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View Full Version : Obedience to ALLAH's Commands (Part 2)



k.ibrahim
04-03-2019, 11:27 PM
Bismillah Ir-Rahman, Ir-Raheem. I begin with ALLAH's auspiciousness,whose Name is the Best among all the names. All Revences, All Sanctities and All Worships are due to ALLAH alone. Ashahadu An Laa illaaha illal llahu
Wa Ash Hadu Anna Muhammadan Abdu Hu Wa Rasooluhu
''I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah
who is without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) is the Rasool.''
"O Allah, Shower Your Peace come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have brought peace to Ibrahim and his family.
Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. O Allah, Shower your blessing upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious". Iam Satisfied with Allâh as My Rabb and Cherisher,Iam Satisfied With Islam as My Din(religion) and I am satisfied with Muhammad as a Rasulallah (Messenger)sallallahu alaihi was salam) I seek Protection with ALLAH! With the Glorious and Noble Face of ALLAH! With the Complete and Perfect words of ALLAH! With the Exalted Attributes of ALLAH! From the Punishment of Hell; From chastisement in the Grave; From the Trial of Life and Death; From the Mischief of the dajjal. There is no power nor strength with (anyone) save Allah. ALLAH is Good and Only accept that which is Good. ALLAH is the Truth and only accept that which True. ALLAH is Pure and only accept that which is Pure. Ya ALLAH! ALL the praises are for You,You are the Holder of the Heavens and the Earth, And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All praises are for You; You are are the Substaner of the Heavens and the Earth And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All the praises are for you;You have the Possession of the Heavens and the Earth and whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All the praises are for You; You are Light(Nur) of the Heavens and Earth And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All praises are for You; You are the King of the Heavens and the Earth And whatever is in them. Ya ALLAH! All praises are for You; You are the Truth and Your Promise is the Truth, And Your word is the Truth and the Meeting with You is true, And Parardise is True And Hell is true and All the Prophets(peace be upon them) are true; And Muhammad Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) is true,And the Day of Resurrection is True. Ya ALLAH! You have promise and Your promise is the truth,Ya ALLAH! You have promise and Your words is the truth, Ya ALLAH! You have promise and You are the Truth!.
------------{Uli'l-Amr}(Translated here as 'those in Authority' or The People of Authority).
(The People of Authority or 'Those in Authority') Two views have been expressed by the Sahabah and the 'ulama (scholars) Ibn 'Abbas, Mujahid and Hasan al-Basri the earliest commentators of the Qur'an, may Allah be pleased with them, refers to those ones "charged with authority". have said that uli'l-amr fittingly applies to scholars and jurists ('Ulama' and Fuqaha') since, they are the succeeding deputies of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)and the proper regulation of religion is in their hands. Then, there is a group of commentators, including Sayyidna Abu Hurairah , which says that uli'l-amr signifies officials and rulers who hold the reins of government in their hands. However, it appears in Tafsir Ibn Kathir and al-Tafsir al-Mazhari that this expression includes both categories, that is, the scholars and jurists as well as the officials and rulers because the system of command is inevitably connected with these two. it applies to both groups, because both the 'ulama and the rulers are in charge of the affairs concerning which Allah has sent His Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). As for the 'ulama, they are charged with protecting the Din, explaining it, teaching it, and refuting those who deviate from it or try to alter it. Allah ta'ala gave them this charge, as He said: "These [prophets] were the men to whom We granted the Book and Judgement and Prophethood; if these people [of the Scripture] reject them, behold! We shall entrust their charge to a new people who do not reject them ... " [Al-Qur'an 6:89] This is indeed a great assignment to the 'ulama that requires from people to obey and follow them. And as for the rulers, they are charged with establishing the Din, safeguarding it, compelling people to adhere to it, and punishing those who deviate from it. Thus these two groups are in charge of the affairs of people, and other people are their followers and subjects.

