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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-14-2006, 11:59 PM
:sl:

In the process of transfering this book in its entirety. Originally posted by a brother at IN Forums.

Kashf Al-Shubuhaat (Clearing of the Doubts)

by Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab (rahimahullah)
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:00 AM
Know - may Allah have mercy on you - that tawhid is to single out Allah in worship. And this is the religion of all the messengers whom Allah sent to His servants.

The first of these messengers was Nuh, whom Allah sent to his people after they exaggerated the status of righteous people, such as wadd, and Suwa, and Yaghuth, and Ya'ug, and Nasr. And the last of these messengers was Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and he was the one who broke the images of these pious people.

Allah sent the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to a group of people who used to worship Him, and perform Hajj, and give charity, and remember Allah. However, they would also make certain created objects intermediaries between them and Allah.

They would say as an excuse for this act, " We only desire to come closer to Allah through them, and we wish that they intercede for us with Him."

Allah therefore sent Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), to revive their old religion - the religion of their father Ibrahim - and to inform them that this act of trying to come closer to Allah, and this belief (that they needed an intermediary to approach Allah) was a right that is due only to Allah. It is not proper to direct any of these acts of worship to any other being, whether it be a noble angel, or a sent Prophet, much less to anyone of lesser status than them.

Otherwise, these pagans that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah) was sent to used to testify that Allah is the sole Creator, and that He is unique, having no partners like Him. They also used to testify that none gives any sustenance except He, and none grants life or death except He, and that none controls the affairs of creation except He. They also used to believe that all of the seven heavens, and that which it contains, and the seven earths, and that which it contains - all of these objects are His servants, and under His Control and Power.

If you wish to know the proof that these same pagans that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought used to testify to all this, then recite these verses to he who asks for proof: "Say: Who gives you sustenance from the Heavens and Earth? Or who controls hearing and sight, and who brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living, and who arranges (every)) matter?" They will respond, "Allah", so say, "Then will you not fear Him?" [Surah Yunus; 31]. And the verses: "Say To whom belongs the earth, and whoever is in it, if you know... until the phrase... then how are you deluded'" [Surah Al-Mu'minun; 84-89]. And there are other verses besides these to prove this point.


And it is this tawhid that is the meaning of your testimony La ilaha illa Allah, for the meaning of the word ilah according to the Arabs is the One that is turned to for all of these matters of supernatural help, whether the object turned to is an angel, a prophet, a pious saint, a tree, a grave, or a jinni. The Arabs of old did not understand by the word ilah that it is the creator, sustainer, and controller of the creation, because they fully realized and knew for certain that these matters are only attributed to Allah, and the proofs for this have already been given. Rather, the pagan Arabs meant by the word ilah the same as the pagans of our own times mean by the word sayyid. Since they rejected the concept of ilah, the Prophet () was sent to them to call them to the testimony of tawhid, which is La ilaha illa Allah.

: So when you realize that these ignorant disbelievers knew the precise meaning of this phrase, then it is indeed amazing that there are those who claim to be followers of Islam in our times and yet do not understand from this phrase what the ignorant disbelievers understood! Rather he presumes that he is only required to verbalize this phrase, without necessarily believing with his heart any particular meaning. And the intelligent one amongst them believes that it means that there is no Creator, or Sustainer, or Controller except Allah, which was exactly the belief of the pagan Arabs. And indeed, there is no good in a person when the pagan Arabs are more knowledgeable of the meaning of the phrase La ilah illa Allah than he!

And realize that Allah, in His Infinite Wisdom, did not send a prophet with this message of tawhid except that He made certain people to be enemies of this prophet, as He stated, "And thus We have made for every prophet an enemy - devils from mankind and jinn" [Surah la-an'am;112]. And it is possible that these enemies of tawhid have much knowledge, and evidences and proofs to justify their actions, as Allah stated "So when our prophets came to them with clear signs, they rejoiced with what knowledge they had" [Surah Ghafir; 83]
If you realize this, and you realize that the path to the worship of Allah will always have enemies that will be upon it, who might be people of eloquence, and knowledge, and evidences, then it becomes obligatory to learn enough of Allah's religion so that this knowledge can become a weapon with which you can fight these Shayatin, whose leader and chief(Iblis) said to Allah: "I will of a surety sit on your Straight Path (to misguide them) [Surah Al-A'raf; 16]. But if you turn with sincerity to Allah, and apply yourself to learning Allah's evidences and His explanations, then fear not, nor worry! "Verily, the plot of Shaytan is indeed very weak" [Surah Al-Nisa'; 76]. And indeed, the average unlearned person from the people of tawhid can overcome a thousand of the scholars of these pagans, as Allah has said: "And indeed our armies will be the victorious" [Surah al-Saffat; 173]. So Allah's armies will be victorious over His enemies with clear evidences and arguments of the tongue, as they will be victorious over them with might and power. Fear only exists when the person who is upon tawhid tries to tread the path of the worship of Allah while he is unarmed with any knowledge.

And Allah has indeed blessed us with His Book the Qur'an, which He has made "... a clarification for all matters, and (a source of) guidance and mercy" [Surah al-Nahl; 89]. So no person of misguidance comes with any false argument except that the Qur'an contains that which refutes it and shows its falsity. Allah states, "And they do not bring you an example (or question, in order to outwit you) except that We bring you the truth, and best explanation" [Surah al-Furqan; 33].

