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Khaldun
02-12-2005, 09:58 PM
:sl:

Is the fast of the ninth and tenth of Muharram recommended?

The fast of the day of 'Aashooraa. (tenth day of Muharram) is recommended, as its excellence has been mentioned in (a number of) ahaadeeth. From them, is the saying of the Prophet (Certainly the fast of the day of 'Aashooraa. is regarded by Allaah as an expiation for the sins of the previous year)

Also, when the Prophet arrived in Madeenah he saw the Jews fasting (on this day), so when he asked them (about this), they said: "Certainly, this is the day when Allaah made Moosaa victorious and destroyed Fir'own". So the Prophet said: (We have more of a right to Moosaa than you). So he fasted (that day) and ordered it to be fasted. (Sahih Muslim vol. 1 pg.359)

As for the ninth, then it has not been confirmed that the Prophet fasted it, however, it has been narrated by Ibn 'Abbaass and others that the explanation (tafseer) of the day of 'Aashooraa. is that it is the ninth. And it has been narrated that he said: (If I am (still) here next year, then certainly I will fast the ninth (day of Muharram) and in (another) narration: (along with the tenth (day of Muharram). And he said: (Differ from the Jews; fast the day before it (the ninth) or the day after it (the eleventh).

So, this indicates that the fast of the ninth is legislated just as the tenth and it is recommended for the Muslims to increase in fasting during this month as in the Saheeh hadeeth. The Prophet said: (The best of fasts after (the month of) Ramadhaan is the month of Allaah which they refer to as Muharram).

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Far7an
02-12-2005, 11:02 PM
:sl:

Correct me if i am wrong

but is it true, that if we do not fast 9th

we can fast 10th and 11th?

:w:
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Khaldun
02-13-2005, 12:16 AM
:sl:

Friday and saturday most probably.

The hadiths point towards ninth and tenth, however its good to try to fast throughout this month as much as one is capable
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Khattab
02-18-2005, 07:00 PM
Anyone know the reward of fasting on this day?
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kadafi
02-18-2005, 07:17 PM
Question:
Scholars of Islam, As-Salamu `alaykum. What are the virtues and rules of fasting the 9th and 10th of Muharram? Jazakum Allah khayran.



Answer:


Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.


In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.



All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.



Dear brother in Islam, thanks a lot for your question and the interest you show in having a clearer view of the true teachings of Islam. May Allah help you get the right understanding and stand firm on the Straight Path, Amen!

First of all, it is very important to make it clear that fasting on the day of `Ashura’ – the 10th of Muharram- is of great merits in Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Fasting the day of `Ashura' (is of great merits), I hope that Allah will accept it as an expiation for (the sins committed in) the previous year” (Muslim).

Also, fasting the 9th of Muharram is highly recommended by the Sunnah. Imam At-Tirmidhi reported that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) used to say: We should fast on two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram to distinguish ourselves from the Jewish community. (At-Tirmidhi)

Explaining the virtue of fasting on the 9th and the 10th of Muharram, Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi, former President of the Islamic Society of North America, states:


It is the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him used to fast on the day of `Ashura'. When he came to Madinah, he found out that the Jews of Madinah were also fasting on this day remembering Prophet Musa (peace and blessings be upon him). The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) admired this tradition and said to the Jews, "I am closer to Musa than you are." He fasted and he also told his Companions to fast on this day.

Later, before the end of his life, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) told Muslims to add the 9th day also. Thus, it is recommended to fast on both the 9th and 10th of Muharram.
Moreover, in his well-known book, Fiqh As-Sunnah, the late Sheikh Sayyed Sabiq states:


Abu Hurayrah reported: "I asked the Prophet: 'Which Prayer is the best after the obligatory Prayers?' He said: 'Prayer during the mid of the night.' I asked: 'Which fasting is the best after that of Ramadan?' He said, 'The month of Allah that you call Muharram’" (Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud).

Mu`awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Concerning the day of `Ashura’, it is not obligatory upon you to fast on it as I do. Whoever wishes may fast and whoever does not wish to is not obliged to do so" (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

It is noteworthy that Muslim scholars have stated that fasting of `Ashura’ is of three levels as follows:

1. fasting for three days, i.e., on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of Muharram,

2. fasting the 9th and 10th of Muharram, and

3. fasting only the 10th of Muharram.

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hidaayah
01-31-2006, 10:02 AM
The virtues of Muharram and fasting ‘Aashooraa’

Assalam alaikum wa rehmatullahi wbarkahtu

What are the virtues of the month of Muharram and fasting 'Aashooraa'?

Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and Chief of the Messengers, and upon all his Family and Companions.

Brothers and sisters, a great and blessed month has approached, the month of Allaah, Muharram, the first month of the Hijri year, one of the Sacred Months. Allaah says about this month (interpretation of the meaning):

"Verily the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein …" [al-Tawbah 9:36]

Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "… The year is twelve months, four of which are sacred; three consecutive months – Dhoo’l-Qi’dah, Dhoo’l-Hijjah and Muharram – and Rajab Mudar, which comes between Jumaadaa and Sha’baan." (Reported by al-Bukhaari).
Muharram is so-called because it is sacred ("haraam") and as an affirmation of its sanctity.

The words of the aayah translated above as "so wrong not yourselves therein" mean that one should not do wrong in these sacred months because sin is worse in these months than at other times.

Ibn ‘Abbaas commented that this phrase ("so wrong not yourselves therein") referred to all the months, but four months were singled out and made sacred: violation of these months is a grave sin, sins committed during these months are more serious, and good deeds during these months will be more greatly rewarded.

Ibn Qutaadah said that this phrase meant that wrongdoing in the sacred months is more serious than wrongdoing at other times. Wrongdoing is a serious matter at any time, but Allaah may accord special status to things as He wills. [Ibn Qutaadah] said: "Allaah has specially chosen some of His creation: among the angels and mankind He has chosen some to be Messengers; of speech He has chosen His remembrance (dhikr); of the earth He has chosen mosques; of the months He has chosen Ramadaan and the Sacred Months; of the days He has chosen Friday (al-Jumu’ah); of the nights He has chosen Laylat al-Qadr (the Night of Power, one of the odd-numbered nights of the last ten nights of Ramadaan); so venerate that which Allaah has made great. People of understanding and wisdom venerate only that which Allaah has made great." (Summarized from the Tafseer of Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy on him).

The virtue of observing many naafil (supererogatory) fasts during Muharram

Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "The best of fasts after Ramadaan is the month of Allaah, Muharram, and the best of prayers after the obligatory prayer is prayer during the night." (reported by Muslim).

Adding the word Muharram to the name of Allaah in a genitive construction (shahr Allaah – the month of Allaah) is a sign of veneration or the according of special status.

Al-Qaari said: "The apparent meaning is the whole of Muharram." But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never fasted any whole month except for Ramadaan, so this hadeeth should be understood as encouraging us to observe many fasts in Muharram, but not to fast the entire month.

It has been proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) observed many fasts in Sha’baan, but the virtues of Muharram were probably not revealed to him until the end of his life, so he was not able to fast during this month. (See al-Nawawi’s commentary on Saheeh Muslim).

The virtue of fasting on ‘Aashooraa’

The majority of earlier and later scholars say that ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram. Among the reports that state its virtue is the following:

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "I never saw the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) more keen to fast any day than the day of ‘Aashooraa’ and any month than the month of Ramadaan." (Reported by al-Bukhaari).
The phrase "more keen" means that he looked forward to fasting it in order to earn the reward for doing so.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Fasting the day of ‘Aashooraa’, I hope, will be an expiation for the year before." (Saheeh al-Jaami’, 3853).

This is from the Bounty of Allaah towards us: in return for fasting one day, He has given us expiation for the sins of an entire year. And Allaah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

Differing from the Jews on this day


Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and saw the Jews fasting on ‘Aashooraa’. He asked, ‘What is this?’ They said: ‘This is a good day; this is the day that Allaah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Moosa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We belong to Moosa more than you do,’ so he fasted this day and commanded (his Companions) to do likewise." (reported by al-Bukhaari).

Where al-Bukhaari has the words, "This is a good day; this is the day that Allaah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies," a report narrated by Muslim says: "This is a great day, when Allaah saved Moosa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people." Where al-Bukhaari has the words "so Moosa fasted on this day," Muslim adds: "in gratitude to Allaah, so we fast on this day." According to another reported narration by al-Bukhaari: "We fast on this day in recognition of its greatness." Imaam Ahmad also reported this, with the addition: "This is the day on which the Ark came to rest on (Mount) Joodi, so Nooh fasted this day in gratitude." Where the first report says, "and commanded (his Companions) to do likewise," another report also narrated by al-Bukhaari says: "He said to his Companions: ‘You belong to Moosa more than they do, so fast on this day.’"

The practice of fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was known even in the days of Jaahiliyyah, before the Mission of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: "The people of Jaahiliyyah used to fast on this day."

Al-Qurtubi said: Perhaps Quraysh based their observance of this fast on the laws revealed to Prophets such as Ibraaheem (upon whom be peace) in the past. It is also known that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast this day in Makkah, before he migrated to Madeenah. When he came to Madeenah, he found the Jews celebrating this day. He asked them about it, and they gave the answer indicated in the hadeeth quoted above. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews and not to take this day as a celebration. This is reported in the hadeeth of Abu Moosa (may Allaah be pleased with him), according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "The day of ‘Aashooraa’ was taken by the Jews as a celebration (according to a report narrated by Muslim he said: "the day of ‘Aashooraa’ was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a celebration"; or "the people of Khaybar [the Jews] … take it as a celebration, and their women wear their jewellery and finery on this day")… so you should fast on this day." (Reported by al-Bukhaari).

The apparent meaning of this is that the reason for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was a desire to be different from the Jews, who did not fast on this day, because fasting is not observed on a day of celebration. (Summarized from the words of al-Haafiz ibn Hijr, may Allaah have mercy on him, recorded in Fath al-Baari Sharh ‘ala Saheeh al-Bukhaari).

In order to further differentiate ourselves from the Jews, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) encouraged us to fast the day before as well, as will be explained below.

Recommendation to fast on the ninth of Muharram as well as the tenth

‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him and his father) said: "When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ and commanded his Companions to do likewise, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, it is a day which is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ So the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Next year, in sha Allaah, we will fast on the ninth day.’ But before the next year came, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed away." (Reported by Muslim)

Al-Shaafi’i and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaaq and others said that it is encouraged to fast both the ninth and tenth day, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted the tenth day, and intended to fast the ninth day.

Some of the scholars suggested that perhaps the reason for fasting both the ninth and tenth days was so as not to resemble the Jews by fasting only the tenth day. Therefore the fast of ‘Aashooraa’ may be observed in different ways, the least of which is to fast the tenth day of Muharram only; better than this is to fast the ninth and tenth days together; and better than that is to fast the tenth and eleventh days. The more one fasts in Muharram the better, but we should avoid bid’ah (reprehensible innovations) during this special month. Some people take this day as a festival or celebration, which is not permitted. Some take it as an occasion for mourning and wailing, beating their chests, striking their heads with swords, shedding their blood and putting chains around their necks. This is an abhorrent innovation and is haraam; it has nothing whatsoever to do with Islam, and Islam has nothing to do with this innovation and those who practise it. Allaah is too merciful towards His slaves to command them to torture themselves in such an ugly fashion. May Allaah protect us from all this.

Brothers and sisters, strive to worship Allaah during this month in the ways that He likes and that will please Him, and in accordance with the Sunnah of the Chosen Prophet. We ask Allaah to guide us and to help us do that which will please Him, to remember Him, to give thanks to Him and to worship Him properly. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.