1. First of all come commands about something which Allah Almighty has Himself revealed very explicitly in the Holy Qur'an and which do not need any explanation - for example, the extremely serious crime of shirk and kufr (the ascribing of partners to the divinity of Allah, and disbelief); the worship of Allah, the One; the belief in Akhirah, the life-to-come, and in Qiyamah, the Last Day; and the belief in Sayyidna Muhammd al-Mustafa(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) as the Last and True Messenger of Allah; the belief in and the practice of Salah (prayers), Sawm (fasting), Hajj (pilgrimage) and Zakah (alms) as fard (obligatory). All these are direct Divine commands. Carrying these out means a direct obedience to Allah Almighty. Believers! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you; if you differ in anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger (for judgment) if you (truly) believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination." [Al-Qur'an 4:59] 2. Then, there is the second part consisting of ahkam or commands which needs to be explained. Here, the Holy Qur'an often gives a terse or unspecified command the explanation of which is left to Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). Now, the explanation or enlargement of the subject which Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)takes up through his ahadith is also a kind of wahy (revelation). If these explanations, based on personal judgment, miss something or fall short in any way, correction is made through wahy. Finally, the word and deed of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) as it is in the end, becomes the interpretation of the Divine command. Furthermore, there is in the above ayah (An-Nisa' 59) a clear evidence that all matters of disagreement, in all aspects of the Din, should be referred to Allah and His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and to no one else. Anyone referring disputes to other than Allah and His Messenger opposes this command by Allah. And anyone who calls to other than Allah's and His Messenger's judgment to resolve disagreements, calls indeed with the call of Jahiliyyah. One does not truly enter the realm of Iman until he refers all differences arising among people to Allah and His Messenger. For this reason, this ayah continues as, " ... if you believe in Allah and the Last Day ... ". Obedience to the Divine commands of this nature is, though, the very obedience, of the commands of Allah Almighty in reality, but, speaking formally, since these commands are not physically and expli-citly the Qur'an as such - they have reached the community through the blessed words of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) - therefore, obedience to them is academically said to be an obedience to Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) which, in reality, despite being in unison with obedience to the Divine, does have a status of its own if looked at outwardly. Therefore, throughout the Holy Qur'an, the command to obey Allah has the allied command to obey Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) as a constant feature. This ayah should be a sufficient clarification and guidance in this matter (of obeying the Messenger). It constitutes a protection and a support for those who abide by it; and it is a powerful refutation and attack against those who deny it, as Allah ta'ala said: " ... That he who would perish might perish in clear evidence [of the truth], and that he who would remain alive might live in clear evidence [of the truth]. And verily Allah is All-Hearing, All Knowing ... " [Al-Qur'an 8:42] The earlier and later Muslims agreed that referring matters to Allah means referring them to His Book, and referring matters to Rasulallah ( sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) means referring them to him personally during his life, and to his Sunnah after his death. The above ayah (An-Nisa' 59) ends with, " ... that is best, and most suitable for final determination... ". This means, "That with which I commanded you (to obey Me and obey My Rasulallah and the people of authority, and to refer disputes to Me and My Rasulallah) is better for you in this life and in the Hereafter; it leads to your happiness in both lives. Therefore, it is best and most rewarding for you."This indicates that obeying Allah ta'ala and His Rasulallah sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and taking them as the referees, is the means to immediate and continued happiness. 