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farhan
10-13-2014, 01:51 AM
Beautiful set of lecture notes :ma: good read :).


Al Salam Institute 2014/15

Istikhlas and ikhlas: Most people, when they study, do not want to learn. They do not want to understand anything. Rather they study in order to be bale to perform social functions, and the most obvious social function is to teach and to look learned. So when we study a book, we need to search for what the author of the book wanted to teach and convey.

Ikhlas – to worship in order to worship our Lord
Istikhlas – to know the purpose of our study

Tafseer al-Tabari – Term 1 week 1

“If you have three tafaseer, you don’t need any other.” Re: Tafseer of Imam al-Tabari, tafseer kashaf (for style, language and grammar) and tafseer of imam Razi

Tafseer ibn kathir (best for a layman) was basically a summary of tafseer al-Tabari, with a few additions.

Imam Tabari: 224H – 310H

He was born many years after the likes of al-Bukhari, however he still managed to share many of his predecessors’ teachers.

He memorized the Quran when he was 7, lead the prayers when he was 8 and narrated hadith when he was 9.

Bukhari Term 1 week 1

There are certain aspects of Islam that are constant regardless of time and space (ibadah). However there are other parts of Islam that are dependent upon time and space and should be implemented with the specific circumstance in mind. The main example of the former is the prayer, salaah.

بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي الْوُضُوءِ
Chapter: What has been revealed regarding ablution?

Wudu – doing the action of wudu
Wadu – the water used to do the wudu
وَقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى: {إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ} قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَبَيَّنَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّ فَرْضَ الْوُضُوءِ مَرَّةً مَرَّةً، وَتَوَضَّأَ أَيْضًا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَثَلاَثًا، وَلَمْ يَزِدْ عَلَى ثَلاَثٍ، وَكَرِهَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ الإِسْرَافَ فِيهِ وَأَنْ يُجَاوِزُوا فِعْلَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
Surah al-Maeda was revealed in Medina, not mecca, and the evidence for wudu in Mecca is scarce. There is a narration of the prophet (Saw) asking for water for wudu, but it is not clear if it was obligatory for everyone, or jus the prophet. The Shaykh mentions that us not knowing this fact is not of importance, as we know it is obligatory now, but his opinion is that it had always been obligatory for the Muslims. The Shaykh adds that he believes the ayaat for wudu are in the context of tayammum.

In all schools of thought, except hanafi fiqh, intention is needed for wudu. However in hanafi fiqh, wudu is of two types: cleanliness and ibadah. The former can be fulfilled without intention and so wudu will be valid. However if one wants their sins to be forgiven through wudu, they need intention. The Shaykh adds that this distinction is quite theoretical because anyone who makes wudu already has intention 99% of the time.

Ahlul Sunna wal-jama’a is in agreement that the feet need to be washed, not wiped. Only the Shia follows the opinion that the feet can be wiped (even without socks or khuffs)

Whenever “Abu xyz said…” is mentioned, it is not the narrator themselves who wrote it. This is a common mistake by scholars. It is not of correct etiquette to call oneself by a kunya. It is Bukhari’s students who wrote, “Abu Abdillah said”, not Bukhari himself.

Ibn Maja: “People of knowledge have said that israf (excessiveness in wudu) is disliked, as well as going further than what the prophet (saw) did. There is a hadith about the prophet (saw) not liking israf in wudu, but it is weak. That’s why Ibn Maja doesn’t say “the prophet said” but rather, “the people of knowledge.”

باب لاَ تُقْبَلُ صَلاَةٌ بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ
Chapter: Chapter. No prayer Is Accepted Without Ablution (I.e, To Remove, The Small Hadith By Ablution Or The Big Hadith By Taking A Bath)

Tirmidhi – Term 1 week 1

Hadith no. 342
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَعْشَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم " مَا بَيْنَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ قِبْلَةٌ " .
If one is in a position of being able to see the ka3ba, the qibla is to see the ka3ba. If one is far away, the direction of the qibla suffices.

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَعْشَرٍ d.247H
Nobody out of the 6-hadith books narrated from him except Tirmidhi. He does not fulfil the condition of Bukhari or Muslim.

If a hadith is not in Bukhari or Muslim, it does not necessarily mean that it is not saheeh. Bukhari and Tirmidhi only accepted the most saheeh of the saheeh, whereas the other muhadditheen weren’t as stringent.

Hadith narrators can be criticised in two ways: memory and trustworthiness. A criticism of memory isn’t a strong criticism because one with weak memory does not forget everything or narrate everything incorrectly. However, a criticism of ones honesty/trustworthiness is very serious, and the hadith is classed as munkar.

Mohammed ibn Ma’shar didn’t narrate from his father or even his students. He took a book from one of his students and copied the narrations from his father.

Bukhari said that Abu Ma’shar was inconsistent. Some of his hadith are opposed by those more reliable than him. Bukhari is usually most moderate in his criticisms.