From www.islam-qa.com by Sheikh al-Munnajjid
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lyalyapo
02-07-2006, 10:09 PM
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Calendar and it is one of the four
sacred months, as Allah the All Mighty has said: “The number of months
with Allah is twelve. They were in Allah’s Book on the day He created the Heaven
and Earth. Out of them four are sacred. Such is the established religion.” [9:36]
The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) told us that these four months are Muharram
(1st), Rajab (7th), Zul Qa’dah (11th) and Zul Hijjah (12th).
While telling us its virtues the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) told us:
The most excellent fast after Ramadhan is God’s month of Al Muharram. [Muslim
Book 6, Number 2611]
Ibn Abbas reported that when Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) came to Medina,
he found the Jews observing the fast on the day of Ashura. They (the Jews)
were asked about it and they said: ‘It is the day on which Allah granted victory to
Moses and Bani Isra’il over the Pharoah and we observe fast out of gratitude to
Him.’ Upon this the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: ‘We have a closer
connection with Moses than you have, and he commanded to observe fast on this
day.’
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “I hope that Allah will expiate the sins of previous
year by fasting the day of Ashura (the 10th of Muharram).” It is Sunnah to
fast the 9th of Muharram also as the Holy Prophet said: “If I lived to the next year I
will fast the 9th along with the 10th of Muharram.”
It is noticed that some people give more importance to the fast of Ashura than to
the fasting of Ramadhan, or the five daily prayers, which is wrong. The fasts of
Ramadhan and the five daily prayers are far more important than to the fast of
Ashura, as they are the pillars of Islam. In spite of its importance the fast of Ahura
is not obligatory. It is Sunnah. The fast of Ramadhan and the five prayers are
obligatory. Without these obligatory worships we cannot be considered Muslims.
And it does not mean that by fasting the day of Ashura all the major and minor
sins are forgiven. Only the minor sins are forgiven provided the major sins are
avoided.
Some people have asked me that if a person missed some of the obligatory fasts of
Ramadhan , should he/she make up the missed fasts first or he/she can fast the
Ashura and then make up for the missed ones? Yes, he/she may delay the making
up of their obligatory fasts, because the missed fasts can be made up in any month.


tomorrow inshaallah the 9th day of Muharram, plz make dua for your brothers and sisters and for growing Ummah
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swanlake
02-08-2006, 03:21 PM
:sl:
Today i am here just to remind you the fasting on 9th & 10th Moharrum.

Which correspond to 8th & 9th Febraury 2006 [ Wednesday & Thursday] according to Hijri Calendar of Makkah.

For people in Pakistan, the 9th & 10th Moharram will correspond to 9th & 10th Febraury 2006 [ Thursday & Friday].

So, Check your Hijri Calendar & Mark 9th & 10th Moharrum.

Also remind your friends & relatives the Dates of 9th & 10th Moharrum.

You can also arrange iftaar dinner to motivate other to fast on these days.

Best of fasting days for Aashoora are :
1. Fast the 9th and the 10th. or
2. Fast the 10th and the 11th. or
3. Fast the 10th of Moharram

So don`t miss it. Do Fast and open others Fast. wish you alot of hasanaat.

And dont forget to prepare your Sahoor tonight..

Not relying too much on the reward for fasting

Some people who are deceived rely too much on things like fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ or the day of ‘Arafaah, to the extent that some of them say, “Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ will expiate for the sins of the whole year, and fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah will bring extra rewards.”

Ibn al-Qayyim said: ‘This misguided person does not know that fasting in Ramadaan and praying five times a day are much more important than fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’, and that they expiate for the sins between one Ramadaan and the next, or between one Friday and the next, so long as one avoids major sins. But they cannot expiate for minor sins unless one also avoids major sins; when the two things are put together, they have the strength to expiate for minor sins.

Among those deceived people may be one who thinks that his good deeds are more than his sins, because he does not pay attention to his bad deeds or check on his sins, but if he does a good deed he remembers it and relies on it.
This is like the one who seeks Allaah’s forgiveness with his tongue (i.e., by words only), and glorifies Allaah by saying “Subhaan Allaah” one hundred times a day, then he backbites about the Muslims and slanders their honour, and speaks all day long about things that are not pleasing to Allaah.

This person is always thinking about the virtues of his tasbeehaat (saying “Subhaan Allaah”) and tahleelaat (saying “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah”) but he pays no attention to what has been reported concerning those who backbite, tell lies and slander others, or commit other sins of the tongue. They are completely deceived.” (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 31, Ghuroor).

for more details:
http://63.175.194.25/topics/muharram/muharram.shtml
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wafa islam
08-15-2006, 04:08 PM
The Virtues of Muharram & Aashooraa
by Islam Q&A

What are the virtues of the month of Muharram and fasting 'Aashooraa'?


Praise be to Allaah,

the Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and Chief of the Messengers, and upon all his family and companions.

Allah’s sacred month of Muharram is a blessed and important month. It is the first month of the Hijri calendar and is one of the four sacred months concerning which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein…” [al-Tawbah 9:36]

Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 2958).

Muharram is so called because it is a sacred (muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity.

Allaah’s words (interpretation of the meaning): “so wrong not yourselves therein…” mean do not wrong yourselves in these sacred months, because sin in these months is worse than in other months.

It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas said that this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein…) referred to all the months, then these four were singled out and made sacred, so that sin in these months is more serious and good deeds bring a greater reward.

Qutaadah said concerning this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein…) that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful that wrongdoing at any other time. Wrongdoing at any time is a serious matter, but Allaah gives more weight to whichever of His commands He will. Allaah has chosen certain ones of His creation. He has chosen from among the angels Messengers and from among mankind Messengers. He chose from among speech the remembrance of Him (dhikr). He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadaan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, so venerate that which Allaah has told us to venerate. People of understanding and wisdom venerate the things that Allaah has told us to venerate. (Summarized from the Tafseer of Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy on him. Tafseer of Surat al-Tawbah, aayah 36).

The Virtue of observing more naafil fasts during Muharram.

Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘The best of fasting after Ramadaan is fasting Allaah’s month of Muharram.’” (reported by Muslim, 1982).

The phrase “Allaah’s month”, connecting the name of the month to the name of Allaah in a genitive grammatical structure, signifies the importance of the month. Al-Qaari said: “The apparent meaning is all of the month of Muharram.” But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never fasted any whole month apart from Ramadan, so this hadeeth is probably meant to encourage increasing one’s fasting during Muharram, without meaning that one should fast for the entire month.

It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast more in Sha’baan. It is likely that the virtue of Muharram was not revealed to him until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month. (Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Saheeh Muslim).

Allaah chooses whatever times and places He wills

Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salaam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Times and places may be given preferred status in two ways, either temporal or religious/spiritual. With regard to the latter, this is because Allaah bestows His generosity on His slaves at those times or in those places, by giving a greater reward for deeds done, such as giving a greater reward for fasting in Ramadaan than for fasting at all other times, and also on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, the virtue of which is due to Allaah’s generosity and kindness towards His slaves on that day…” (Qawaa’id al-Ahkaam, 1/38).

‘Aashooraa’ in History

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Aashooraa’. He said, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allaah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Moosa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Moosa than you,’ so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 1865).

“This is a righteous day” – in a report narrated by Muslim, [the Jews said:] “This is a great day, on which Allaah saved Moosa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people.”

“Moosa fasted on this day” – a report narrated by Muslim adds: “… in thanksgiving to Allaah, so we fast on this day.”

According to a report narrated by al-Bukhaari: “… so we fast on this day to venerate it.”

A version narrated by Imaam Ahmad adds: “This is the day on which the Ark settled on Mount Joodi, so Nooh fasted this day in thanksgiving.”

“and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day” – according to another report also narrated by al-Bukhaari: “He said to his Companions: ‘You have more right to Moosa than they do, so fast on that day.”

The practice of fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was known even in the days of Jaahiliyyah, before the Prophet’s mission. It was reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “The people of Jaahiliyyah used to fast on that day…”

Al-Qurtubi said: “Perhaps Quraysh used to fast on that day on the basis of some past law, such as that of Ibraaheem, upon whom be peace.”

It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast on ‘Aashooraa’ in Makkah, before he migrated to Madeenah. When he migrated to Madeenah, he found the Jews celebrating this day, so he asked them why, and they replied as described in the hadeeth quoted above. He commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews, who took it as a festival, as was reported in the hadeeth of Abu Moosa (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: “The Jews used to take the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival [according to a report narrated by Muslim: the day of ‘Aashooraa’ was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a festival. According to another report also narrated by Muslim: the people of Khaybar (the Jews) used to take it as a festival and their women would wear their jewellery and symbols on that day]. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘So you [Muslims] should fast on that day.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari). Apparently the motive for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was the desire to be different from the Jews, so that the Muslims would fast when the Jews did not, because people do not fast on a day of celebration. (Summarized from the words of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar – may Allaah have mercy on him – in Fath al-Baari Sharh ‘ala Saheeh al-Bukhaari).

Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was a gradual step in the process of introducing fasting as a prescribed obligation in Islam. Fasting appeared in three forms. When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah, he told the Muslims to fast on three days of every month and on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, then Allaah made fasting obligatory when He said (interpretation of the meaning): “… observing the fasting is prescribed for you…” [al-Baqarah 2:183] (Ahkaam al-Qur’aan by al-Jassas, part 1).

The obligation was transferred from the fast of ‘Aashooraa’ to the fast of Ramadaan, and this one of the proofs in the field of Usool al-Fiqh that it is possible to abrogate a lighter duty in favour of a heavier duty.

Before the obligation of fasting ‘Aashooraa’ was abrogated, fasting on this day was obligatory, as can be seen from the clear command to observe this fast. Then it was further confirmed later on, then reaffirmed by making it a general command addressed to everybody, and once again by instructing mothers not to breastfeed their infants during this fast. It was reported from Ibn Mas’ood that when fasting Ramadaan was made obligatory, the obligation to fast ‘Aashooraa’ was lifted, i.e., it was no longer obligatory to fast on this day, but it is still desirable (mustahabb).

The virtues of fasting ‘Aashooraa’

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said: “I never saw the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of ‘Aashooraa’, and this month, meaning Ramadaan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 1867).

The meaning of his being keen was that he intended to fast on that day in the hope of earning the reward for doing so.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “For fasting the day of ‘Aashooraa’, I hope that Allaah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” (Reported by Muslim, 1976). This is from the bounty of Allaah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allaah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

Which day is ‘Aashooraa’?

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “ ‘Aashooraa’ and Taasoo’aa’ are two elongated names [the vowels are elongated] as is stated in books on the Arabic language. Our companions said: ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram and Taasoo’aa’ is the ninth day. This is our opinion, and that of the majority of scholars. This is the apparent meaning of the ahaadeeth and is what we understand from the general wording. It is also what is usually understood by scholars of the language.” (al-Majmoo’)

‘Aashooraa’ is an Islamic name that was not known at the time of Jaahiliyyah. (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, part 2, Sawm Muharram).

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“ ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram. This is the opinion of Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib and al-Hasan. It was what was reported by Ibn ‘Abbaas, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to fast ‘Aashooraa’, the tenth day of Muharram.’ (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said, a saheeh hasan hadeeth). It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: ‘The ninth,’ and reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast the ninth. (Reported by Muslim). ‘Ataa’ reported that he said, ‘Fast the ninth and the tenth, and do not be like the Jews.’ If this is understood, we can say on this basis that it is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast on the ninth and the tenth, for that reason. This is what Ahmad said, and it is the opinion of Ishaaq.”

It is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast Taasoo’aa’ with ‘Aashooraa’

‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said: “When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on ‘Aashooraa’ and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘If I live to see the next year, in sha Allaah, we will fast on the ninth day too.’ But it so happened that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed away before the next year came.” (Reported by Muslim, 1916).

