Imaam ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah
From the Introduction to al-Fawaa'id (pp. 5-7)
The Imâm became well-known with the title 'Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah' because his father was the principal of the 'al-Jawziyyah' school in Damascus. As for his name, it is Shamsud-Deen, Aboo 'Abdullaah, Muhammad the sond of Aboo Bakr the son of Ayoob az-Zura'ee (an ascription to Azra' which is in the south of Syria), then Dimashqee, Hanbalee.
He was born on the 7th of Safar in the year 691H (1292 CE), and was raised in a house of knowledge and excellence. This offered him the chance to take knowledge from the senior scholars of his time, a time when the various sciences of knowledge flourished. He studied under ash-Shibaab an-Naabilisee, Aboo Bakr ibn 'Abdud-Daa'im, al-Qadee Taqeeyud-Deen Sulaiman, 'Eesa al-Mut'im, Faatimah bint Jawhar, Aboo Nasr al-Bahaa' ibn Asakir, 'Alaa'ud-Deen al-Kindee, Muhammad ibn Abdul-Fath al-Ba'labakkee, Ayyoob ibn al-Kamaal and al-Qaadee Badrud-Deen ibn Jamaa'ah.
He took knowledge of the laws of inheritance from Ismaa'eel ibn Muhammad and read the Arabic language to Abdul-Fath al-Ba'labakkee and al-Majd al-Toonisee. He studied fiqh with a certain groups of scholars, amongst them being Ismaa'eel ibn Muhammad al-Harraanee, and he took Usool al-Fiqh from as-Safee al-Hindee. As for his greatest teacher and his shaikh whom he accompanied for seventeen years of his life, and who left the greatest impact upon him - then that is the Imâm, the Mujaddid (Reviver), Taqeeyud-Deen Ibn Taymiyah. Ibn al-Qayyim took the same methodology as him and traversed his path in waging war against the people of Innovations and Desires and those who deviated from the religion.
As for his own students, then they are many. Amongst them were his son 'Abdullaah; Ibn Katheer - the author of Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah; the Imâm and Haafidh, 'Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Rajab al-Baghdaadee, al-Hanbalee - the author of Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah; and also Shamsud-Deen Muhammad 'Abdul-Qaadir an-Naabilisee.
Ibn al-Qayyim lived in a time in which there was strife and internal confusion and chaos, as well as an external threat which was menacing the Islamic state. For this reason, he used to order with holding fast to the Book of Allâh and the Sunnah of the Messenger (SAAS), and the rejection of separation and disunity. Amongst his goals was the purging of the religion from the innovations and desires and returning it to its pure and original fountains. So he called for the destruction of the madhab of blind-following (taqleed), a return to the madhab of the Salaf and traversing upon their way and methodology. [The last sentence may be construed incorrectly by people, and for a proper discussion as to the manhaj of the salaf regarding taqleed refer to the fiqh section (articles to come soon) or the fiqh section at the Islâmic Network website
)] Because of this we see that he did not restrict himself to the Hanbalee madhab and often he would take the opinion and view of one of the various mahdabs, or sometimes he may have had an opinion which confliucts with the opinion of the all the other madhabs. Thus, his madhab was ijtihaad and the rejection of taqleed [and this is the position with all the scholars of past and present but not that of the common person or muqallid]. As a result of this he incurred great harm and was imprisoned with his Shaikh, Ibn Taymiyah, in the same prison, though in isolation from him. He was not released from the prison until after the death of the Shaikh. [The previous sentence may seem to indicate that they were imprisoned because of their not following a madhab, yet their imprisonment had more to do with their aqeedah, which was deemed to be deviant by the many powerful and ignorant scholars of the time, may Allâh have mercy upon them]
He took to teaching and giving verdicts for a number of years and (all) the people without exception benefitted from him. The scholars also testified to his knowledge and piety. Ibn Hajr said about him, "He had a courageous heart, was vast in knowledge and was well acquainted with the differences (of opinion) and the madhabs of the Salaf." Shaykhul-Islâm, Muhammad ibn 'Alee ash-Shawkaanee said, "He restricted (himself) to the (most) authentic of evidences, and admired acting upon them. He did not depend upon opinion (ra'y), would overcome (others) with the truth and would not be harsh with anyone with respect to it."
Ibn Katheer said, "He was attached to occupying himself with knowledge, day and night. He would pray and recite the Qur'an much and was of excellent character, and showed great affection and friendship. He would not be jealous or envious." Ibn Katheer also said, "I do not know, in this time of ours, anyone in the world whose worship is greater than his, He used to have a particular manner with respect to the prayer. He would lengthen it a great deal, would extend its bowing and prostrating. Many of his associates would censure him at times but he would never return and leave alone this (action of his), may Allâh have mercy upon him."
Mulla 'Alee al-Qaaree said, "And whoever investigates the book Sharh Manaazilus-Saa'ireen (i.e., Madaarijus-Saalikeen), it will become plain and clear to him that both of them (meaning Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Taymiyah) were amongst the most senior from Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah and amongst the Awliyaa' (of Allâh) of this Ummah." Al-Haafidh as-Suyootee said, "And he became one of the senior scholars in exegesis (tafseer), hadeeth, usool, subsidiary matters (furoo') and Arabic language."
He authored and compiled in the field of fiqh, usool, biography (siyar), history and the sciences of hadeeth. Alongsde this he was a linguist, well-acquainted with grammar. He also wrote much poetry.
He passed on to the mercy of His Lord at the latter time of Ishaa', on the night of Thursday, 13th of Rajab in the year 751H (1350 CE) and was buried at the foot of Mount Qaasiyoon by Damascus, leaving behind many written works, amongst the most famous of which are:
- Miftaah Daarus-Sa'aadah
- Zaad al-Ma'aad fee Haydi Khairil-'Ibaad
- Haadiyul-Arwaah ilaa Bilaadil-Afraah
- Ighaathatul-Lahfaan fee Hukm Talaaq al-Ghadbaan
- Al-Jawaab al-Kaafee liman Sa'ala 'an Dawaa'ish-Shaafee
- Madaarijus-Saalikeen fee Manaazilis-Saa'ireen
- Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood
- As-Sawaa'iqul-Mursalah 'alal-Jahmiyyah wal-Mu'attilah
- Raf' Yadain fis-Salaat
- Hukm Taarikus-Salaat
- Al-Kalimut-Tayyib wal-'Amal us-Saalih
- Sharh Asmaa'il-Husnaa
- A'laam al-Muqaqqi'een 'an Rabbil-'Aalameen
May Allâh have mercy upon this great and noble Imâm, benefit the world by him and elevate his position, rank after rank, in the Hereafter. Aameen.