3. The third category of Ahkam or commands are those which have not been explicitly mentioned in the Holy Qur'an or in the Hadith, or if they do appear in the later, the narrations about such commands found in the enormous treasure-house appear to be conflicting. In the case of such ahkam, Mujtahid 'Ulama (scholars having the highest multi-dimensional expertise in religious knowledge through original sources) delve into the established texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah along with a close study of precedents and parallels offered by the problem in consideration, giving their best thought and concern to arrive at the appropriate rule of conduct while staying within the parameters of the imperatives of the sacred texts. This being so, the obedience to these rules is one and the same as the obedience to the Divine because it has been, in all reality, deduced from the Qur'an and Sunnah. But, when seen formally, these are known as juristic edicts or fatawa as popularly understood and are attributed to religious scholars. Under this very third category, come the Ahkam which are free of any restrictions from the Qur'an and Sunnah. In fact, here people have the choice to act as they wish. This, in the terminology of the Shari'ah is known as Mubahat (plural of Mubah meaning 'allowed'). The formulation, enforcement and management of orders and rules of this nature has been entrusted with the rulers and their officials so that they can make laws in the background of existing conditions and considerations and make everybody follow these. in the present verse, the obedience to those in authority means obedience to both 'ulama' and hukkam (religious scholars and Rulers). According to this verse, it becomes necessary to obey Muslim jurists in matters which require juristic research, expertise and guidance as it would be equally necessary to obey those in authority in matters relating to administrative affairs. This obedience too is, in reality, the obedience to the ahkam or commands of Allah Almighty. But, as seen outwardly, these commands are not there in the Qur'an or the Sunnah. Instead, they are either enunciated by religious scholars or the officials. It is for this reason that this particular call for obedience has been separated and placed at number three and given the distinct identity of 'obey those in authority'. Let us keep in mind that, the way it is binding and neces-sary to follow the Qur'an in the specified textual provisions of the Qur'an and follow Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) in the specified textual provisions of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), so it is necessary to follow the Muslim jurists in matters relating to jurisprudence, matters which have not been textually specified, and to follow the rulers and the officials in matters relating to administration. This is what 'obedience to those in authority' means.(the people of Authority! the Scholars and The Jurists(Ulama'and Fuqaha')and the Officials and The Rulers are all handed over to the recipients as trust from Allah. Those who receive it are its amin (trustees). This covers all! everyone in authority. This is something to pondering over in the Qur'anic use of the word, Amanat which is in the plural form. This is to hint that amanah (trust obligation) is not simply limited to wealth or kind which someone may have entrusted to someone else for safe-keeping until demanded, which is the most prevailing and commonly understood form of amanah. The cue is that there are other kinds of amanah as well. For example, the incident that is about to be mentioned of the revelation of this verse does not have any financial aspect to it. The key to the Baytullah was not a financial asset. Instead, this key was a symbol of the office of the serving keeper of the Baytullah. The Holy Qur'an says: Surely, Allah commands you to fulfil trust obligations towards those entitled to them and that, when you judge between people, judge with fairness. Surely, good is what Allah exhorts you with. Surely, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing. [58] O those who believe, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then, if you quarrel about something, revert it back to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is good, and the best at the end. [59] The first of the two verses cited above was revealed in the back-ground of a particular event which related to the custodial service of the Ka'bah, an office of great honour even before the advent of Islam. Those who were appointed to serve the House of Allah in a particular area of responsibility were regarded as people of great prestige and distinction in the community. Therefore, different areas of services were distributed over different people. It was from the time of Jahil-liyah that, during the days of Hajj, the service of providing drinking water to pilgrims from the well of Zamzam was entrusted to Sayyidna 'Abbas, the revered uncle of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). This was known as Siqayah. Some other services similar to this were in the charge of Abu Talib, another uncle of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam). Likewise, the custodial duty of keeping the keys to the House of Allah and of opening and closing it during fixed days had been given to 'Uthman ibn Talhah.