Al-Shaafa'i and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaaq and others said: “It is mustahabb to fast on both the ninth and tenth days, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on the tenth, and intended to fast on the ninth.”

On this basis it may be said that there are varying degrees of fasting ‘Aashooraa’, the least of which is to fast only on the tenth and the best of which is to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better it is.

The reason why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo’aa’

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The scholars – our companions and others – mentioned several reasons why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo’aa’:

  1. the intention behind it is to be different from the Jews, who only venerate the tenth day. This opinion was reported from Ibn ‘Abbaas…
  2. the intention is to add another day’s fast to ‘Aashooraa’. This is akin to the prohibition on fasting a Friday by itself, as was mentioned by al-Khattaabi and others.
  3. To be on the safe side and make sure that one fasts on the tenth, in case there is some error in sighting the crescent moon at the beginning of Muharram and the ninth is in fact the tenth.”


The strongest of these reasons is being different from the People of the Book. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade imitating the People of the Book in many ahaadeeth, for example, his words concerning ‘Aashooraa’: ‘If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day.’” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 6, Sadd al-Dharaa’i’ al-Mufdiyah ila’l-Mahaarim )

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said in his commentary on the hadeeth “If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day”: “What he meant by fasting on the ninth day was probably not that he would limit himself to that day, but would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely. This is also what we can understand from some of the reports narrated by Muslim.” (Fath, 4/245).

Ruling on fasting only on the day of ‘Aashooraa’

Shaykh al-Islam said: “Fasting on the day of ‘Aashoraa’ is an expiation for a year, and it is not makrooh to fast only that day…” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5). In Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, it says: “There is nothing wrong with fasting only on ‘Aashooraa’.” (part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’).

Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ even if it is a Saturday or a Friday

Al-Tahhaawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) allowed us to fast on ‘Aashooraa’ and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view – and Allaah knows best – it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makrooh…” (Mushkil al-Aathaar, part 2, Baab Sawm Yawm al-Sabt).

The author of al-Minhaaj said: “ ‘It is disliked (makrooh) to fast on a Friday alone…’ But it is no longer makrooh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in the saheeh report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a saheeh report.”

Al-Shaarih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj:

“ ‘If it coincides with his habitual fast’ – i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday.

‘ if he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, etc.” – this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in sharee’ah, such as ‘Aashooraa’ or ‘Arafaah. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj, part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’)

Al-Bahooti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “It is makrooh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: ‘Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts’ (reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad and by al-Haakim, who said: according to the conditions of al-Bukhaari), and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them… except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of ‘Arafaah or the day of ‘Aashooraa’, and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makrooh, because a person’s habit carries some weight.” (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, part 2, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’).

What should be done if there is confusion about the beginning of the month?

Ahmad said: “If there is confusion about the beginning of the month, one should fast for three days, to be sure of fasting on the ninth and tenth days.” (al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah, part 3 – al-Siyaam – Siyaam ‘Aashooraa’).

If a person does not know when Muharram began, and he wants to be sure of fasting on the tenth, he should assume that Dhoo’l-Hijjah was thirty days – as is the usual rule – and should fast on the ninth and tenth. Whoever wants to be sure of fasting the ninth as well should fast the eight, ninth and tenth (then if Dhoo’l-Hijjah was twenty-nine days, he can be sure of having fasted Taasoo’aa’ and ‘Aashooraa’).

But given that fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ is mustahabb rather than waajib, people are not commanded to look for the crescent of the new moon of Muharram as they are to do in the case of Ramadaan and Shawwaal.

Fasting ‘Aashooraa’ – for what does it offer expiation?

Imaam al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“It expiates for all minor sins, i.e., it brings forgiveness of all sins except major sins.”

Then he said (may Allaah have mercy on him):

“Fasting the day of ‘Arafaah expiates for two years, and the day of ‘Aashooraa’ expiates for one year. If when a person says ‘Aameen’ it coincides with the ‘Aameen’ of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins… Each one of the things that we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status… If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced.” (al-Majmoo’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, part 6, Sawm Yawm ‘Arafaah).

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Tahaarah, salaah, and fasting in Ramadaan, on the day of ‘Arafaah and on ‘Aashooraa’ expiate for minor sins only.” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5).

Not relying too much on the reward for fasting

Some people who are deceived rely too much on things like fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ or the day of ‘Arafaah, to the extent that some of them say, “Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ will expiate for the sins of the whole year, and fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah will bring extra rewards.” Ibn al-Qayyim said: ‘This misguided person does not know that fasting in Ramadaan and praying five times a day are much more important than fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’, and that they expiate for the sins between one Ramadaan and the next, or between one Friday and the next, so long as one avoids major sins. But they cannot expiate for minor sins unless one also avoids major sins; when the two things are put together, they have the strength to expiate for minor sins. Among those deceived people may be one who thinks that his good deeds are more than his sins, because he does not pay attention to his bad deeds or check on his sins, but if he does a good deed he remembers it and relies on it. This is like the one who seeks Allaah’s forgiveness with his tongue (i.e., by words only), and glorifies Allaah by saying “Subhaan Allaah” one hundred times a day, then he backbites about the Muslims and slanders their honour, and speaks all day long about things that are not pleasing to Allaah. This person is always thinking about the virtues of his tasbeehaat (saying “Subhaan Allaah”) and tahleelaat (saying “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah”) but he pays no attention to what has been reported concerning those who backbite, tell lies and slander others, or commit other sins of the tongue. They are completely deceived.” (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 31, Ghuroor).

Fasting ‘Aashooraa’ when one still has days to make up from Ramadaan

The fuqahaa’ differed concerning the ruling on observing voluntary fasts before a person has made up days that he or she did not fast in Ramadaan. The Hanafis said that it is permissible to observe voluntary fasts before making up days from Ramadaan, and it is not makrooh to do so, because the missed days do not have to be made up straight away. The Maalikis and Shaafa’is said that it is permissible but is makrooh, because it means that one is delaying something obligatory. Al-Dusooqi said: “It is makrooh to observe a voluntary fast when one still has to make up an obligatory fast, such as a fast in fulfilment of a vow, or a missed obligatory fast, or a fast done as an act of expiation (kafaarah), whether the voluntary fast which is being given priority over an obligatory fast is something confirmed in sharee’ah or not, such as ‘Aashooraa’ and the ninth of Dhoo’l-Hijjah, according to the most correct opinion.” The Hanbalis said that it is haraam to observe a voluntary fast before making up any fasts missed in Ramadaan, and that a voluntary fast in such cases does not count, even if there is plenty of time to make up the obligatory fast. So a person must give priority to the obligatory fasts until he has made them up.. (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 28, Sawm al-tatawwu’).

Muslims must hasten to make up any missed fasts after Ramadaan, so that they will be able to fast ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’ without any problem. If a person fasts ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’ with the intention from the night before of making up for a missed fast, this will be good enough to make up what he has missed, for the bounty of Allaah is great.

Bid’ahs common on ‘Aashooraa’

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about the things that people do on ‘Aashooraa’, such as wearing kohl, taking a bath (ghusl), wearing henna, shaking hands with one another, cooking grains (huboob), showing happiness and so on. Was any of this reported from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in a saheeh hadeeth, or not? If nothing to that effect was reported in a saheeh hadeeth, is doing these things bid’ah, or not? Is there any basis for what the other group do, such as grieving and mourning, going without anything to drink, eulogizing and wailing, reciting in a crazy manner, and rending their garments?

His reply was:

‘Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds. Nothing to that effect has been reported in any saheeh hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from his Companions. None of the imaams of the Muslims encouraged or recommended such things, neither the four imaams, nor any others. No reliable scholars have narrated anything like this, neither from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), nor from the Sahaabah, nor from the Taabi’een; neither in any saheeh report or in a da’eef (weak) report; neither in the books of Saheeh, nor in al-Sunan, nor in the Musnads. No hadeeth of this nature was known during the best centuries, but some of the later narrators reported ahaadeeth like the one which says, “Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not suffer from eye disease in that year, and whoever takes a bath (does ghusl) on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not get sick in that year,” and so on. They also reported a fabricated hadeeth that is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), which says, “Whoever is generous to his family on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, Allaah will be generous to him for the rest of the year.” Reporting all of this from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is tantamount to lying.’

Then he [Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him)] discussed in brief the tribulations that had occurred in the early days of this ummah and the killing of al-Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him), and what the various sects had done because of this. Then he said:

‘An ignorant, wrongful group – who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled – made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the jaahiliyyah… The Shaytaan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them… The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is. Some others – either Naasibis who oppose and have enmity towards al-Husayn and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and bid’ah with bid’ah – opposed them by fabricating reports in favour of making the day of ‘Aashooraa’ a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one's children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on Eids and special occasions. These people took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival like Eid, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (those who take it as a day of mourning) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong… Neither the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) nor his successors (the khulafa’ al-raashidoon) did any of these things on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration…

As for the other things, such as cooking special dishes with or without grains, or wearing new clothes, or spending money on one’s family, or buying the year’s supplies on that day, or doing special acts of worship such as special prayers or deliberately slaughtering an animal on that day, or saving some of the meat of the sacrifice to cook with grains, or wearing kohl and henna, or taking a bath (ghusl), or shaking hands with one another, or visiting one another, or visiting the mosques and mashhads (shrines) and so on… all of this is reprehensible bid’ah and is wrong. None of it has anything to do with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or the way of the Khulafa’ al-Raashidoon. It was not approved of by any of the imaams of the Muslims, not Maalik, not al-Thawri, not al-Layth ibn Sa’d, not Abu Haneefah, not al-Oozaa’i, not al-Shaafa'i, not Ahmad ibn Hanbal, not Ishaaq ibn Raahwayh, not any of the imaams and scholars of the Muslims.’(al-Fataawa al-Kubra by Ibn Taymiyah)

Ibn al-Haaj (may Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned that one of the bid’ahs on ‘Aashooraa’ was deliberately paying zakaat on this day, late or early, or slaughtering a chicken just for this occasion, or – in the case of women – using henna. (al-Madkhal, part 1, Yawm ‘Aashooraa’)

We ask Allaah to make us followers of the Sunnah of His Noble Prophet, to make us live in Islam and die in a state of faith. May He help us to do that which He loves and which pleases Him. We ask Him to help us to remember Him and be thankful to Him, to worship Him properly and to accept our good deeds. May He make us of those who are pious and fear Him. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.
Reply

- Qatada -
01-05-2007, 12:10 PM
:salamext:

Muharram - The First Month of the Islamic Calendar

Original Link: http://www.ummah.com/sunnah/printsufeature.php?sufid=23


This is the first month of the Islamic Calendar and one of the four Sacred Months (al-Ashhur al-Hurum). It is recommended to fast during this month as there is a Hadith which says: “The best fast, after Ramadan, is in the month of Muharram[1]. This may be an indirect reference to ‘Ashura and not to Muharram in general because, according to SayyidahAishah, the Prophet (SAW) fasted most in Sha‘ban after Ramadan[2].



Fasting on Yawm Al-‘Ashurah

The 10th day of Muharram, known as Yawm Al-‘Ashura, is the most significant day of this month. The Prophet (SAW) said: “Fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura is an expiation of sins for the previous year”[3]. Many events are attributed to this date such as that the Prophet Adam was born and his repentance was accepted on this day, the Prophet Abraham was saved from the Fire, the Prophet Ishmael was delivered from the Sacrifice, the Prophet Joseph was reunited with his father, the Prophet Job was cured of his illness and the Prophet Solomon was ordained as king on this day[4], but these assertions are not backed by accurate historical evidences[5].


