Allaah has granted a concession to the one who has been wronged, allowing him to settle scores with the one who wronged him in this world;
that is allowed only to an extent commensurate with the original wrong, with no transgression, overstepping the mark or wrongdoing.Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. And Allaah is Ever All‑Hearer, All‑Knower”
Ibn Katheer said in al-Tafseer (1/572):
“Ibn ‘Abbaas said concerning this verse:
‘Allaah does not like anyone to pray against anyone else, except if he has been wronged, in which case He has granted a concession allowing him to pray against the one who wronged him. That is the words “except by him who has been wronged”. But if he bears it with patience that is better for him.’”
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.
The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment”
“And those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge”
It was narrated that some of the Sahaabah prayed against those who had wronged them.
When a man from among the people of Kufah accused Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) of something of which he was innocent, Sa’d said:
“I will pray for three things: O Allaah, if this slave of Yours is lying, and did this to show off, then give him a long life, make him live a life of poverty and expose him to temptations.”
After that, the man used to say:
“An old man who has been tempted; the du’aa’ of Sa’d affected me.”
[Narrated by al-Bukhaaree (755); Muslim (453)]
It was narrated from Muhammad ibn Zayd from Sa’eed ibn Zayd (may Allaah be pleased with him) that Arwa (a woman) had a dispute with him concerning part of his house.
“Let her have it, for I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say:
‘Whoever takes a handspan of land unlawfully, his neck will be encircled with it down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.’
O Allaah, if she is lying then make her blind and make her grave in her house.”
He said: and I saw her blind, clinging on to the wall,
“The du’aa’ of Sa’eed ibn Zayd affected me.”
Whilst she was walking in the house, she came to a well that was in the house and fell into it, and it became her grave.
[Narrated by Muslim (1610)]
An-Nawawee said in Sharh Muslim (11/50):
“The hadeeth of Sa’eed ibn Zayd (may Allaah be pleased with him) shows that it is permissible to pray against an aggressor or wrongdoer.”
If the one who has been wronged prays against the one who wronged him, he should not go to extremes in that and should not overstep the limits prescribed by Allaah.
Al-Hasan al-Basree said:
“He should not pray against him, rather he should say,
‘O Allaah, help me against him and give me my right from him..’”
According to another report he said:
“He has been granted a concession allowing him to pray against the one who has wronged him, without transgressing the limits against him.”
[Tafseer Ibn Katheer (1/572)]
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) was asked:
Some of the brothers mentioned on you, Oh noble Shaykh, that it is not permissible to make du’aa’ against the Jews, especially if that is in a general manner. We hope from you to give clarity?Response:
“This is the custom of some of the people, and that is that the person cuts off some of the speech and takes what he wants and then says “so and so said”.
This question came during one of the nights: ‘Is it permissible to make du’aa’ for the destruction of all of the kuffaar, the destruction of the Jews, the disbelievers, all of them, until the point that none from amongst them remains upon the earth?’
I said in response:
Du’aa’ is to be made against the one who transgressed, from amongst them, and oppressed the Muslimeen. As for making du’aa’ against them, that all of them be destroyed and none remains from amongst them, Allaah is All-Wise and All-Knowing. He has the ability to destroy them all and not leave anyone remaining except for the Muslimeen.
However, Allaah allows them to remain for a wisdom. He allows them to remain for the purpose of striving against them, establishing al-Walaa (Alliance for the believers) and al-Baraa (Disassociation from the disbelievers). He allows them to remain so that the difference between the one who loves Allaah and the one who does not love Allaah and His Messenger are established. There is wisdom for Allaah in doing that.”
[Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee al-Mashaakil al-Mulimmah (part 2 pgs. 203-204)]
The best du’aa’ that the one who has been wronged can say is that which was narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:
“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say:
‘O Allaah, make my hearing and my sight strong, and make them my heirs (i.e., keep them strong until I die), and support me against the one who has wronged me, and avenge me.’”