Some scholars of Tafsir stated: "This verse encompasses all the false evidences that the people of falsehood will bring to the Day of Judgment."

And I will mention to you matters that Allah has mentioned in His book as a response to the statements that the people of falsehood and shirk of our times try to use against us.

So we say that the response to the people of falsehood is always by two methods; a general response, and a detailed response.

As for the general response, then it is a simple and great matter, and a beautiful benefit for he who understands it, and that is the understanding of the verse, "He is the One who had revealed to you the Book. In it are verses that are clear (in meaning) - these form the major (or important) portion of the Book; while other verses are unclear..." [Surah Al-Imran; 7] And it has authentically been narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah) has said, "When you see the people that follow the unclear(verses), then these are the people that Allah has mentioned in His Book, so beware of them."

An example of this general response is: when a person who commits shirk comes to you trying to prove his acts and quotes the verse: "Verily, the friends of Allah will have no fear, nor will they worry," [Surah Yunus; 62] or he claims that the intercession is a confirmed truth, or he states that the prophets enjoy a high status with Allah, or he tries to prove his point by quoting a statement from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and you do not understand the meaning of his speech; then your response to all of the above evidences is that you say: "Allah has mentioned in His Book that those people that have a disease in their hearts will leave the clear verses, and follow vague ones instead. And what I have already quoted you proving that the pagans of old believed in the Rububiyyah of Allah, but their disbelief occurred as a result of the fact that they turned towards angels, prophets, or pious people, justifying their actions by saying: "These are our intercessors in front of Allah" [Surah Yunus; 18] - all of this is a certain matter, and no one can change the meaning of these verses. As for what you have mentioned to me - O person of shirk - from the Qur'an and statements of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), I don't understand the exact meaning of it. But at the same time I firmly believe that Allah's speech does not contradict itself, and that the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) statements do not contradict the statements of Allah."

And this is indeed a good answer, but no one except whom Allah has guided will be able to understand it, so do not trivialize this response. As Allah says,
"And they will not be able to reach it except those who have patience, and they will not be able to attain it except those who have great fortune" [Surah Fussilat; 35]

As for the detailed response, then know that the enemies of Allah have many criticisms and doubts against the religion of all the prophets, which they use to prevent people from following the Path of Allah.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:01 AM
The First Argument

Of these doubts is their saying: "We don't commit shirk with Allah! Rather, we testify that there is no deity or power that creates, or gives sustenance, or benefits anyone or harms anyone except Allah; He is Alone, having no partners or equals. And we testify that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is not able by himself to cause any benefit or cause any harm, much less the saint 'Abd al Qadir, or anyone else besides him. But, even though I testify all this, I realize that I am sinful, and these righteous people have a great status in front of Allah, so I ask Allah through them."

So, when he presents this argument to you, respond to him with what has gone before in this tract, and that is that the same people that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought used to acknowledge all that you have mentioned, O negator of truth! And they openly admitted that their idols did not control anything. Rather, they desired from these objects their status in front of Allah, and their intercession to Allah on their behalf. And recite to him the verses that Allah has mentioned in His Book, and explain these verses to him.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:01 AM
The Second Argument

Now, if he responds, "But these verses were revealed regarding people who used to worship idols! How can you compare the pious people that we turn to idols? And how can you make prophets into idols?"

Then once again respond to him with knowledge that has already gone before in this tract. And that is because, if he admits that the pagans of old believed in the complete Rububiyyah of allah, and that they only desired by turning to their idols intercession on their behalf, and he desires to differentiate between what they used to do and what he is doing, then show him that amongst the disbelieving pagans were those that worshipped idols and stones, and also others that worshipped pious people. It is concerning these people that were worshipped besides Allah that Allah says , "These people are the ones calling out to their Lord, trying to find a means of nearness to Him, which of them will be closer (to Him)..." [Surah Al-Isra; 57]. And some of these pagans would worship Jesus the son of Mary, and his mother even though Allah says: "Jesus the son of Mary is only a messenger, many are the messengers that have come before him. And his mother was a righteous woman" [Surah Al-Maidah; 75]. And remind this person of the statement of Allah, "And on the Day shall We resurrect them all, then He will say to the angels, 'Did these (people) used to worship you?' They will respond: 'Glory be to you..." [Surah Saba'; 40-41]. And remind him also of Allah's statement, "And when Allah will ask, 'O Jesus the son of Mary, did you tell the people: take me and my mother as gods besides Allah?'" [Surah al-Ma'idah; 116]

So after presenting all of these evidences tell him: "You now realize that Allah pronounced disbelief upon hose people who turned to idols, and He also pronounced disbelief upon those who turned to pious people. And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought all of these people and did not differentiate between them.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:01 AM
The Third Argument

Now, it is possible that he will respond, "But the disbelievers actually intended from these objects benefit or help. AS for me, then I testify that only Allah is the One Who gives benefit and has the power to harm, the One Who controls all affairs. I only desire help from Him, and I fully realise that these pious people don't control anything. But I turn to them, hoping that their intercession will be accepted by Allah."

So the response to this excuse is to say: This is exactly the excuse of the pagan Arabs of old - word for word. And the proof for this is when you recite to him the verse, "And those that have taken protectors besides Him (say): We only worship them to come closer to Allah [ Surah Al-Zumar; 3]. And recite to them also the verse, "And they say that these (idols) are our intercessors in front of Allah." [Surah Yunus; 18].