Ibn Abbas relates that when Prophet Muhammad (SAW) came to Madinah, he found the Jews fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura. When asked for the reason of their fasting, they replied that it was the day when Allah Ta‘ala saved the Prophet Moses and the Children of Israel from their enemies. Moses fasted to thank Allah and they fasted in emulation of him. So the Prophet (SAW) said “We have more of a right to Moses than you” and so he ordered the Muslims to fast on that day [6]. This fast was later abrogated with the fast of Ramadan substituted in its place but it was kept as an optional recommended fast[7]. However, in order not to follow the Jews, the Prophet encouraged Muslims by saying: “Observe the fast of ‘Ashura and differ from the Jews by fasting a day before it or after it”[8].



Martyrdom of Imam Husayn

The Prophet’s younger grandson Husayn was tragically martyred on 10th Muharram 61 AH/ 680 CE. As a result, the Shi‘ites commemorate Husayn’s martyrdom and give prominence to this day. But it must be remembered that ‘Ashura was given significance by the Prophet himself- hence it is pointless to claim that this day is significant due to Husayn’s martyrdom which happened three decades after the Prophet’s death. However, the heroic martyrdom of Imam Husayn demonstrates to Muslims the need to uphold truth and justice and to fight against tyranny and evil and they should be prepared to give their lives in a similar cause if the need arises. Such situations are all too common in our own times when Muslims are being persecuted for their faith in many parts of the world.



Significance of the Hijrah for Muslims

Muharram heralds the beginning of the Islamic Calendar. The Hijrah of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his Companions (Sahabah) from Makkah to Madinah was much more than a simple migration. It was a turning point in the history of Islam. It was a revolution and complete transformation of society. The Muhajirun (emigrants) of Makkah gave up their family, property and homeland for the sake of religion and the Ansar (helpers) of Madinah welcomed them with great hospitality. Thus a unique brotherhood (mu’akhah) was created between them, hitherto unknown in human history[9]. Even though the Prophet and his Companions loved Makkah, they had to emigrate from it so that they would be able to worship Allah Ta‘ala in a state of peace and implement His religion in full (24:55). It is reported in some books of Hadith and Sirah that the Prophet (SAW) loved Makkah so much that before leaving for Madinah he faced towards Makkah and said: “By Allah! You are certainly the best of Allah’s earth and the most beloved of Allah’s earth in the sight of Allah. If I did not have to leave you, then I would never have left you”[10].


Hijrah was also the tradition of the earlier Prophets[11]. For example, the Prophet Abraham told his people: “I will emigrate for the sake of my Lord. Verily He is the Almighty the All-Wise” (29:26). Similarly, those Prophets whose people were punished in this world were told by Allah to leave their homes and emigrate with the believers (e.g. the Prophet Lot). In the Qur’an, Hijrah is the precursor to Jihad[12] which shows that before Muslims fight, they have to be separated from their enemies as a distinct community.


By highlighting the Hijrah, Muslims will re-affirm their need to be in a state where they can practice their religion and make the necessary sacrifices to achieve that aim, including emigration. Hijrah also has a deep spiritual significance where Muslims commit themselves to leave the state of disbelief (kufr) and sin to enter that of Islam and piety. That is why the Prophet (SAW) said: “The best emigrant (Muhajir) is the one who leaves what Allah has forbidden”[13]. The Hijrah can also be an ideal occasion for Muslims to resolve to ‘migrate’ from their past state of irreligiousness or passiveness to the future where they will commit themselves to be better Muslims and play an active part in the transformation of society according to Islamic ideals.


By Hafiz Abdullah Muhammad


Extract taken from the authors’ first book entitled “The Best of Times: Virtues and Significance of important Days, Nights, Months and Festivals in Islam” available free on request from the publisher: IPCI, 434 Coventry Road, Small Heath, Birmingham B10 0UG.


[1] Muslim, Abu Dawud & Nasai

[2] Bukhari & Muslim

[3] Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai & Ibn Majah

[4] “Peace be upon the Messengers (sent by Allah)” [Qur’an 37:181].

[5] Abdulhaqq Dehlawi: Ma Thabata bis Sunnah p.254

[6] Bukhari & Muslim

[7] Ibn Al-Qayyim, in his Zad Al-Ma‘ad, explains that the underlying wisdom behind the fast of ‘Ashura is to stress the affinity between the Prophets who all came from Allah. This is also one instance where the Shari‘ah given to Muhammad (SAW) preserved an earlier practice, though abrogating its obligation.

[8] Bayhaqi: Sunan Al-Kubra 4/287 & Ibn Hajar: Talkhis Al-Habir 2/214 - ‘sahih’. Hence it is disliked (makruh) to fast only on 10th Muharram without adding a day before or after it [Al-Haskafi: Durrul Mukhtar 2/114].

[9] Ibn Taymiyyah: Minhaj Al-Sunnah 4/967 & Ibn Al-Qayyim: Zad Al-Ma‘ad 2/79

[10] Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Hakim & Ibn Hibban- classified as ‘sahih’ by Al-Albani: Sahih Al-Jami‘ 2/1192 #7089. It is of interest to note that at one point in the journey of Hijrah, the Prophet (SAW) was consoled by Allah Ta‘ala saying: “Verily He who ordained the Qur’an for you, will bring you back (to Makkah) once more” (28:85) [Al-Suyuti: Lubab Al-Nuqul p.223 & Al-Shawkani: Fath Al-Qadir 4/267]. This prophecy was fulfilled eight years later at the Conquest of Makkah in 8 AH/ 630 CE [Al-Sabuni: Safwat Al-Tafasir 2/305].

[11] Sulayman Mansurpuri: Rahmatul lil ‘Alamin 1/69

[12] See the following verses of the Qur’an: 2:218, 8:72-5, 9:20, 16:110 and 22:58

[13] Bukhari, Abu Dawud & Tabarani

Reply

Khayal
01-13-2007, 08:29 PM
:arabic6:
Virtues of the Month of Muharram



:salamext:

Allah's sacred month of Muharram is a blessed and important month. It is the first month of the Hijri calendar and is one of the four sacred months concerning which Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

"Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein." [al-Tawbah 9:36]

Abu Bakrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhu'l-Qa'dah, Dhu'l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha'baan." (Reported by al-Bukhari, 2958).

Muharram is so called because it is a sacred (Muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity.

Allah’s words (interpretation of the meaning): "so wrong not yourselves therein." mean do not wrong yourselves in these sacred months, because sin in these months is worse than in other months.

It was reported that Ibn 'Abbas said that this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein.) referred to all the months, then these four were singled out and made sacred, so that sin in these months is more serious and good deeds bring a greater reward.

Qutaadah said concerning this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein.) that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful that wrongdoing at any other time. Wrongdoing at any time is a serious matter, but Allah gives more weight to whichever of His commands He will. Allah has chosen certain ones of His creation. He has chosen from among the angels Messengers and from among mankind Messengers. He chose from among speech the remembrance of Him (dhikr). He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadhan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, so venerate that which Allah has told us to venerate. People of understanding and wisdom venerate the things that Allah has told us to venerate. (Summarized from the Tafsir of Ibn Katheer, may Allah have mercy on him. Tafsir of Surat al-Tawbah, ayah 36).

The Virtue of observing more naafil fasts during Muharram

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: 'The best of fasting after Ramadhan is fasting Allah’s month of Muharram.'" (reported by Muslim, 1982).

The phrase "Allah’s month", connecting the name of the month to the name of Allah in a genitive grammatical structure, signifies the importance of the month. Al-Qaari said: "The apparent meaning is all of the month of Muharram." But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) never fasted any whole month apart from Ramadan, so this hadeeth is probably meant to encourage increasing one's fasting during Muharram, without meaning that one should fast for the entire month.

It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to fast more in Sha'baan. It is likely that the virtue of Muharram was not revealed to him until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month. (Sharh al-Nawawi 'ala Sahih Muslim).

Allah chooses whatever times and places He wills

Al-'Izz ibn 'Abd al-Salaam (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "Times and places may be given preferred status in two ways, either temporal or religious/spiritual. With regard to the latter, this is because Allah bestows His generosity on His slaves at those times or in those places, by giving a greater reward for deeds done, such as giving a greater reward for fasting in Ramadhan than for fasting at all other times, and also on the day of 'Aashooraa', the virtue of which is due to Allah’s generosity and kindness towards His slaves on that day." (Qawaa'id al-Ahkaam, 1/38).

'Aashooraa' in History

Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of 'Aashooraa'. He said, 'What is this?' They said, 'This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Moosa fasted on this day.' He said, 'We have more right to Moosa than you,' so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day." (Reported by al-Bukhari, 1865).

"This is a righteous day" - in a report narrated by Muslim, [the Jews said:] "This is a great day, on which Allah saved Moosa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people."

"Moosa fasted on this day" - a report narrated by Muslim adds: "..in thanksgiving to Allah, so we fast on this day."

According to a report narrated by al-Bukhari: ".. so we fast on this day to venerate it."

A version narrated by Imam Ahmad adds: "This is the day on which the Ark settled on Mount Joodi, so Nooh fasted this day in thanksgiving."

"and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day" - according to another report also narrated by al-Bukhari: "He said to his Companions: 'You have more right to Moosa than they do, so fast on that day.'"

The practice of fasting on 'Aashooraa' was known even in the days of Jaahiliyyah, before the Prophet's mission. It was reported that 'Aa'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her said: "The people of Jaahiliyyah used to fast on that day."

Al-Qurtubi said: "Perhaps Quraysh used to fast on that day on the basis of some past law, such as that of Ibrahim, upon whom be peace."

It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to fast on 'Aashooraa' in Makkah, before he migrated to Madinah. When he migrated to Madinah, he found the Jews celebrating this day, so he asked them why, and they replied as described in the hadeeth quoted above. He commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews, who took it as a festival, as was reported in the hadeeth of Abu Moosa (may Allah be pleased with him), who said: "The Jews used to take the day of 'Aashooraa' as a festival [according to a report narrated by Muslim: the day of 'Aashooraa' was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a festival. According to another report also narrated by Muslim: the people of Khaybar (the Jews) used to take it as a festival and their women would wear their jewellery and symbols on that day]. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: 'So you [Muslims] should fast on that day.'" (Reported by al-Bukhari). Apparently the motive for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was the desire to be different from the Jews, so that the Muslims would fast when the Jews did not, because people do not fast on a day of celebration. (Summarized from the words of al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar - may Allah have mercy on him - in Fath al-Baari Sharh ALA Sahih al-Bukhari).

Fasting on 'Aashooraa' was a gradual step in the process of introducing fasting as a prescribed obligation in Islam. Fasting appeared in three forms. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah, he told the Muslims to fast on three days of every month and on the day of 'Aashooraa', then Allah made fasting obligatory when He said (interpretation of the meaning): ". observing the fasting is prescribed for you." [al-Baqarah 2:183] (Ahkaam al-Quran by al-Jassas, part 1).

The obligation was transferred from the fast of 'Aashooraa' to the fast of Ramadhan, and this one of the proofs in the field of Usool al-Fiqh that it is possible to abrogate a lighter duty in favor of a heavier duty.

Before the obligation of fasting 'Aashooraa' was abrogated, fasting on this day was obligatory, as can be seen from the clear command to observe this fast. Then it was further confirmed later on, then reaffirmed by making it a general command addressed to everybody, and once again by instructing mothers not to breastfeed their infants during this fast. It was reported from Ibn Mas'ood that when fasting Ramadhan was made obligatory, the obligation to fast 'Aashooraa' was lifted, i.e., it was no longer obligatory to fast on this day, but it is still desirable (mustahabb).

The virtues of fasting 'Aashooraa'

Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said: "I never saw the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of 'Aashooraa', and this month, meaning Ramadhan." (Reported by al-Bukhari, 1867).

The meaning of his being keen was that he intended to fast on that day in the hope of earning the reward for doing so.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "For fasting the day of 'Aashooraa', I hope that Allah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before." (Reported by Muslim, 1976). This is from the bounty of Allah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

Which day is 'Aashooraa'?

Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: " 'Aashooraa' and Taasoo'aa' are two elongated names [the vowels are elongated] as is stated in books on the Arabic language. Our companions said: 'Aashooraa' is the tenth day of Muharram and Taasoo'aa' is the ninth day. This is our opinion, and that of the majority of scholars. This is the apparent meaning of the ahaadeeth and is what we understand from the general wording. It is also what is usually understood by scholars of the language." (al-Majmoo')

'Aashooraa' is an Islamic name that was not known at the time of Jaahiliyyah. (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa', part 2, Sawm Muharram).

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

" 'Aashooraa' is the tenth day of Muharram. This is the opinion of Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyib and al-Hasan. It was what was reported by Ibn 'Abbas, who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) commanded us to fast 'Aashooraa', the tenth day of Muharram.' (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said, a sahih Hasan hadeeth). It was reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: 'The ninth,' and reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to fast the ninth. (Reported by Muslim). 'Ataa' reported that he said, 'Fast the ninth and the tenth, and do not be like the Jews.' If this is understood, we can say on this basis that it is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast on the ninth and the tenth, for that reason. This is what Ahmad said, and it is the opinion of Ishaq."

It is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast Taasoo'aa' with 'Aashooraa'

'Abd-Allah ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) said: "When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fasted on 'Aashooraa' and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, 'O Messenger of Allah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.' The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, 'If I live to see the next year, inshaAllaah, we will fast on the ninth day too.' But it so happened that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed away before the next year came." (Reported by Muslim, 1916).

Al-Shafi’ee and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaq and others said: "It is mustahabb to fast on both the ninth and tenth days, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fasted on the tenth, and intended to fast on the ninth."

On this basis it may be said that there are varying degrees of fasting 'Aashooraa', the least of which is to fast only on the tenth and the best of which is to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better it is.

The reason why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo'aa'

Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "The scholars - our companions and others - mentioned several reasons why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo'aa':

The intention behind it is to be different from the Jews, who only venerate the tenth day. This opinion was reported from Ibn 'Abbas.
The intention is to add another day's fast to 'Aashooraa'. This is akin to the prohibition on fasting a Friday by itself, as was mentioned by al-Khattaabi and others.
To be on the safe side and make sure that one fasts on the tenth, in case there is some error in sighting the crescent moon at the beginning of Muharram and the ninth is in fact the tenth."
The strongest of these reasons is being different from the People of the Book. Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) forbade imitating the People of the Book in many ahaadeeth, for example, his words concerning 'Aashooraa': 'If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day.'" (al-Fatawa al-Kubra, part 6, Sadd al-Dharaa'i' al-Mufdiyah ila'l-Mahaarim )

Ibn Hajar (may Allah be pleased with him) said in his commentary on the hadeeth "If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day": "What he meant by fasting on the ninth day was probably not that he would limit himself to that day, but would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely. This is also what we can understand from some of the reports narrated by Muslim." (Fath, 4/245).

Ruling on fasting only on the day of 'Aashooraa'

Shaikh al-Islam said: "Fasting on the day of 'Aashoraa' is an expiation for a year, and it is not makrooh to fast only that day." (al-Fatawa al-Kubra, part 5). In Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, it says: "There is nothing wrong with fasting only on 'Aashooraa'." (part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu').

Fasting on 'Aashooraa' even if it is a Saturday or a Friday

Al-Tahhaawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) allowed us to fast on 'Aashooraa' and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view - and Allah knows best - it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makrooh." (Mushkil al-Aathaar, part 2, Baab Sawm Yawm al-Sabt).

The author of al-Minhaaj said: " 'It is disliked (makrooh) to fast on a Friday alone.' But it is no longer makrooh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in the sahih report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfillment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a sahih report."

Al-Shaarih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj:

" 'If it coincides with his habitual fast' - i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday. ' if he is fasting in fulfillment of a vow, etc." - this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in Shariah, such as 'Aashooraa' or 'Arafaah. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj, part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu')

Al-Bahooti (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "It is makrooh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadeeth of 'Abd-Allah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: 'Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts' (reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad and by al-Haakim, who said: according to the conditions of al-Bukhari), and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them, except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of 'Arafaah or the day of 'Aashooraa', and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makrooh, because a person's habit carries some weight." (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa', part 2, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu').

What should be done if there is confusion about the beginning of the month?

Ahmad said: "If there is confusion about the beginning of the month, one should fast for three days, to be sure of fasting on the ninth and tenth days." (al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah, part 3 - al-Siyaam - Siyaam 'Aashooraa').

If a person does not know when Muharram began, and he wants to be sure of fasting on the tenth, he should assume that Dhu’l-Hijjah was thirty days - as is the usual rule - and should fast on the ninth and tenth. Whoever wants to be sure of fasting the ninth as well should fast the eight, ninth and tenth (then if Dhu’l-Hijjah was twenty-nine days, he can be sure of having fasted Taasoo'aa' and 'Aashooraa').

But given that fasting on 'Aashooraa' is mustahabb rather than waajib, people are not commanded to look for the crescent of the new moon of Muharram as they are to do in the case of Ramadhan and Shawwaal.

Fasting 'Aashooraa' - for what does it offer expiation?

Imam al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

"It expiates for all minor sins, i.e., it brings forgiveness of all sins except major sins."

Then he said (may Allah have mercy on him):

"Fasting the day of 'Arafaah expiates for two years, and the day of 'Aashooraa' expiates for one year. If when a person says 'Amen' it coincides with the 'Aameen' of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins. Each one of the things that we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status. If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced." (al-Majmoo' Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, part 6, Sawm Yawm 'Arafaah).

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "Tahaarah, salah, and fasting in Ramadhan, on the day of 'Arafaah and on 'Aashooraa' expiate for minor sins only." (al-Fatawa al-Kubra, part 5).

Not relying too much on the reward for fasting

Some people who are deceived rely too much on things like fasting on 'Aashooraa' or the day of 'Arafaah, to the extent that some of them say, "Fasting on 'Aashooraa' will expiate for the sins of the whole year, and fasting on the day of 'Arafaah will bring extra rewards." Ibn al-Qayyim said: 'This misguided person does not know that fasting in Ramadhan and praying five times a day are much more important than fasting on the day of 'Arafaah and 'Aashooraa', and that they expiate for the sins between one Ramadhan and the next, or between one Friday and the next, so long as one avoids major sins. But they cannot expiate for minor sins unless one also avoids major sins; when the two things are put together, they have the strength to expiate for minor sins. Among those deceived people may be one who thinks that his good deeds are more than his sins, because he does not pay attention to his bad deeds or check on his sins, but if he does a good deed he remembers it and relies on it. This is like the one who seeks Allah’s forgiveness with his tongue (i.e., by words only), and glorifies Allah by saying "Subhaan Allah" one hundred times a day, then he backbites about the Muslims and slanders their honor, and speaks all day long about things that are not pleasing to Allah. This person is always thinking about the virtues of his tasbeehaat (saying "Subhaan Allah") and tahleelaat (saying "Laa ilaaha ill-Allah") but he pays no attention to what has been reported concerning those who backbite, tell lies and slander others, or commit other sins of the tongue. They are completely deceived." (al-Mawsoo'ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 31, Ghuroor).

Fasting 'Aashooraa' when one still has days to make up from Ramadhan

The fuqahaa' differed concerning the ruling on observing voluntary fasts before a person has made up days that he or she did not fast in Ramadhan. The Hanafis said that it is permissible to observe voluntary fasts before making up days from Ramadhan, and it is not makrooh to do so, because the missed days do not have to be made up straight away. The Maalikis and Shafi’ee said that it is permissible but is makrooh, because it means that one is delaying something obligatory. Al-Dusooqi said: "It is makrooh to observe a voluntary fast when one still has to make up an obligatory fast, such as a fast in fulfillment of a vow, or a missed obligatory fast, or a fast done as an act of expiation (kafaarah), whether the voluntary fast which is being given priority over an obligatory fast is something confirmed in Shariah or not, such as 'Aashooraa' and the ninth of Dhu’l-Hijjah, according to the most correct opinion." The Hanbalis said that it is Haraam to observe a voluntary fast before making up any fasts missed in Ramadhan, and that a voluntary fast in such cases does not count, even if there is plenty of time to make up the obligatory fast. So a person must give priority to the obligatory fasts until he has made them up.. (al-Mawsoo'ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 28, Sawm al-tatawwu').

Muslims must hasten to make up any missed fasts after Ramadhan, so that they will be able to fast 'Arafaah and 'Aashooraa' without any problem. If a person fasts 'Arafaah and 'Aashooraa' with the intention from the night before of making up for a missed fast, this will be good enough to make up what he has missed, for the bounty of Allah is great.

Bid'ahs common on 'Aashooraa'

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about the things that people do on 'Aashooraa', such as wearing kohl, taking a bath (ghusl), wearing henna, shaking hands with one another, cooking grains (huboob), showing happiness and so on. Was any of this reported from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in a sahih hadeeth, or not? If nothing to that effect was reported in a sahih hadeeth, is doing these things bid'ah, or not? Is there any basis for what the other group do, such as grieving and mourning, going without anything to drink, eulogizing and wailing, reciting in a crazy manner, and rending their garments?

His reply was:

'Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Nothing to that effect has been reported in any sahih hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) or from his Companions. None of the imams of the Muslims encouraged or recommended such things, neither the four imams, nor any others. No reliable scholars have narrated anything like this, neither from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), nor from the Sahaabah, nor from the Taabi'een; neither in any sahih report or in a da'eef (weak) report; neither in the books of Sahih, nor in al-Sunan, nor in the Musnads. No hadeeth of this nature was known during the best centuries, but some of the later narrators reported ahaadeeth like the one which says, "Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on the day of 'Aashooraa' will not suffer from eye disease in that year, and whoever takes a bath (does ghusl) on the day of 'Aashooraa' will not get sick in that year," and so on. They also reported a fabricated hadeeth that is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), which says, "Whoever is generous to his family on the day of 'Aashooraa', Allah will be generous to him for the rest of the year." Reporting all of this from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is tantamount to lying.'

Then he [Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him)] discussed in brief the tribulations that had occurred in the early days of this ummah and the killing of al-Husain (may Allah be pleased with him), and what the various sects had done because of this. Then he said:

'An ignorant, wrongful group - who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled - made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the day of 'Aashooraa' as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of Jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the Jaahiliyyah. The Shaytaan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the day of 'Aashooraa' as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them. The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is. Some others - either Naasibis who oppose and have enmity towards al-Husain and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and bid'ah with bid'ah - opposed them by fabricating reports in favor of making the day of 'Aashooraa' a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one's children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on Eids and special occasions. These people took the day of 'Aashooraa' as a festival like Eid, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (those who take it as a day of mourning) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong. Neither the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) nor his successors (the khulafa' al-raashidoon) did any of these things on the day of 'Aashooraa', they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration.

As for the other things, such as cooking special dishes with or without grains, or wearing new clothes, or spending money on one's family, or buying the year's supplies on that day, or doing special acts of worship such as special prayers or deliberately slaughtering an animal on that day, or saving some of the meat of the sacrifice to cook with grains, or wearing kohl and henna, or taking a bath (ghusl), or shaking hands with one another, or visiting one another, or visiting the mosques and mashhads (shrines) and so on. All of this is reprehensible bid'ah and is wrong. None of it has anything to do with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) or the way of the Khulafa' al-Raashidoon. It was not approved of by any of the imams of the Muslims, not Malik, not al-Thawri, not al-Layth ibn Sa'd, not Abu Hanifah, not al-Oozaa'i, not al-Shafi’ee, not Ahmad ibn Hanbal, not Ishaq ibn Raahwayh, not any of the imams and scholars of the Muslims.'(al-Fatawa al-Kubra by Ibn Taymiyah)

Ibn al-Haaj (may Allah have mercy on him) mentioned that one of the Bid’ahs on 'Aashooraa' was deliberately paying zakat on this day, late or early, or slaughtering a chicken just for this occasion, or - in the case of women - using henna. (al-Madkhal, part 1, Yawm 'Aashooraa')

We ask Allah to make us followers of the Sunnah of His Noble Prophet, to make us live in Islam and die in a state of faith. May He help us to do that which He loves and which pleases Him. We ask Him to help us to remember Him and be thankful to Him, to worship Him properly and to accept our good deeds. May He make us of those who are pious and fear Him. May Allah bless our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.

