. Or do you say about Allah that which you do not know?" [Baqarah 2:80]
wa Allahu 'aleemun bi-dhaalimeen - and Allah has full knowledge of the Wrongdoers/oppressors.
They are wrong in their beliefs and actions.
قُلْ إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ الَّذِي تَفِرُّونَ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مُلَاقِيكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
Qul inna-l mawta aladhee taFiroowna minhu fa innahu mulaaQeekum. thumma tuRadoowna ilaa 'aalim-il ghaybi wash-shahaadah. fa yu nabi'ukum bi maa kuntun ta'maloon
Say - the death which you are fleeing away from - then it is that same death will have a Meeting with you.Then you will all be reeturned to the Knower of the Unseen and the Seen. And He will inform you of what you used to do.
You might try to avoid a meeting in worldly appointments (i.e. by pretending to be ill), but there is one meeting/appointment you can never miss - the meeting of Death.
يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنسَانُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدْحًا فَمُلَاقِيهِ -
O human, surely you are pacing forward and you will meet Him (i.e. death, or your actions [on Judgment Day], or Allah). [Inshiqaq 84:6]
Thumma yuRaddoohu ilaa 'aalim-il ghaybi wash-shahadah..-
..then you will all be returned to the Knower of the Unseen, and the Seen.
Allah knows what is in your hearts, and what you did. He even knows your intentions.
fa yuNabi'ukum bi maa kuntum ta'maloon - then He will inform you (all) about what you used to do.
Allah has done talking with the Jews now that they have failed, now he will to talk to us so we don't fall into their failures and errors, because if we do - we too will be cursed. [lose all blessings and goodness of life.]
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
yaa ayyuh-aladheena aamaanoo idhaa noowdiya lis-salaati min yawmi-'l jumu'ati faS'aw ilaa dhikrillahi wa dharu-'l bay', dhaalikum khayru-lakum in kuntum ta'maloon
O you who believe, when the call is made for the Prayer of Friday, then rush
(faS'aw - sa'ee [walk fast/pace]) to the rememrance of Allah and leave your business/transactions. That is better for you if only you knew.
The Friday prayer is when the Messenger of Allah would Recites to the people the Qur'an.
Jumu'ah is an event when everyone comes to prayer. Unlike other events when some people might come and others may not.
Brother Nouman says that the people who present the Jumu'ah Khutbah should explain the Qur'an at the best and most Exciting level - since everyone turns up. So this khutbah/speech should have the greatest priority.
wa dharu-'l bay' - and leave your business/transactions behind.
Most people nowadays show up late after the Khutbah - which is sad. Since they do not benefit.
So Nouman mentions that the Khateeb's should give khutbah's on the importance of coming early to Jumu'ah prayer.
فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
fa idhaa QuDiyat as-Salaati faNtaShiroo fi-'l arDi waBtaghuw min FaDlillahi, wa-dhkur-ullaha katheeran La'allakum tuFlihoon
Then when you have Fulfilled the Duty of the Prayer, then Disperse in the land and seek the Favours of Allah, and remember Allah alot so you are Successful.
fa idhaa QuDiyat as-salaati faNtaShiroo fi-'l arDi waBtaghoo min Fadlillah.. -
then when you have Fulfilled (the) Duty (of) the Prayer, then Disperse (Nashr) in the Land/Earth and seek from the favours of Allah (business)..
wa-dhkuru Allaha katheera La'allakum tuFlihoon - and Remember Allah alot, that Perhaps (hopefully) you will be successful.
So perhaps this Divinely Inspired Gathering (Jumu'ah) will have some Qur'an explained which makes you remember Allah alot, and that is the cause of all success.
وَإِذَا رَأَوْا تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْوًا انفَضُّوا إِلَيْهَا وَتَرَكُوكَ قَائِمًا ۚ قُلْ مَا عِندَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِّنَ اللَّهْوِ وَمِنَ التِّجَارَةِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ
wa idhaa Ra'aw Tijaaratan aw Lahwan inFaDoow ilayhaa wa tarakoowka Qaa'ima. Qul maa 'inda-Allahi khayrun min al-Lahwi wa min-at-Tijaarah. wa-Allahu khayru-Raaziqeen
And when they see a Trade Caravan (Tijaarah), or Amusement (Lahwa), they rush to it and leave you [Prophet Muhammad] standing [in khutbah]. Say, what is with Allah is better than Amusement or Business. And Allah is the best Provider.
This ayah is a specific case which happened during the time of the Messenger of Allah (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) when the companions fled (aNfuDu) outside of the mosque when they heard the trade caravan reaching Medinah.
But this ayah also applies to us; because 2 main things prevent Muslims from the prayer, either;
1 - Tijaarah - Business.
2 - Lahwa - Amusement. (Lahwa = Time spent on something less important whereas something of more importance requires doing
Qul maa 'indAllahi khayr;
Say; what Allah has is better..
Allah didn't even say what His Messenger has is better, or that what the Masjid has is better; He said what He has is better [of reward etc].
So if you miss some Entertainment for Allah's prayer, or you leave your work for Prayer - then what Allah has is better.
..wa Allahu khayrun Raaziqeen -
And Allah is the Best of Providers.
: It's been reported, Allah's Messenger, Muhammad (sal Allah alayhi wasalam) said;
Yaa ahlal Qur'an, laa tataWasadu ulQur'an (O people of the Qur'an - do not take the Qur'an lightly. [Wasada =
(i.e. don't 'turn the Qur'an into a pillow'
. I.e. Do not relax and say 'we are saved because we are the people of the Qur'an.'),]
waTluwhu haqqa tilaawatihee min aanaa al-layli wa-n-nahaar (and read and follow its Reading from the hours of the night and the day
) waFshoohu (and spread it
) wa taGhanawhu (and beautify it
) wa taDabaru feehi (and Reflect within it)
, La'allakum tuFlihoon (that Perhaps [hopefully] you will be successful.)
فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ
- and warn with the Qur'an he who fears my Threat - (Qaf 50:45)
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15 - Surah Jumu'ah (62) -