And know that these three doubt and arguments that they have are the greatest evidences that they possess. So if you realize that Allah has already made the futility of these doubts clear in His Book, and you have understood this well, then what follows is easier to understand and refute than what has preceded.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:02 AM
The Fourth Argument

Now, if he says, "I only worship Allah. But this turning that I do to these pious people and saints, and my calling upon them for my needs is not considered worship! then respond to him as follows:

"Do you agree that Allah has made it obligatory for you to single Him out in worship (ikhlas), and that his worship is His sole right, and thus cannot be directed to any other object?"

So when he responds, "Yes," then ask him: "Explain to me this concept that Allah has made obligatory on you, meaning this sincerity that you must have to Him in your worship, and which is His sole right."

Then you will see that he does not know the meaning of worship ('ibadah) nor is he familiar with its categories.

Now that he has shown his ignorance, you explain to him by quoting the verse in which Allah says, "Call upon your Lord in humility and fear" [Surah Al-A'raf;55]. Once you have explained this verse to him, ask him, "Is this calling and du'a a type of worship to Allah?"

Then he must of a surety respond: "Yes! Du'a is a type of worship."

So ask him, "If you admit that this du'a is an act of worship, and you called upon Allah, day and night, in fear of having your du'a rejected and hopeful of a response from Him, but then at the same time called upon a prophet, or other than a prophet, to respond to the request that you made to Allah - did you by this action commit shirk with Allah?"

Then he must of a surety respond, "Yes."

Then move on to another example and quote him the verse, "So pray to your Lord, and sacrafice (only to Him)" [Surah Al-Kawthar; 2].

Now ask him "If you obey Allah, and sacrifice an animal to Him using His name, is this an act of worship?"

Then of a surety he must respond: "Yes!"

So ask him, "Then if you sacrifice to a created object, whether a prophet or a jinni or anything else, would you not have committed shirk in this act of worship, by directing it to other than Allah?"

Then of a surety he must respond, "Yes."

Now ask him, "The pagan Arabs that the Qur'an refers to and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was sent amongst, did they not worship angels, and pious people, and al-Lat, and other objects?"

Then he must respond, "Yes."

So ask him, "and what else was their worship of them except in their du'a, and sacfrifice, and turning towards them to seek help, and other such acts? For verily they used to admit that these objects of worship were servants of Allah, and under His control, and that only Allah controls all matters. So they would only turn to them and make du'a to them due to their status in the sight of Allah and to achieve their intercession. And all of this is very obvious to understand.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:02 AM
The Fifth Argument

Now, if he argues with you and says, "Do you deny the intercession of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and free yourself from it?" Then respond to him, "I do not deny it, nor free myself from it. Rather he (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is the intercessor, and the one whose intercession will be accepted. And I pray that I too will be able to attain his intercession. But the right of intercession belongs solely to Allah, as He says: "Say: To Allah belongs intercession, all of it" [Surah Al-Zumar; 44]. And so it will not occur except after Allah permits it to occur, as He states, "Who is there that can intercede, except with His permission?" [Surah al-Baqarah; 255]. And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) will not intercede on behalf of anyone until Allah allows such intercession on his behalf, as He states, "And they will not intercede except on (behalf of those) whom He is pleased with" [Surah Al-Anbiya'; 28]. And Allah will never be pleased except with a person upon tawhid, as He states, "So whoever desires as a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him" [Surah Al-'Imran; 85]. So if the right of intercession belongs only to Allah, and will only take place after He allows it, and neither the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) nor anyone else will intercede unless Allah allows them to intercede on his behalf, and Allah will not allow this intercession except for the people of tawhid, then it is clear that the whole concept of intercession belongs to Allah. Therefore I will ask Him for it, so I will say 'O Allah! Do not prohibit me from his (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) intercession. O Allah cause himt o intercede for me.' And I make similar du'as, in this fashion.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:02 AM
The Sixth Argument

Now if he starts a new line of reasoning, and tries to justify his acts by saying, "The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has been given the right of intercession (shafa'ah) on the Day of Judgement, so I am asking him something that Allah has given him," then the response to this is to say: "Indeed the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has been given the right of Intercession by Allah, and at the same time Allah has prohibited you from asking the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for it. Allah states, "Then do not call anyone besides Allah" [Surah Al-Jinn; 18]. So the act of asking Allah to bless you with the Intercession of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is itself an act of worship. Thus, Allah has prohibited you from committing shirk by directing this act of worship to other than Him. So if you wish to pray to Allah to grant his (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) intercession for you, then obey Him when He says, "Then do not call anyone besides Allah" [Surah Al-Jinn; 18]

Furthermore, another way to refute this line of reasoning is to realize that the right to intercede has been given to other than the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as well. It has authentically been narrated that the angels intercede, and children who died before they reached the age of puberty will intercede on behalf of their parents, and the pious saints will intercede. Are you going to say that Allah has given all of them the right to intercede, therefore I will ask it from them all? Because if you say this, then you have returned clearly to the saint-worship that Allah has mentioned in His Book and which the pagan Arabs used to do. And if you say, "No, I will not ask intercession from all of them," then your own statement, "Allah has given him (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) the right of intercession, therefore I will ask it of him," is refuted.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:02 AM
The Seventh Argument

Now, if he says trying yet another argument, "I do not commit shirk with Allah - it is not possible, and I would never do such a thing! But turning to pious people is not shirk in the first place."