By: Shaikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid
Source: ummah.com





Source :http://www.islamicfinder.org/article...2&lang=english


:wasalamex
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tresbien
01-16-2007, 04:30 PM
Virtues of the Month of Muharram

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In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear questioner, thanks for your interesting question, and we earnestly implore Allah to guide us to the best way through which we can please Him.

A Muslim is to be keen to get closer to Allah and draw nearer to Him all the time. Such keenness gains more weight and significance during blessed occasions and times. One of these occasions in which a Muslim should exert more effort and show more keenness is the month of Muharram.

To shed more light on the significance of worship in this blessed month we would like to cite for you the following:


Indeed, the sacred month of Muharram is a blessed and important month. It is the first month of the Hijri calendar and is one of the four sacred months concerning which Allah says,(Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein) (At-Tawbah 9: 36)

Abu Bakrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Time has come back to its original state which it had when Allah created the Heavens and the Earth; the year is twelve months, four of which are sacred. Three of them are in succession: Dhul-Qa`da, Dhul-Hijja and Al-Muharram, and (the fourth being) Rajab Mudar (named after the tribe of Mudar as they used to respect this month) which stands between Jumad (ath-Thani) and Sha`ban."

Muharram is called so because it is a sacred (muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity. Allah Almighty says, (so wrong not yourselves therein), which means do not wrong yourselves in these sacred months, because sin in these months is worse than in other months.

It was reported that Ibn `Abbas said regarding the above verse that these four months were singled out and made sacred. Sins in these months are more serious and good deeds bring a greater reward.

Qatadah said concerning this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein) that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful than wrongdoing at any other time. Wrongdoing at any time is a serious matter, but Allah gives more weight to whichever of His commands He will. Allah has chosen certain ones of His Creation. He has chosen from among the angels Messengers and from among mankind Messengers. He chose from among speech His remembrance or dhikr. He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights laylat al-qadr, so venerate that which Allah has told us to venerate. People of understanding and wisdom venerate the things that Allah has told us to venerate. (Summarized from the Tafseer of Ibn Kathir, may Allah have mercy on him. Tafseer of Surat at-Tawbah, verse 36).

The Virtue of Observing More Voluntary Fasting during Muharram:

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "The best of fasting after Ramadan is fasting Allah' month of Muharram." (Reported by Muslim).

The phrase "Allah's month", connecting the name of the month to the name of Allah in a genitive grammatical structure, signifies the importance of the month. Al-Qari said:

The apparent meaning of the above Hadith is to fast all of the month of Muharram. But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) never fasted any whole month apart from Ramadan, so this Hadith is probably meant to encourage increasing one's fasting during Muharram, without meaning that one should fast for the entire month.
It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to fast more in Sha`ban because he may have not learnt of the virtue of Muharram until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month, or because certain circumstances may happened during this month hindering him from fasting such as sickness, travel, etc. (Sharh al-Nawawi `ala Saheeh Muslim)."

Excerpted with modifications from www.islam-qa.com

Thus, a true Muslim has to seize the opportunity of these blessed days and tries his best to get as much reward in them as possible.



You can also read:



The Significance of Fasting the Day of `Ashura'



Fasting the 9th & 10th of Muharram: Virtues & Rules



Days of Muharram: Ethics and Significan

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Reply

Helena
01-19-2007, 09:42 PM
:w:


Praise be to Allaah,

‘Aashooraa’ in History

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Aashooraa’. He said, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allaah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Moosa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Moosa than you,’ so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 1865).

“This is a righteous day” – in a report narrated by Muslim, [the Jews said:] “This is a great day, on which Allaah saved Moosa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people.”

“Moosa fasted on this day” – a report narrated by Muslim adds: “… in thanksgiving to Allaah, so we fast on this day.”

According to a report narrated by al-Bukhaari: “… so we fast on this day to venerate it.”

A version narrated by Imaam Ahmad adds: “This is the day on which the Ark settled on Mount Joodi, so Nooh fasted this day in thanksgiving.”

“and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day” – according to another report also narrated by al-Bukhaari: “He said to his Companions: ‘You have more right to Moosa than they do, so fast on that day.”

The practice of fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was known even in the days of Jaahiliyyah, before the Prophet’s mission. It was reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “The people of Jaahiliyyah used to fast on that day…”

Al-Qurtubi said: “Perhaps Quraysh used to fast on that day on the basis of some past law, such as that of Ibraaheem, upon whom be peace.”

It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast on ‘Aashooraa’ in Makkah, before he migrated to Madeenah. When he migrated to Madeenah, he found the Jews celebrating this day, so he asked them why, and they replied as described in the hadeeth quoted above. He commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews, who took it as a festival, as was reported in the hadeeth of Abu Moosa (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: “The Jews used to take the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival [according to a report narrated by Muslim: the day of ‘Aashooraa’ was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a festival. According to another report also narrated by Muslim: the people of Khaybar (the Jews) used to take it as a festival and their women would wear their jewellery and symbols on that day]. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘So you [Muslims] should fast on that day.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari). Apparently the motive for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was the desire to be different from the Jews, so that the Muslims would fast when the Jews did not, because people do not fast on a day of celebration. (Summarized from the words of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar – may Allaah have mercy on him – in Fath al-Baari Sharh ‘ala Saheeh al-Bukhaari).

Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ was a gradual step in the process of introducing fasting as a prescribed obligation in Islam. Fasting appeared in three forms. When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah, he told the Muslims to fast on three days of every month and on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, then Allaah made fasting obligatory when He said (interpretation of the meaning): “… observing the fasting is prescribed for you…” [al-Baqarah 2:183] (Ahkaam al-Qur’aan by al-Jassas, part 1).

The obligation was transferred from the fast of ‘Aashooraa’ to the fast of Ramadaan, and this one of the proofs in the field of Usool al-Fiqh that it is possible to abrogate a lighter duty in favour of a heavier duty.

Before the obligation of fasting ‘Aashooraa’ was abrogated, fasting on this day was obligatory, as can be seen from the clear command to observe this fast. Then it was further confirmed later on, then reaffirmed by making it a general command addressed to everybody, and once again by instructing mothers not to breastfeed their infants during this fast. It was reported from Ibn Mas’ood that when fasting Ramadaan was made obligatory, the obligation to fast ‘Aashooraa’ was lifted, i.e., it was no longer obligatory to fast on this day, but it is still desirable (mustahabb).

The virtues of fasting ‘Aashooraa’

Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said: “I never saw the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) so keen to fast any day and give it priority over any other than this day, the day of ‘Aashooraa’, and this month, meaning Ramadaan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 1867).

The meaning of his being keen was that he intended to fast on that day in the hope of earning the reward for doing so.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “For fasting the day of ‘Aashooraa’, I hope that Allaah will accept it as expiation for the year that went before.” (Reported by Muslim, 1976). This is from the bounty of Allaah towards us: for fasting one day He gives us expiation for the sins of a whole year. And Allaah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

Which day is ‘Aashooraa’?

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “ ‘Aashooraa’ and Taasoo’aa’ are two elongated names [the vowels are elongated] as is stated in books on the Arabic language. Our companions said: ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram and Taasoo’aa’ is the ninth day. This is our opinion, and that of the majority of scholars. This is the apparent meaning of the ahaadeeth and is what we understand from the general wording. It is also what is usually understood by scholars of the language.” (al-Majmoo’)

‘Aashooraa’ is an Islamic name that was not known at the time of Jaahiliyyah. (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, part 2, Sawm Muharram).

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“ ‘Aashooraa’ is the tenth day of Muharram. This is the opinion of Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib and al-Hasan. It was what was reported by Ibn ‘Abbaas, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to fast ‘Aashooraa’, the tenth day of Muharram.’ (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, who said, a saheeh hasan hadeeth). It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: ‘The ninth,’ and reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast the ninth. (Reported by Muslim). ‘Ataa’ reported that he said, ‘Fast the ninth and the tenth, and do not be like the Jews.’ If this is understood, we can say on this basis that it is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast on the ninth and the tenth, for that reason. This is what Ahmad said, and it is the opinion of Ishaaq.”

It is mustahabb (encouraged) to fast Taasoo’aa’ with ‘Aashooraa’

‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said: “When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on ‘Aashooraa’ and commanded the Muslims to fast as well, they said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, it is a day that is venerated by the Jews and Christians.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘If I live to see the next year, in sha Allaah, we will fast on the ninth day too.’ But it so happened that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed away before the next year came.” (Reported by Muslim, 1916).

Al-Shaafa'i and his companions, Ahmad, Ishaaq and others said: “It is mustahabb to fast on both the ninth and tenth days, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on the tenth, and intended to fast on the ninth.”

On this basis it may be said that there are varying degrees of fasting ‘Aashooraa’, the least of which is to fast only on the tenth and the best of which is to fast the ninth as well. The more one fasts in Muharram, the better it is.

The reason why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo’aa’

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The scholars – our companions and others – mentioned several reasons why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasoo’aa’:

the intention behind it is to be different from the Jews, who only venerate the tenth day. This opinion was reported from Ibn ‘Abbaas…

the intention is to add another day’s fast to ‘Aashooraa’. This is akin to the prohibition on fasting a Friday by itself, as was mentioned by al-Khattaabi and others.

To be on the safe side and make sure that one fasts on the tenth, in case there is some error in sighting the crescent moon at the beginning of Muharram and the ninth is in fact the tenth.”

The strongest of these reasons is being different from the People of the Book. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade imitating the People of the Book in many ahaadeeth, for example, his words concerning ‘Aashooraa’: ‘If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day.’” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 6, Sadd al-Dharaa’i’ al-Mufdiyah ila’l-Mahaarim )

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said in his commentary on the hadeeth “If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day”: “What he meant by fasting on the ninth day was probably not that he would limit himself to that day, but would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely. This is also what we can understand from some of the reports narrated by Muslim.” (Fath, 4/245).

Ruling on fasting only on the day of ‘Aashooraa’

Shaykh al-Islam said: “Fasting on the day of ‘Aashoraa’ is an expiation for a year, and it is not makrooh to fast only that day…” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5). In Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, it says: “There is nothing wrong with fasting only on ‘Aashooraa’.” (part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’).

Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ even if it is a Saturday or a Friday

Al-Tahhaawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) allowed us to fast on ‘Aashooraa’ and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view – and Allaah knows best – it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makrooh…” (Mushkil al-Aathaar, part 2, Baab Sawm Yawm al-Sabt).

The author of al-Minhaaj said: “ ‘It is disliked (makrooh) to fast on a Friday alone…’ But it is no longer makrooh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in the saheeh report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a saheeh report.”

Al-Shaarih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj:

“ ‘If it coincides with his habitual fast’ – i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday.

‘ if he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, etc.” – this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in sharee’ah, such as ‘Aashooraa’ or ‘Arafaah. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj, part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’)

Al-Bahooti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “It is makrooh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: ‘Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts’ (reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad and by al-Haakim, who said: according to the conditions of al-Bukhaari), and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them… except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of ‘Arafaah or the day of ‘Aashooraa’, and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makrooh, because a person’s habit carries some weight.” (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’, part 2, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu’).