[Narrated by al-Bukhaaree in al-Adab al-Mufrad (1/226); classed as saheeh by al-Albaanee in Saheeh al-Adab al-Mufrad]
It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) rarely left a gathering without saying this du’aa’ for his companions:
“O Allaah, give us a share of fear of You that will keep us from disobeying You… and grant us revenge over those who have wronged us, and grant us victory over our aggressors.”
[Narrated by at-Tirmidhee (3502); classed as hasan by al-Albaanee in Saheeh at-Tirmidhee]
al-Imaam Maalik reported in his ‘Muwatta’ (306):
‘I did not find the people except that they would be cursing the kuffaar in Ramadhaan.’”In ‘al-Istidhkar’ (2/72), Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said:
“This shows that it is permissible to curse the kuffaar whether or not they are dhimmis. This is not obligatory. Rather, it is allowed for those who do it out of hatred for them for the sake of Allaah due to their denial of the truth and their enmity to the Religion and its people…They would supplicate in the Witr of their prayer in Ramadhaan and curse the kuffaar in imitation of the Messenger of Allaah when he supplicated in his Qunut against Ra’al, Dhakwan, and Bani Lahyan, who had killed his Companions at the Well of Ma’unah.Also, on p. 32 of his treatise ‘Qiyam Ramadhaan’, al-Albaanee mentions a narration of Ibn Khuzaymah’s (2/155) in which ‘Umar would appoint someone to lead the people in prayer at night in Ramadhaan, and at the end of the prayer after the first half of the month, the leader would make the following supplication:
And Ibn Wahb narrated from Maalik that the Qunut in Ramadhaan should be in the last half of Ramadhaan, and it is the cursing of the kuffaar. He curses the kuffaar, and those behind him say ‘Ameen.’
…and al-A’raj met a group of the Companions and the major Tabi’in, and this is the practice of the people of Madeenah.”
“O Allaah, fight the kuffaar who lead people away from Your Path, deny your Messengers, and do not believe in Your Promise. Divide them and throw fear into their hearts, and throw Your punishment upon them, O Deity of Truth!”
The leader of the prayer would then invoke peace and blessings upon the Prophet, pray for the Muslims for what was good, and then ask Allaah’s Forgiveness for the believers.
After this, they would finish the supplication with the following:
“O Allaah, we worship You, and we pray to You, and we prostrate to You, and we strive and rush and hope for Your Mercy, our Lord. And we fear Your true punishment, as Your punishment is close behind Your enemies.”
After this, he would go into prostration.
[End quote from Shaykh al-Albaanee’s treatise]
There is nothing wrong with offering supplication like this, praying against the enemies of Allaah and the enemies of His religion.
It is narrated in the Sunnah that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) offered this supplication against one of his enemies, namely the cousin of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him), the son of his uncle Aboo Lahab.
It was narrated by al-Haakim (3984) and by al-Bayhaqee in al-Dalaa’il (622) that Lahab ibn Abee Lahab used to revile the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him), and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said:
“O Allaah, send Your dog against him.”
He went out with a caravan, heading towards Syria. He halted at some place and said:
“I am afraid of the prayer of Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him).”
They said to him: “No (do not worry).”
They surrounded him with their luggage and stood guard over him, then a lion came and snatched him and took him away.
[Al-Haakim said: Its isnaad is saheeh. And adh-Dhahabee agreed with him]
It was also narrated by Aboo Na‘eem in al-Dalaa’il (220), where he mentioned his name as being ‘Utbah ibn Abee Lahab, and in that report it says:
“O Allaah, send against him one of Your dogs.”
[The hadeeth was classed as hasan by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Baaree (4/39), al-‘Aynee in ‘Umdat al-Qaaree’ (16/51), al-Shawkaanee in Nayl al-Awtaar (5/80), and al-San‘aanee in Subul al-Salaam (2195)]
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said to Mu’aadh when he dispatched him to govern over Yemen:
“And be wary of the supplication of the oppressed, for between it and Allaah there is no barrier.”
[Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1496, 2448) and Saheeh Muslim (19)]