Then ask him, "if you truly believe that Allah has prohibited shirk more severely than He has prohibited illicit intercourse (zina), and you admit that Allah will not forgive it, then what is this grave matter that Allah ahs prohibited, and stated that He will not forgive?"

Then you will see that in reality he will not know what shirk is.

So ask him, "How can you free yourself from shirk, and yet you don't even know what it is? Or how is it possible that Allah has made this prohibited upon you, and has mentioned that He will not forgive it, and yet you do not ask about it, nor know it? Do you presume that Allah prohibited it, yet did not explain it to us?"

So if he says, "Shirk is the worship of idols, and we don't worship idols, " then ask him, "What is the meaning of worshipping these idols? Do you think that the pagan Arabs used to believe that these rocks and stones actually create, and give sustenance, and control the affairs of those who beseech them? If you claim then then the Qur'an itself refutes this idea."

But if he responds, "They used to turn to these planks and stones, and mausoleums built over graves, and other icons, and would call out to them for their needs, and sacrifice to them, in order to come closer to Allah, and so that Allah would divert an evil afflicting them, or grant them their wishes due to their holiness and high status," then respond, "You have spoken the truth... and this is exactly what you people do in front of structures and edifices built on graves!"

So this person has finally admitted that these acts that they themselves do are in fact equivalent to idol worship, and this is the point that is meant to be understood.

Also, as a clarification of your statement, "Shirk is idol-worship,' do you mean to imply that shirk only occurs by this act? Do you presume that relying upon pious saints to answer you needs, and calling out to them dose not come under shirk? If you believe so then the Qur'an clearly refutes this misconception, as Allah mentions the disbelief of those who attach themselves to the angels and direct acts of worship to them, and those who attach themselves to Jesus, or other pious people.

Therefore, in summary he who is honest must admit that whoever does shirk in the worship of Allah by directing an act of worship to pious people has indeed fallen into the exact same type of shirk that is mentioned in the Qur'an, and this is the whole point that we wish to make them understand.

The crux of the matter is that, if he tells you, " I don't commit shirk with Allah," then ask him, "what is the meaning of committing shirk with Allah? Explain to me!"

And if he responds to that by saying, " It is the worshipping of idols," then ask him, "And what does it mean to 'worship' idols? Explain it to me!"

And if he responds by saying, "But I only worship Allah!" then ask him, "And what does it mean to 'worship' Allah? Explain it to me!"

Now, if he explains all of these terms according to the definitions that Allah has clarified in the Qur'an, then that is what is desired. And if he doesn't know the proper definitions, then how can he claim to be free of something while he is ignorant of its meaning? And if he explains these terms incorrectly, contradicting the proper definitions given in the Qur'an, then you must explain to him with clear verses of the Qur'an the precise meaning of shirk. You must prove to them that idol-worship is exactly what they themselves are doing in our times by worshipping these graves, and they criticize you when we try to worship Allah alone! So they cry out, just like their brethren of old did, and say, "Has he indeed made the objects of worship into one object? Verily this is a very strange thing!" [Surah Sad; 5]
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:03 AM
The Eighth Argument

Now, it is possible that he will start a totally different tactic to try to prove his beliefs, and he will say, "They meaning, the pagan Arabs, did not disbelieve because of their du'a to the angels or prophets, or because they directed their acts of worship to other than Allah! Rather, they disbelieved by claiming that the angels are daughters of Allah. And we don't say that 'Abd al-Qadir, or these other saints are the sons of Allah!"

The First Response


The response to this misconception is to say: "Claiming that Allah has a child is a different type of disbelief, since Allah says, "Say: He is Allah, the Unique (al-Ahad). Allah is the Eternally besought of all (al-Samad)" [Surah al-Ikhlas; 1-2]. And the meaning of al-ahad is that there is nothing that is similar or equal to Him. And the meaning of al-Samad is that all objects turn to Him for their every need. So whoever denies this has committed disbelief (kufr), even if he doesn't deny the last verse in the Surah. Allah then says, "Neither does He beget, nor is He begotten" [Surah al-Ikhlas; 3]. So whoever denies this has committed disbelief, even if he doesn't deny the first part of the Surah.

The Second Response

And Allah also said, "Allah did not take any son, nor is there any other god besides Him" [Surah al-Mu'minun; 19].

So Allah differentiated between the type types of disbelief, and made every single type a separate category of disbelief. And Allah said, "And they made partners besides Allah (by worshipping ) jinns" [Surah Al-An'am; 100], thus differentiating between the two types of disbelief.

The Third Response


And yet another proof for this is that those who disbelieved by praying to al-Lat did not consider him to be the son of Allah, even though he was a pious man. Likewise, those that fell into disbelief by worshipping the jinn did not consider them to be children of Allah.


The Fourth Response


And yet another proof is that all the scholars, and the four madh-habs, mention in the chapter concerning the rules pertaining to the murtad (the one who has renounced his faith after accepting Islam) that if a Muslim presumes that Allah has taken a son, then he is a murtad, and if he commits shirk, he is also a murtad. So they differentiate between the two, and this matter is extremely clear and does not need further explanation.
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Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:03 AM
The Ninth Argument

Now, if he tries yet another practice to prove his shirk and says: "Verily the friends of Allah - there is no fear for them, nether will they worry" [Surah Yunus; 62] thus trying to prove that such people are worthy of intercession, then respond to him: This is indeed true that they occupy a high place with Allah, but they are not to be worshipped! And we only deny that they should be worshipped along with Allah, and that they be taken as partners along with Him. Otherwise we agree that it is obligatory to love them, and follow them, and to believe in any miracles that might have occurred to them by the blessings of Allah. And no one except a person of deviation denies the existence of such miracles. But the religion of Allah is in middle, between the two extremes; a guidance between the two extremities of falsehood, and a truth between the two extremities of evil.
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:03 AM
The Shirk of the Modern Mushrikun is More Severe than the Shirk of Ancient Times

When you realize that this concept that those who commit shirk in our times call i'tiqad, or creed, is in fact the same shirk that the Qur'an was revealed concerning, and it was this same shirk that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought, then know that the shirk of the people of the past is less evil than the shirk of the people of our times. And this is due to two factors.