What should be done if there is confusion about the beginning of the month?

Ahmad said: “If there is confusion about the beginning of the month, one should fast for three days, to be sure of fasting on the ninth and tenth days.” (al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah, part 3 – al-Siyaam – Siyaam ‘Aashooraa’).

If a person does not know when Muharram began, and he wants to be sure of fasting on the tenth, he should assume that Dhoo’l-Hijjah was thirty days – as is the usual rule – and should fast on the ninth and tenth. Whoever wants to be sure of fasting the ninth as well should fast the eight, ninth and tenth (then if Dhoo’l-Hijjah was twenty-nine days, he can be sure of having fasted Taasoo’aa’ and ‘Aashooraa’).

But given that fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ is mustahabb rather than waajib, people are not commanded to look for the crescent of the new moon of Muharram as they are to do in the case of Ramadaan and Shawwaal.

Fasting ‘Aashooraa’ – for what does it offer expiation?

Imaam al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“It expiates for all minor sins, i.e., it brings forgiveness of all sins except major sins.”

Then he said (may Allaah have mercy on him):

“Fasting the day of ‘Arafaah expiates for two years, and the day of ‘Aashooraa’ expiates for one year. If when a person says ‘Aameen’ it coincides with the ‘Aameen’ of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins… Each one of the things that we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status… If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced.” (al-Majmoo’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, part 6, Sawm Yawm ‘Arafaah).

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Tahaarah, salaah, and fasting in Ramadaan, on the day of ‘Arafaah and on ‘Aashooraa’ expiate for minor sins only.” (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5).

Not relying too much on the reward for fasting

Some people who are deceived rely too much on things like fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ or the day of ‘Arafaah, to the extent that some of them say, “Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ will expiate for the sins of the whole year, and fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah will bring extra rewards.” Ibn al-Qayyim said: ‘This misguided person does not know that fasting in Ramadaan and praying five times a day are much more important than fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’, and that they expiate for the sins between one Ramadaan and the next, or between one Friday and the next, so long as one avoids major sins. But they cannot expiate for minor sins unless one also avoids major sins; when the two things are put together, they have the strength to expiate for minor sins. Among those deceived people may be one who thinks that his good deeds are more than his sins, because he does not pay attention to his bad deeds or check on his sins, but if he does a good deed he remembers it and relies on it. This is like the one who seeks Allaah’s forgiveness with his tongue (i.e., by words only), and glorifies Allaah by saying “Subhaan Allaah” one hundred times a day, then he backbites about the Muslims and slanders their honour, and speaks all day long about things that are not pleasing to Allaah. This person is always thinking about the virtues of his tasbeehaat (saying “Subhaan Allaah”) and tahleelaat (saying “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah”) but he pays no attention to what has been reported concerning those who backbite, tell lies and slander others, or commit other sins of the tongue. They are completely deceived.” (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 31, Ghuroor).

Fasting ‘Aashooraa’ when one still has days to make up from Ramadaan

The fuqahaa’ differed concerning the ruling on observing voluntary fasts before a person has made up days that he or she did not fast in Ramadaan. The Hanafis said that it is permissible to observe voluntary fasts before making up days from Ramadaan, and it is not makrooh to do so, because the missed days do not have to be made up straight away. The Maalikis and Shaafa’is said that it is permissible but is makrooh, because it means that one is delaying something obligatory. Al-Dusooqi said: “It is makrooh to observe a voluntary fast when one still has to make up an obligatory fast, such as a fast in fulfilment of a vow, or a missed obligatory fast, or a fast done as an act of expiation (kafaarah), whether the voluntary fast which is being given priority over an obligatory fast is something confirmed in sharee’ah or not, such as ‘Aashooraa’ and the ninth of Dhoo’l-Hijjah, according to the most correct opinion.” The Hanbalis said that it is haraam to observe a voluntary fast before making up any fasts missed in Ramadaan, and that a voluntary fast in such cases does not count, even if there is plenty of time to make up the obligatory fast. So a person must give priority to the obligatory fasts until he has made them up.. (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 28, Sawm al-tatawwu’).

Muslims must hasten to make up any missed fasts after Ramadaan, so that they will be able to fast ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’ without any problem. If a person fasts ‘Arafaah and ‘Aashooraa’ with the intention from the night before of making up for a missed fast, this will be good enough to make up what he has missed, for the bounty of Allaah is great.

Bid’ahs common on ‘Aashooraa’

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about the things that people do on ‘Aashooraa’, such as wearing kohl, taking a bath (ghusl), wearing henna, shaking hands with one another, cooking grains (huboob), showing happiness and so on. Was any of this reported from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in a saheeh hadeeth, or not? If nothing to that effect was reported in a saheeh hadeeth, is doing these things bid’ah, or not? Is there any basis for what the other group do, such as grieving and mourning, going without anything to drink, eulogizing and wailing, reciting in a crazy manner, and rending their garments?

His reply was:

‘Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds. Nothing to that effect has been reported in any saheeh hadeeth from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or from his Companions. None of the imaams of the Muslims encouraged or recommended such things, neither the four imaams, nor any others. No reliable scholars have narrated anything like this, neither from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), nor from the Sahaabah, nor from the Taabi’een; neither in any saheeh report or in a da’eef (weak) report; neither in the books of Saheeh, nor in al-Sunan, nor in the Musnads. No hadeeth of this nature was known during the best centuries, but some of the later narrators reported ahaadeeth like the one which says, “Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not suffer from eye disease in that year, and whoever takes a bath (does ghusl) on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not get sick in that year,” and so on. They also reported a fabricated hadeeth that is falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), which says, “Whoever is generous to his family on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, Allaah will be generous to him for the rest of the year.” Reporting all of this from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is tantamount to lying.’

Then he [Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him)] discussed in brief the tribulations that had occurred in the early days of this ummah and the killing of al-Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him), and what the various sects had done because of this. Then he said:

‘An ignorant, wrongful group – who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled – made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the jaahiliyyah… The Shaytaan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them… The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is. Some others – either Naasibis who oppose and have enmity towards al-Husayn and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and bid’ah with bid’ah – opposed them by fabricating reports in favour of making the day of ‘Aashooraa’ a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one's children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on Eids and special occasions. These people took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival like Eid, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (those who take it as a day of mourning) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong… Neither the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) nor his successors (the khulafa’ al-raashidoon) did any of these things on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration…

As for the other things, such as cooking special dishes with or without grains, or wearing new clothes, or spending money on one’s family, or buying the year’s supplies on that day, or doing special acts of worship such as special prayers or deliberately slaughtering an animal on that day, or saving some of the meat of the sacrifice to cook with grains, or wearing kohl and henna, or taking a bath (ghusl), or shaking hands with one another, or visiting one another, or visiting the mosques and mashhads (shrines) and so on… all of this is reprehensible bid’ah and is wrong. None of it has anything to do with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or the way of the Khulafa’ al-Raashidoon. It was not approved of by any of the imaams of the Muslims, not Maalik, not al-Thawri, not al-Layth ibn Sa’d, not Abu Haneefah, not al-Oozaa’i, not al-Shaafa'i, not Ahmad ibn Hanbal, not Ishaaq ibn Raahwayh, not any of the imaams and scholars of the Muslims.’(al-Fataawa al-Kubra by Ibn Taymiyah)

Ibn al-Haaj (may Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned that one of the bid’ahs on ‘Aashooraa’ was deliberately paying zakaat on this day, late or early, or slaughtering a chicken just for this occasion, or – in the case of women – using henna. (al-Madkhal, part 1, Yawm ‘Aashooraa’)

We ask Allaah to make us followers of the Sunnah of His Noble Prophet, to make us live in Islam and die in a state of faith. May He help us to do that which He loves and which pleases Him. We ask Him to help us to remember Him and be thankful to Him, to worship Him properly and to accept our good deeds. May He make us of those who are pious and fear Him. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.

:sl:
Reply

Helena
01-20-2007, 03:26 PM
:w:



What are the virtues of the month of Muharram

Praise be to Allaah,

the Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and Chief of the Messengers, and upon all his family and companions.

Allah’s sacred month of Muharram is a blessed and important month. It is the first month of the Hijri calendar and is one of the four sacred months concerning which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein…” [al-Tawbah 9:36]

Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab Mudar which comes between Jumaada and Sha’baan.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 2958).

Muharram is so called because it is a sacred (muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity.

Allaah’s words (interpretation of the meaning): “so wrong not yourselves therein…” mean do not wrong yourselves in these sacred months, because sin in these months is worse than in other months.

It was reported that Ibn ‘Abbaas said that this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein…) referred to all the months, then these four were singled out and made sacred, so that sin in these months is more serious and good deeds bring a greater reward.

Qutaadah said concerning this phrase (so wrong not yourselves therein…) that wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and more sinful that wrongdoing at any other time. Wrongdoing at any time is a serious matter, but Allaah gives more weight to whichever of His commands He will. Allaah has chosen certain ones of His creation. He has chosen from among the angels Messengers and from among mankind Messengers. He chose from among speech the remembrance of Him (dhikr). He chose from among the earth the mosques, from among the months Ramadaan and the sacred months, from among the days Friday and from among the nights Laylat al-Qadr, so venerate that which Allaah has told us to venerate. People of understanding and wisdom venerate the things that Allaah has told us to venerate. (Summarized from the Tafseer of Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy on him. Tafseer of Surat al-Tawbah, aayah 36).

The Virtue of observing more naafil fasts during Muharram.

Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘The best of fasting after Ramadaan is fasting Allaah’s month of Muharram.’” (reported by Muslim, 1982).

The phrase “Allaah’s month”, connecting the name of the month to the name of Allaah in a genitive grammatical structure, signifies the importance of the month. Al-Qaari said: “The apparent meaning is all of the month of Muharram.” But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never fasted any whole month apart from Ramadan, so this hadeeth is probably meant to encourage increasing one’s fasting during Muharram, without meaning that one should fast for the entire month.

It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast more in Sha’baan. It is likely that the virtue of Muharram was not revealed to him until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month. (Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Saheeh Muslim).

Allaah chooses whatever times and places He wills

Al-‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salaam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Times and places may be given preferred status in two ways, either temporal or religious/spiritual. With regard to the latter, this is because Allaah bestows His generosity on His slaves at those times or in those places, by giving a greater reward for deeds done, such as giving a greater reward for fasting in Ramadaan than for fasting at all other times, and also on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, the virtue of which is due to Allaah’s generosity and kindness towards His slaves on that day…” (Qawaa’id al-Ahkaam, 1/38).

collected from (http://www.islam-qa.com/index.php?ref=21290&ln=eng)

:sl: :)
Reply

Helena
01-20-2007, 03:29 PM
By the grace of Allah, we have begun, the first month of the Islamic
calendar, Allah's month, the sacred month of Muharram. I have list out few
matters (for evidences, please refer attached article) related to this month
as a reminder for all of us. Subject to confirmation, the 9th & 10th of
Muharram, Tasu'a & 'Ashura are scheduled to fall on 28th & 29th January
respectively.

1.. Allah ordained that a year would contain 12 months and made four of
them sacred.
2.. The four sacred months as informed to us by our prophet (sallAllaahu
alayhi wa sallam)are; Dhul-Qa'da, Dhul-Hijja and Al-muharram, and Rajab.
3.. Committing in sins in these sacred months is greater and reward for
good deeds are multiplied.
4.. Our prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said "The most excellent
fast after Ramadan is God's month. al-muharram" .
5.. Allah saved Moses (peace be upon him) and drowned the folk of Pharaoh.
Moses (peace be upon him) observed the fast on this day, as a sign of
gratitude to Allah.
6.. When the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) was asked
about fasting on the day of 'Ashura (10th of Muharram), said: "It expiates
the sins of the preceding year".
7.. Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) intended to fast on
the 9th of Muhrram as well, but died before that.