According to a personal statement of 'Uthman ibn Talhah, the Ka'bah was opened every Monday and Thursday during the period of Jahilliyah and people would use the occasion to have the honour of entering the sacred House. Once before Hijrah, Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)came with some of his Companions in order to enter the Ka'bah. 'Uthman ibn Talhah had not embraced Islam until that time. He stopped Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)from going in, displaying an attitude which was very rude. Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)showed great restraint, tolerated his harsh words, then said: 'O 'Uthman, a day will come when you would perhaps see this key to the Baytullah in my hands when I shall have the power and choice to give it to anyone I choose.' 'Uthman ibn Talhah said: 'If this happens, the Quraysh will then be all uprooted and disgraced.' He said: 'No, the Quraysh will then be all established and very honourable indeed.' Saying this, he went into the Baytullah. After that, says Talhah, when I did a little soul-searching, I became convinced that whatever he has said is bound to happen. I made up my mind that I am going to embrace Islam then and there. But, my own people around me vehemently opposed the idea and everybody joined in to chide me on my decision. So, I was unable to convert to Islam. When came the conquest of Makkah, Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) called for me and asked for the key to Baytullah, which I presented to him.'

In some narrations, it is said that 'Uthman ibn Talhah had climbed over the Baytullah with the key. It was Sayyidna 'Ali(radiallahu anhu)who, in deference to the order of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), had forcibly taken the key from his hand and had given it to Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam).

So he went into the Baytullah, offered his prayers there, and when he came out, he returned the key to Talhah saying: 'Here, take it. Now this key will always remain with your family right through the Last Day. Anyone who will take this.key from you will be a tyrant.' (By this he meant that nobody has the right to take back this key from Talhah) He also instructed him to use whatever money or things he may get in return for this service to Baytullah in accordance with the rules set by the Shari'ah of Islam.

'Uthman ibn Talhah says: 'When I, with the key in my hand, started walking off all delighted, he called me again, and said: 'Remember 'Uthman, did I not tell you something way back? Has it come to pass, or has it not?' Now, I remembered what he had said before Hijrah when he had said: 'A day will come when you will see this key in my hand.' I submitted: 'Yes, there is no doubt about it. Your word has come true.' And that was the time when I recited the Kalimah and entered the fold of Islam.' (Mazhari, from Ibn Sa'd).

Sayyidna 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab(radiallahu anhu)says: 'That day, when Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)came out of the Baytullah, he was reciting this very verse, that is, {The Holy Qur'an says: Surely, Allah commands you to fulfil trust obligations towards those entitled to them and that, when you judge between people, judge with fairness. Surely, good is what Allah exhorts you with. Surely, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing. [58]. I had never heard him recite this verse before this.' Obviously, this verse was revealed to him inside the Ka'bah exactly at that time. Obeying the Divine command in the verse, Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) , called 'Uthman ibn Talhah again and made him the trustee of the key, because 'Uthman ibn Talhah when he had given the key to the Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam), had said: 'I hand over this article of trust to you.' Although, the remark he made was not technically correct as it was the sole right of Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)to take whatever course of action he deemed fit. But, the Holy Qur'an has, in this verse, taken into consideration the nature of trust involved therein, and directed Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam)to return the key to none else but 'Uthman, although, that was a time when Sayyidna 'Abbas and Sayyidna 'Ali(radiallahu anhu)had both requested that, since Baytullah's offices of water supply and custodial services (Siqaya and Sidana) were in their respective charge, this service of the Key-Bearer of the Ka'bah may be entrusted to them. But,Rasulallah(sallallahu alayhi wa salam) preferred to follow the instruction given in this verse, bypassed their request and returned the key to 'Uthman ibn Talhah. (Tafsir Mazhari)

This was the background in which this verse was revealed. At this point let us bear in mind an impprtant rule on which there is a consensus. The rule is that even if a Qur'anic verse is revealed in a particular background, the rule laid down by it in general terms must be taken as of universal application and must not be restricted to that particular event.

Now, we can turn to the meanings and exegetic aspects of these verses.

The Holy Qur'an says:those who believe, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then, if you quarrel about something, revert it back to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is good, and the best at the end. [59]. It means: 'Surely, Allah commands you to fulfil trust obligations towards those entitled to them.' As to who is the addressee of this command, there are two probabilities: It could have been addressed to the general body of Muslims, or it could have been addressed particularly,to those in authority. What is more obvious here is that the verse is addressed to everyone who holds anything in trust. This includes the masses and also those in authority.


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