Firstly, the early people from amongst the pagan Arabs did not commit shirk, and call out to the angels and saints and idols, except at times and situations of ease and comfort. However, when they were in extenuating circumstances and were desperate for a response, they would make their religion and prayer sincere to Allah. Allah says, "So when they ride in the ships, they call out to Allah in all sincerity, and when He saves them to the land, they commit shirk" [Surah al-Ankabut; 65] And He also says, "And when a problem falls upon you while you are at sea, and all those whom you call upon leave you except He (Allah)" [Surah al-Isra; 67]. And He also says, "Ask them: IF the punishment of Allah were to come to you, or the Day of Judgement, would you call upon other than Allah if you are truthful. Rather, Him lone would you call, and He will remove what has afflicted you if He wills, and you will forget (those objects) whom you do shirk with" [Surah Al-An'am; 40-41]. And Allah says, "And when an affliction touches man, he calls out to his Lord, humbly, and when He exchanges it with a good situation, he forgets what he was calling out before" [Surah Al-Zumar; 8]. And Allah says, "So when the waves come out to them, like dark clouds, they call out to Allah, making the religion sincere to Him..." [Surah Luqman; 32].

So whoever understand this point - that those whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought would call out to Allah, and would call out to other than Allah only at times of ease, as for times of distress, then they would only call out to Allah alone, and leave calling out to their leaders - will clearly see the difference between the two types of shirk. But where is the person who will understand this matter perfectly ... and help is only sought from Allah!

Secondly: the people of the past would call out in their shirk to people who were close to Allah, either a prophet, or a saint or an angel; or they would call out to rocks and trees, which are objects that are obedient to Allah, and are not capable of any sins. As for the people in our times, they call out to people besides Allah who are more wicked and evil people of mankind. These same people that they call out to - it is well known that they commit sins such as illicit intercourse, and stealing and leaving the prayer, and other matters besides these. And the one who believes in a pious person, or in an object that cannot sin such as a rock or stone that it can act as an intercessor with Allah, is far better than the one who believes in a person whose evil is apparent to him, and his bad reputation is notorious.
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:04 AM
The Tenth Argument

Now that you have realized that those whom the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought were more intelligent and committed a lesser type of shirk than the people of our own times, then know that these people have yet another argument which they use, in addition to all that has preceded, and this is of their greatest arguments, so pay attention to it and to its response.

This argument si that they say: "The people whom the Qur'an mentions did not testify la ilaha illa Allah; they used to deny the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
and thought that he was a liar. They also used to deny the resurrection, and the Qur'an, for they claimed that it was merely magic! As for us, we testify la ilaha illa Allah Muhammad Rasul Allah. We believe in the Qur'an, and in the Resurrection. We pray and we fast. So how can you compare us with those people of old?"

The First Response

The response to this is to say: There is no difference of opinion amongst the scholars - all of them - that if a person believes the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in one matter, and rejects another matter from him, that he is a disbeliever who has not entered Islam. Likewise, if he believes in part of the Qur'an, and denies another part then he too is not a Muslim. For example, if a person believes in tawhid, but claims that he does not have to pray, or he believes in tawhid and prayer but claims that he does not have to give zakat, or if he believes in all of this but denies the legality of the fast of Ramadan, or believes in all of this, but denies the Hajj, such a person is not a Muslim. And the proof of this is that when a certain group of people were unwilling to do Hajj during the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)
time, Allah revealed concerning them, "And the Hajj is a right that is due to Allah by mankind. But whoever disbelieves then Allah is self-sufficient of the world." [Surah al-Imran; 97]

And whoever agrees with all of these pillars, but denies the resurrection on the Day of Judgement, then he has disbelieved by unanimous consensus, and his life and property are allowed (for the Islamic state) to take, as Allah said, "Those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, and wish to differentiate between Allah and His Messengers..." [Surah al-Nisa ';150]. So if Allah has clearly mentioned in His Book that a person who believes in a part of it and disbelieves in a part of it is a disbeliever, then this argument is destroyed! And this argument was sent to me in a letter that some people from the city of Al-Ahsa wrote.

The Second Response

And it can also be said in response to this argument: You admit that a person who believes in the Prophet Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) concerning one matter, yet denies the salat, is a disbeliever whose life and property become lawful (for the Islamic state), and this is by consensus of the scholars. And also you admit that one who believes in everything that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came with except the Resurrection, then he too is a disbeliever. The same ruling applies if he denies the fasting of Ramadan, even if he believes in the Resurrection. There is no difference of opinion amongst the Muslims concerning this, and the Qur'an is explicit on this point, as we have mentioned previously.