May Allah, The Most High, grant us the ability to increase in fasting during
this month, especially on the 9th & 10th.

May He, the most high, also give us the ability to do good deeds for His
sake, in the manner our prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) taught us.
Reply

Khayal
01-22-2007, 05:06 AM
:arabic6:
Aashooraa
FASTING IN MUHARRAM (THE FIRST MONTH OF ISLAMIC YEAR)






:salamext:


Fasting in the month of Muharram is highly desired, especially on the tenth day, Aashooraa. The Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) has been reported as saying when asked which prayer is better after obligatory prayer: "Prayer in the middle of the night." He was asked again which fast is better after Ramadan. He said: "In the month that is called Al-Muharram." (Ahmed, Muslim, and Abu Dawood)
This Hadith clearly indicates the importance of voluntary fasting in Muharram, among all the months. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) however, emphasizes the fast of the tenth day, Aashooraa.
The word "Aashooraa" is derived from Ashara, which means ten. The observation of this day goes back to Prophet Moosa Bin Emran (p.b.u.h.). In a Hadith related by Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) “when the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) came to Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of Aashooraa. He inquired why they did so. They replied that it was a good day, the day which Allah delivered Prophet Moosa (p.b.u.h.) and the children of Israel from their enemy. As gratitude Moosa (p.b.u.h.) fasted that day. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) responded: 'I have more right to Moosa than you.’ He fasted the day and commanded the believers to fast." (Bukhari and Muslim)
This Hadith indicates that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was in complete agreement with Prophet Moosa (p.b.u.h.) as well as the other prophets. The point here is that the Messenger of Allah would always do an act of worship if it was prophecy reported from any of the prophets. Earlier, we see how he told us that the best voluntary fast is the fast of Dawood.
This is why the following Hadith is of great interest to us. Ibn Abbas related when Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) observed the day of Aashooraa and commanded his followers to observe it, they asked him: "O Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) this is the day the Jews, and Christians respect and honor... The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) promised them that ‘Next year Allah willing, we shall fast the ninth, tasuu'aa, along with the tenth.’ By the next Muharram, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had already passed away. Because the believers, desire to emulate Prophet Moosa in fasting on Aashooraa do so with the desire not to participate in the festivity of the People of the Book, who have reduced the day to a mere formality. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) decided to remove this ambiguity with the fast of the ninth day.”
Our Ulama (Muslim scholars), analyzing all reports from the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) regarding Muharram, stated the fast of Muharram can be viewed in three ways:
1. Fasting three days of Muharram, the ninth, tenth and eleventh.
2. Fasting on the ninth and tenth days because of two previous Hadiths.
3. Fasting on the tenth day alone.
Of much interest to us Muslims these days should be the fasting of the 9th and the 10th of Muharram. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said about the voluntary fasting on the Day of Aashooraa: "It expiates the sins of the preceding year." (Muslim)

"The day of Aashooraa was the day when Moosa and his men got freedom from the hands of the Pharaoh and it was in the sacred memory of this great event that the Muslims observed voluntary fasting. The idea underlying this is to stress the affinity amongst the messengers of Allah and to show that religious devotion is a constant flow from one generation to another. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) came not to abrogate all the earlier religious practices but to codify and preserve them for all times to come in ideal forms."

By: IslamicFinder


:wasalamex
Reply

afriend
01-23-2007, 09:31 PM
The Islamic Year initiates with a sacred month - the month of Allah: Muharram

“Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year) so was it ordained by Allah on the day, when he created the Heaven and the Earth; of them four are Sacred - that is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein….” [Soorah at-Tawbah (9): 36]


The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said:The year is of twelve months, four of which are sacred; three consecutive months Dhul-Qidah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab…” [Saheeh al-Bukharee] and he said: “The best of fast after Ramadaan is in the month of Allah - 'Muharram' and the best of prayer after the obligatory prayer is prayer during night.” [Saheeh Muslim]


The phrase 'Allah's month' connecting the 'month' to the name of Allah is a grammatical structure, signifying the importance, status and adoration of this month with Allah. One should be very careful to avoid sins in this month because just as good deeds have a greater reward in this month, sins are in it more abominable.

Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) commented about the (above-mentioned) verse “…so wrong not yourselves therein….” [Soorah at-Tawbah (9): 36] saying: “It is referred to all the months, but four months were singled out and made more sacred, violation of these months is a grave sin; sins committed during these months are more serious, and good deeds during these months will be more greatly rewarded.”


THE MOST VIRTUOUS DAY OF THIS MONTH


The most virtuous day of this month is the day of Ashoorah - the tenth of Muharram. It is reported in Saheeh al-Bukharee, when Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) came to Madeenah, he saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashoorah. He said: 'What is this?' They said: 'This is the day when Allah saved Moosa from drowning, so we fast on this day.' Then he said: “We have more right to Moosa than you.” So he (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) fasted on this day and advised the Muslims to do the same.
Also, Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) narrated: “When Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) observed the fast of the day of Ashoorah and ordered (the Sahabah) to fast, they said: “O Messenger of Allah! It is a day revered by Jews and Christians.” Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “The coming year, if Allah wills, we will fast on the ninth (also).” [Saheeh Muslim, vol: 1, p: 359]
Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) also reported: “I never saw the Prophet more keen to fast on any day other than the day of Ashoorah and any month than the month of Ramadaan.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]


The phrase 'more keen' of Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) indicates that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) looked forward to fast on the day of Ashoorah in order to earn the reward for doing so, he Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam): “Fasting the day of Ashoorah, I hope will be an expiation of sins for the year before.” [Saheeh Muslim v: 1, p: 368]
Thus, the day of Ashoorah is mercy from Allah and an opportunity for one to get his sins forgiven. It is recommended for the Muslim Ummah to fast both the tenth and the ninth of Muharram since Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) fasted the tenth and intended to fast the ninth. Another important thing to be understood here is that voluntary fasts are expiation for minor sin, as long as one completely refrains from major sins and is always cautious about minor sins. Some people who are deceived rely greatly on voluntary worships (like the day of Ashoorah or the day of Arafat) - to the extent that some of them say, fasting on Ashoorah will expiate for the sins of the whole year, and fasting on the day of Arafat will bring extra rewards.


For some people the day of Ashoorah will be on the 30th and others on 29th. We should fast two days in succession either a day before or after Ashoorah, but with the dispute with the dates, I think we should fast on 29th and 30th.
Reply

syilla
01-24-2007, 02:19 AM
:sl:

why it is good to fast on this day? What is the historical story behind this?

Jazakallah khayr...

Thanks in advance.

Regards,

salams
Reply

sister_fatimah
01-24-2007, 03:04 AM
:sl:

sis ..I found this maybe it can help us insha Allah



First of all, it is very important to make it clear that fasting on the day of `Ashura’ – the 10th of Muharram- is of great merits in Islam. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Fasting the day of `Ashura' (is of great merits), I hope that Allah will accept it as an expiation for (the sins committed in) the previous year” (Muslim).

Also, fasting the 9th of Muharram is highly recommended by the Sunnah. Imam At-Tirmidhi reported that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) used to say: We should fast on two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram to distinguish ourselves from the Jewish community. (At-Tirmidhi)

Explaining the virtue of fasting on the 9th and the 10th of Muharram, Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi, former President of the Islamic Society of North America, states:

It is the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him used to fast on the day of `Ashura'. When he came to Madinah, he found out that the Jews of Madinah were also fasting on this day remembering Prophet Musa (peace and blessings be upon him). The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) admired this tradition and said to the Jews, "I am closer to Musa than you are." He fasted and he also told his Companions to fast on this day.

Later, before the end of his life, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) told Muslims to add the 9th day also. Thus, it is recommended to fast on both the 9th and 10th of Muharram.

Moreover, in his well-known book, Fiqh As-Sunnah, the late Sheikh Sayyed Sabiq states:

Abu Hurayrah reported: "I asked the Prophet: 'Which Prayer is the best after the obligatory Prayers?' He said: 'Prayer during the mid of the night.' I asked: 'Which fasting is the best after that of Ramadan?' He said, 'The month of Allah that you call Muharram’" (Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud).

Mu`awiyyah ibn Abi Sufyan reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Concerning the day of `Ashura’, it is not obligatory upon you to fast on it as I do. Whoever wishes may fast and whoever does not wish to is not obliged to do so" (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

It is noteworthy that Muslim scholars have stated that fasting of `Ashura’ is of three levels as follows:

1. fasting for three days, i.e., on the 9th, 10th, and 11th of Muharram,

2. fasting the 9th and 10th of Muharram, and

3. fasting only the 10th of Muharram.



source :http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/S...=1119503543248
Reply

ilm.seeker
01-26-2007, 05:18 AM
Dear Brothers and Sisters, AsSalam Alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakaatuhu

Fasting 'Ashoora' (10th of Muharram) for one who still owes days from Ramadaan

Question:
I still have days to make up for Ramadaan and I want to fast 'Ashoora'. Is it permissible for me to fast 'Ashoora before I have made up the fasts I owe? Can I fast 'Ashoora' and the eleventh of Muharram with the intention of making up the Ramadaan fasts, and will I get the reward for fasting 'Ashoora'?.

Answer:
Praise be to Allaah. Firstly:
You should not observe voluntary fasts when you still owe one or more days from Ramadaan, rather you should start with the fasts that you owe from Ramadaan, and then observe voluntary fasts.
Secondly:
If you fast the tenth and eleventh of Muharram with the intention of making up days that you owe from Ramadaan, that is permissible and will make up for two of the days that you owe. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, "Actions are judged but by intentions, and every person will have but that which he intended."
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah, 11/401
We hope that you will have the reward for making up the missed fast and the reward for fasting that day.
Fataawa Manaar al-Islam, by Shaykh Muhammad ibn 'Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him), 2/358.

Islam Q&A

WaSalam
AbdurRahman.org
An amazing and comprehensive collection of authentic articles on every concievable topic you could imagine! A GREAT reference!
Reply

Muhammad
01-26-2007, 05:45 PM
:sl:

Fasting on Yawm Al-‘Ashurah

The 10th day of Muharram, known as Yawm Al-‘Ashura, is the most significant day of this month. The Prophet (SAW) said: “Fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura is an expiation of sins for the previous year”[3]. Many events are attributed to this date such as that the Prophet Adam was born and his repentance was accepted on this day, the Prophet Abraham was saved from the Fire, the Prophet Ishmael was delivered from the Sacrifice, the Prophet Joseph was reunited with his father, the Prophet Job was cured of his illness and the Prophet Solomon was ordained as king on this day[4], but these assertions are not backed by accurate historical evidences[5].


Ibn Abbas relates that when Prophet Muhammad (SAW) came to Madinah, he found the Jews fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura. When asked for the reason of their fasting, they replied that it was the day when Allah Ta‘ala saved the Prophet Moses and the Children of Israel from their enemies. Moses fasted to thank Allah and they fasted in emulation of him. So the Prophet (SAW) said “We have more of a right to Moses than you” and so he ordered the Muslims to fast on that day [6]. This fast was later abrogated with the fast of Ramadan substituted in its place but it was kept as an optional recommended fast[7]. However, in order not to follow the Jews, the Prophet encouraged Muslims by saying: “Observe the fast of ‘Ashura and differ from the Jews by fasting a day before it or after it”[8].
Insha'Allaah someone can confirm, but I think 9th of Muharram will be this Sunday (28th Jan 2007).
Reply

Umm Yoosuf
01-27-2007, 11:38 PM
Assalaamu Alaikum

When is ‘Ashura is it sunday or monday?
Reply

Muhammad
01-27-2007, 11:43 PM
:sl:

It's on Monday if I'm not mistaken.
Reply

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