Neither Bukhari nor Muslim narrated from Uthman ibn Muhammad al-akhnasi because he did not fulfil their criteria.

Usul al-Fiqh – Imam Mohammed Khan

Term 1 week 1

Usul al-Fiqh: knowledge related to Islamic rulings which are practical/action based, derived from the elaborated on/detailed texts.

The Shaykh summarises that “Usul al-Fiqh is a collection of principles pertaining to the methodology of extracting fiqh.”
I.e. The principles by which a mujtahid derives legal rulings (fiqh)
Linguistic meaning = ‘foundation’

Fiqh = knowing the rulings pertaining to actions of the mukalif (those accountable)
Linguistic definition = ‘understanding’

5 rulings:
1) Fardh/wajib (obligatory)
2) Sunnah (recommended)
3) Mubah/Halal (permissible)
4) Makrooh (detested/disliked)
5) Haram (prohibited)
Usul ul-Fiqh = how did you derive the above ^

Allah commands to establish the prayer. The maxim that commands are indicative of obligation is a part of usul al-Fiqh and thus prayers are obligatory.

Negation is indicative of prohibition.

“Man hurima al usul, hurima al wusul” – whomever is deprived of [the knowledge of] usul is deprived of arriving at their desired destination.

4 levels of evidence, by which you derive rulings:
1) Quran
2) Sunnah
3) Ijma’
4) Qiyas

First writings on usul al-fiqh:
Main two students of imam abu Hanifa:
Abu Yusuf d.182H
Imam Mohammad d.189H
Also, Imam ash-shafi’i d.234H

Fiqh – Shaykh Shafiur Rahman

Al Mukhtasar al-Quduri - Term 1 week 1

Fiqh = knowledge of the rulings of the practical aspects of sharia, derived from evidences.

Sharia is everything revealed to the prophet (saw) including Aqeeda, imaan etc.

Fiqh is the human effort (within a guided framework) to derive rulings from evidences.

A Madhab is a methodology of teaching with a text (the Quran/sunnah).

Author: Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Quduri d.428H

Hanafi fiqh categories:
1) Fardh (obligatory)
b) Wajib
2) Sunnah (recommended)
3) Mubah/Halal (permissible)
4) Makrooh (detested/disliked)
b) Makrooh tahrimi (closer to haram)
5) Haram (prohibited)

Fardh of wudu: To wash ‘the three limbs’ and wipe the head.

1) Arms, including elbows 2) face and feet, including ankles
The portion of the head needed to be wiped to fulfil the fardh = a quarter

The Sunnah of the wudu:
To start with the basmalah
To wash the hands first
Rinsing the mouth and nose
Wiping the ears
To run fingers through the beard and between fingers
To wipe all the head is Sunnah
To repeat each action 3 times (except head and ears, which is once)
To have intention
The sequence is actually Sunnah but one should never purposefully oppose the Sunnah
To begin each action with the right hand
Wiping cotton socks can be done if the sock is thick. Abu Hanifa prohibited it all his life until the very end, where he did so and said, “I have done what I have forbidden you to do.” His students allowed it.
Holes are acceptable only if small.

Tafseer Surah Maryam – Shaykh Akram

Term 1 week 1

There is huda and there is hawa. Huda is guidance and hawa is desires. Desires are from within, whereas guidance is external. The Quran is a book of guidance not a book of desires. It is not a book about what you want. Rather it will teach what is good for you. Don’t expect the quran to fulfil your desires. Don’t come to give to the quran; come to take from the quran.

Allah is Al Aziz, the most powerful. When he commands you with anything, it is not from a position of weakness, rather a position of strength. This is even when you perceive the order to be ‘weak’. Allah is Ar-Rahim, the most merciful. When he commands you to do things, it is from mercy. When he commands you to wake up at 4am to pray fajr in the cold, it is from mercy. When you read the Quran, bear these factors in mind.

This surah (Maryam) is about a people who were in a similar state to us. They had no power or khilafa, yet Allah loved them.

The surah was revealed in mecca and some Muslims were seeking help from Ahlul-kitaab.

Allah is clarifying that the support of the Jews or Christians does not legitimise one’s view. The corruption within their religion renders their stance invalid.

“Kaf haa yaa ‘ayn Saad” – there has been much discussion about what they mean, but in the end nobody is certain.

The ‘taa’ in ‘rahmat’ is round, not marbuta because it is indicating that it is not the end of the word, but rather in the middle of “rahmati rabbik”, to ensure that one does not stop at “rahmah”.

“Ith nada rabbahu nidaa’an khafiyya” – A beautiful dua. We think if we repeat the words of the Prophet’s prayers then it will have the same effect. A lot of the time we make the same dua but without a true understanding of the implications of the dua, nor we do have the same sincere heart.
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ali399
01-09-2015, 06:21 AM
God and thanks for the knowledge
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The-Deist
01-09-2015, 07:15 AM
:sl:
Jazakallahu Khair
And May Allah (swt) allow us to gain knowledge and wisdom in the best possible ways
Aameen
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