Now, it is well-known that tawhid is the greatest matter that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came with, for it is more important than Salaat, and Zakat, and fasting, and the Hajj. So how is it possible that if a person denies one of these pillars of Islam, he is considered a disbeliever by you - even if he acts upon everything else that came from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) - but when he denies the reality of tawhid, which is the message of all the Prophets, he is not a disbeliever?

Subhan'Allah, how strange is this ignorance!

The Third Response

And it can also be said as yet another response: The Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought the tribe of Banu Hanifah, even though they accepted Islam with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and they testified la ilaha illa Allah and that Muhammad i s His Messenger and Worshipper. And they used to pray, and give the adhan.

Now, when he responds, "But they testified along with all of this that Musaylmah the false prophet is in reality a prophet!", then tell him, "This is exactly the point! If raising a person to the level of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) causes a person to disbelieve, and makes his life and property lawful (for the Islamic state), and his testimony of faith and prayer is useless, then how about the one who raises Shamsan, or Yusuf, or any companion or prophet to the level of the Exalted, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth?"


Exalted is He, how great is His Glory! But few will understand for, "This is how Allah seals up the hearts of those who do not know" [Surah Al-Rum; 59.].

The Fourth Response


And it can also be said to them as another response that 'Ali ibn Abi Talib burnt to death people that testified that they were Muslims. They used to be of his companions and followers, and they learn their religion from the Companions. But they believed Ali to have an exaggerated status just like you believe in Yusuf and Shamsan and others like them. So how was it possible that the Companions agreed to kill them, and considered them disbelievers even though they professed Islam? Do you accuse the companions of pronouncing the Muslims to be kaafirs? Or do you differentiate between believing in Taj and others like him, claiming that such a belief is not harmful, but belief in 'Ali ibn Abi Talib as having certain supernatural powers causes one to disbelieve?

The Fifth Response

And it can be said to them as yet another response that the Banu 'Ubayd al-Addah(the Fatimids), the family that controlled the territory from Morcco to Egypt during the time of the 'Abbasids used to testify la ilaha illa Allah Muhammad Rasul Allah, and they used to pray the Friday prayer, and the other congregational prayers. But when they demonstrated that they opposed the Islamic Law in certain matters - matters that are less evil than what we are discussing now - the scholars unanimously agreed that they were disbelievers who should be fought. They considered their country as enemy territory, and so the Muslims fought them until they saved the lands that were in their hands and returned them to Muslim hands.

The Sixth Response

And it can also be said as another response: If you claim that the Jahiliyyah Arabs only disbelieved due to the fact that they combined in them many factors, such as shirk, and rejecting the prophet and the Qur'an, and denying the Day of Judgement, and other matters, then how do you explain the existence of the chapter that all scholars mention in books of law entitled "The Chapter Concerning the Ruling of the Murtad?" Fro the murtad is a Muslim who commits disbelief after his Islam. And these scholars mention many matters that cause a person to disbelieve. Any one of these matters causes one to disbelieve, and makes his life and property lawful. In fact, they even mention certain matters that may appear to be trivial by the one who performs them, such as making a statement with actually intending what was said, or saying something jokingly or in jest.

The Seventh Response

And yet another response to this is to say, "Do you not see that Allah said regarding a group of people who sue to perform jihad with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and pray with him, and give zakat, and perform Hajj, and believed in tawhid that they, "...swear by Allah that they did not say (what they said), even though they said a statement of disbelief, and became disbelievers after their Islam" [Surah al-Tawbah;74]? Do you not see that Allah pronounced them disbelievers because of this one statement that they made, even though they performed all of these other good deeds? Likewise Allah said regarding some people, "Say: Do you jest with Allah, and His signs and His Prophet? Do not give excuses, you have indeed disbelieved after your faith" [Surah al-Tawbah; 65-66]. These people whom Allah refers to committed disbelief after having iman. They were fighting alongside the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) during the Battle of Tabuk, and they made a certain statement of disbelief which they later claimed was meant as a joke and idle-talk. Nonetheless, this excuse was not accepted from them.

So ponder over their argument, and their saying, "You consider Muslims who testify la ilaha illa Allah and fast and pray to be disbelievers!" And also ponder over the response to this argument, for it perhaps the most beneficial point in this tract.

The Eighth Response


And of the proofs for what we have mentioned is contained in the description that Allah gave to the Children of Israel, even though they were Muslims, and had knowledge and piety. For they asked Moses, "Make for us a god" [Surah Al-A'raf;138]. Also some of the companions said, "Make for us, O Messenger of Allah, a Dhat Anwat," so the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) swore that their statement was similar to that of the Children of Israel, "Make for us a god."

But the Mushrikin have an argument that they use to try to refute the proper understanding of this story, and that is that they say: the Children of Israel did not become disbelievers by this action of theirs, and neither did the Companions when they asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to make for them a Dhat Anwat.

So we respond by stating: the Children of Israel did not actually do the act, and likewise nor did the Companions. And there is no difference of opinion that if the Children of Israel went ahead with the act they would have become disbelievers. Likewise, there is no difference of opinion that, had the Companions disobeyed Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when eh prohibited them, and instead taken a Dhat Anwat after his prohibition, they would have become disbelievers. And this is the point.

Four Benefits from these Incidents

But this story has a number of benefits that we can derive from it, the first of these is that a Muslim - even a scholar - might fall into certain types of shirk while he is unaware of it.

A second benefit is to teach and warn us, so that we realize that an ignorant person's statement, "We understand tawhid," is of the greatest types of ignorance! Rather, it is a plot of Shaytan.

A third benefit is that if a Muslim strives to understand the truth, and utters a statement of disbelief, without realizing that it is disbelief (kufr), then when this is pointed out to him, and he repents immediately, such a person has not committed disbelief. And this is what occurred with the Children of Israel, and the Companions when they asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

A final benefit is that even if such a person does not enter into disbelief, then he should be rebuked and reprimanded severely, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did.
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:05 AM
The Eleventh Argument

People who commit shirk in our times employ another argument similar to the one that has gone before, which they use to try to refute their opponents. They say: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) reprimanded Usamah ibn Zayd when he killed the person who said La ilah illa Allah, and he told him, "Did you (dare) to kill him after he said La ilah illa Allah?" And they also us the hadith, "I have been commanded to fight mankind until they testify La ilaha illa Allah..." and similar ahadith, that prohibit harming the one who testifies La ilah illa Allah. The point that these ignoramuses try to prove with all of these ahadith is that whoever says it will not become a disbeliever, and neither should he be killed, no matter what he does.

So it should be said to these ignorant people who commit shirk: It is well known that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fought the Jews, and took them as captives, even though they testified La ilah illa Allah. And also the Companions fought the tribe of Banu Hanifah, even though they testified ILa ilah illa allah Muhammad Rasul Allah, and they used to pray, and profess to be Muslims. Likewise, the people whom 'Ali ibn Abi Talib burnt used to testify to the same matter.

And these ignorant people agree that a person who denies the Day of Judgement becomes a disbeliever and should be killed, even if he testifies La ilah illa Allah, as does the one who denies one of the pillars of Islam - he too becomes a disbeliever and should be killed, even if he testifies. So how is it possible that this testimony is of no benefit to him if he denies something of the subsidiary issues, but is of benefit when he denies tawhid, which is the essence and religion of all the prophets.

But the enemies of Allah did not understand the proper meaning of those ahadith, AS for the hadith of Usamah, then it must be understood that the reason he killed the man who professed Islam is that he presumed that he only pretended to accept Islam, in order to protect his life and wealth. However, when a person apparently accepts Islam, it becomes obligatory to hold back from fighting him, unless some matter appears that contradicts his profession. And so Allah revealed because of this, "O you who believe! When you travel in the way of Allah then verify..." [Surah Al-NIsa'; 94], meaning make sure that the person you are fighting is not a Muslim. This verse shows that it is obligatory to refrain from fighting a person who declares himself a Muslim, and that verification is needed. So, if after this declaration something becomes apparent from him that contradicts his Islam, he is to be killed. Proof for this is the condition, '...very,' for if he were not killed after he professes Islam no matter what he did, then there would be no point in verifying his claim.

And likewise, all of these other ahadith that were mentioned must be understood in this same light. Whoever professes Islam, and claim to be following tawhid, then it becomes obligatory to stop harming him, except if some matter becomes apparent which contradicts his claim. And another proof for this is that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) - the same person who said, "Did you kill him after he said La ilaha illa Allah?" and, " I have been ordered to fight mankind until they testify La ilah illa Allah, " - also said concerning the Khawarij, "wherever you find them, kill them," and he said, "If I were to meet them, I would kill them the way Ad was killed." This verdict was given even though they were of those who worshipped Allah fervently, and used to praise Allah frequently. In fact, the Companions would feel humbled in front of them due to their extreme worship, even though the Khawarij learnt from the Companions. Their profession of La ilah illa Allah did not benefit them, and neither did their worship, or their claim to be Muslims, because they openly showed through other matters their rejection of Islamic law.

And another proof is the fact that was just mentioned concerning the fighting against the Jews, and that the Companions fought against Banu Hanifah. Furthermore, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) intended to attack the Banu al-Mustaliq when a person informed him that they refused to pay zakat, until Allah revealed, "O you who believe! If an evil person comes to you with some news, then verify it..." [Surah al-Hujarat; 6], so it was discovered that the person had lied against them. So all of these evidences show what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) intended with these ahadith is the explanation that has been given.
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:05 AM
The Twelfth Argument

And those who justify shirk have yet another evidence, which is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) mentioned that on the Day of Judgement people will seek help from Adam, and then from Nuh, then from Ibrahim, then from Musa, and then from 'Isa, and all of them will give some type of excuse, until finally they reach the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) . They say that this is clear evidence that seeking help from other than Allah is not considered shirk.

The response to this is to say, "How exalted is the One Who has sealed the hearts of His enemies! For we ourselves don't deny the legality of seeking help from a created object in matters that it is capable of. Allah says, 'So [the one who was being victimized] sought help from (Moses], His tribes man, against his enemy " [Surah al-Qasas; 15]. And the person in battle, or any other situation, seeks help from another in matters that he can do and are not supernatural or beyond the normal capabilities of man. But we do object to the supernatural help that is sought - the religious seeking of help that is done at the graves of the righteous, or in their absence, concerning matters that none except Allah has power to do."

Once this is understood, then realize that the help that is sought from the prophets on the Day of Judgement is that they want them (the prophets) to pray to Allah to hasten the Reckoning so that the people of paradise can be relieved from the agonies of that Day. This type of asking is allowed in this world and in the Hereafter; that you go to a righteous erson that is in front of you, and listen to you, and then you ask him to pray for you. And this is just as the Companions used to do with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) while he was alive. After his death, however, then by no means did they ask anything from him, or even ask at his graveside. Rather, scholars of the early generations would rebuke those who used to pray to Allah at his grave, so what would be their response to someone who actually prayed to him?
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:05 AM
The Thirteenth Argument

And those that justify shirk have yet another evidence, and that is the story of Ibrahim. When he was thrown in the fire that Nimrud built for that purpose, the angel Jibril came flying to him, and asked him, "Do you have any need?" So Ibrahim responded, "From you, no!" They opine from this story that had the seeking help from Jibril been considered shirk, then he would not have have offered Ibrahim any help.

The response to this is that this is the exact same as the previous story, because Jibril offered to help him in a matter that he was capable of, for Allah describes him as being, "... of great strength" [Surah al-Najm; 5]. So if Allah had given him permission to take the fire of Ibrhaim, and even all that was surrounding it of the earth and mountains, and to throw it all into the far corners of the east and west, he could have done so. And if Allah had commanded him to transport Ibrahim to a afar away place, he could have done so. And if He had commanded him to raise him up to the skies, he could have done so. The example of this story is like the example of a rich, wealthy person who sees a poor person in need and offers to help him, either by giving him a loan, or a gift with which he can fulfill his needs. Instead of accepting any help, the poor person refuses his help, and is content at being patient until Allah provides him with a means of sustenance in which he will not owe anyone a favor. Such is Ibrahim's example when he relied on his Lord instead of any other being. So where is this example for seeking religious help or committing shirk, if they only understood?
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:06 AM
Conclusion: Acting upon this Knowledge

Let us conclude this book by mentioning an important matter that will clarify what has previously been said. WE will discuss it separately because of it importance, and because many people fail to understand it correctly. So we say: there is no difference of opinion that tawhid must exist and be manifested with the heart, and tongue and outer deeds. If one of these matters is missing, a person will not be a Muslim. So if a person knows tawhid, but does not act upon it, the he is an arrogant disbeliever, as was the case with the likes of Pharoah, and Iblis, and others like them.

And this is a matter that many people misunderstand. They say, "This matter of what you have explained is true, and we fully understand it, and testify to its veracity. However, we are not able to do it and put into practice, and it is not allowed by our countrymen to act upon these matters unless it agrees with them and their beliefs and customs". And they give other excuses so that they do not act upon correct beliefs.

However such a wretched person does not realize that most of the leaders of falsehood know the truth, and they only leave acting upon it due to some excuse, as Allah mentions, "They purchased with the sighs of Allah a miserable price" [Surah al-Tawbah; 9]. Other verses also explain this point, such as: "They recognize him (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)) as well as they recognize their own sons" [Surah Al-Baqarah; 146].

Now if he acts upon tawhid with his outward actions while he does not understand nor believe in his heart, then he is a hypocrite who is more evil than a pure disbeliever, as Allah says, " Verily the hypocrites are in the lowest depths of the Hell-fire." [Surah Al-Nisa'
; 145].

And this is a prolonged matter to discuss; however, if you ponder over it, two categories of people will become clear to you in your discussions with them. You will see one who knows the truth, but leaves acting upon it, for fear of some loss in this world, such as his prestige , or property.. And you will also see one who outwardly acts upon the truth but not inwardly; if you were to ask him what he truly believes with his heart, he would not know!

But upon you is to understand two verses from the Book of Allah. The first of them has already been mentioned, and is the verse, "Do not give excuses, you have disbelieved after your faith "[Surah al-Tawbah; 66]. So if it is confirmed that some of the Companions who actually fought with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) against the Romans disbelieved because of a statement they made jokingly, then it will become clear to you that a person who makes a statement of disbelief, or acts upon it, because of a fear or loss of money, prestige, or to please one greater than he, is greater in sin than one who says such a statement in jest.

The second verse is: "Whoever disbelieves after having faith -except he who is coerced while his heart is firm with belief'; but (the punishment) is upon him whose hearted opened up to disbelief (willingly)" [WSurah Al-Nahl; 106]. So Allah does not excuse such people except if they were forced into doing something while their hearts were still firm and content with belief. So anyone besides such a person has disbelieved after having faith, regardless of whether he does it out of fear, or greed, or wanting to please someone, or out of a love for his country, family, relatives or money, or even if he does it jokingly, or for any other excuse. The only acceptable excuse is the one who was unwillingly forced.

So the verse proves this in two ways:

Firstly, the phrase, '...except he who was coerced,' so only such a person is excused. And it is well-known that person can only be forced to do an act or to say something verbally. He canned be forced to believe with his heart, for no one can coerce another's heart.

Secondly, the phrase, '... that was because they preferred the life of this world over the life of the Hereafter' [Surah al-Nahl; 107]. So it is clearly mentioned that the reason for their kufr and punishment was not due to any heartfelt belief, or because of ignorance, or a hatred of religion, or a love of disbelief. Rather, the reason for their eternal punishment of the Hereafter was due tot he fact that he achieved some benefit in this world, preferring this benefit over religion.

And Allah knows best.
Reply

Ibn Abi Ahmed
12-15-2006, 12:11 AM
Alhamdullilah, that completes the transferring of this book. In addition this book, another excellent resource on this subject, is a book by the same author,

Kitab At-Tawheed

Also beneficial are lectures upon this:

Explanation of Kitab At-Tawheed by Shaykh Yasir Qadhi

Also, a 3-part lecture by Shaykh Yasir Qadhi entitled 'A Critical Analysis of Shirk':

Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Reply

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