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tresbien
03-04-2007, 06:17 PM
1. The right to life is guaranteed to non-Moslems on the basis of the general rule which says; "For them what is for us and upon them what is upon us."

The Prophet (r) said; “Whoever killed a Mu'ahid(6) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, and its fragrance can be smelled at a distance of forty years (of travelling)."

2. Aggression resulting in killing or injuring non Moslems entails punishment.

3. Aggression towards the money of a non Moslem entails punishment. The non Moslem's money is, rather, privileged over that of the Moslem's, e.g., causing ruin to liquor or pigs owned by a Moslem entails no punishment, as they are worthless in Islamic Law. But if liquor or pigs belong to a non-Moslem, the Moslem would have no right to assault it, as in this instance they are considered valuable properties.

4. The attitude of Moslems towards non Moslems (who live in peace and do not assault Moslems) is a peculiar and unique model of human relations. Allah says;

(لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم فى الدين ولم يخرجوكم من دياركم أن تبروهم وتقسطوا إليهم إن الله يحب المقسطين)

"Allah forbid you not, as regards those who have not fought you in religion's cause, nor expelled you from your habitations, that you should be kindly to them, and act justly towards them; surely Allah loves the just." (60:8)

5. Islam adheres fast to universalising the value of human souls for all people, with no discrimination to colour or religion, whereas the notion that considers the blood and souls of some nation are more precious than or preferred over others is quite discarded by Islam. Dealing with souls in a certain law; considering others' money and souls as lawful and permitted is prohibited. Allah has thus willed it, with His pre-knowledge, to address this message to them since the first homicide in the history of humanity. After Allah the Exalted and the Elevated mentions the story of the son of Adam who has killed his brother and then buried him, the Qur'an then states;

(.....أنه من قتل نفسا بغير نفس أو فساد فى الأرض فكأنما قتل الناس جميعا ، ومن أحياها فكأنما أحيا الناس جميعا)

"…. whosoever slays a soul not to retaliate for a soul slain, nor for corruption done in the land, shall be as if he had slain mankind altogether; and whosoever gives life to a soul, shall be as if he had given life to all mankind altogether." (5:32) Allah the Almighty has affirmed the principle of equality for all human souls since the first homicide, and for many centuries prior to the Children of Israel being born. He the Almighty knew beforehand how some ideologies would later squander the value of the human soul.

6. In Islam, concepts of justice and kindness are not ignored at times of enmity and war. Allah says; "

(ولا يجرمنكم شنآن قوم على ألا تعدلوا إعدلوا هو أقرب للتقوى)

“Let not detestation for a people move you not to be equitable; be equitable, that is nearer to godfearing." (5:8)

When the idolaters mutilated the bodies of Moslems in the Battle of Ohud, particularly the body of the Prophet's uncle ‘Hamza’, the Prophet (r) swore to mutilate the idolaters, when seizing them. But Allah forbade him to surrender himself to the human desire of revenge. The Prophet (r) expiated his oath and commanded the Moslems not to mutilate dead bodies. Of his advice during the war: "Do not snatch spoils, breach your faith, or kill babies, women, or aged people". Al-Tahawi added that the Prophet (r) prohibited spreading poison on the enemy’s lands. In another instance, Ibn Omar who said: "When the Prophet (r) entered Mecca, he found the body of a dead woman. He said that that woman was not to be fought and forbade killing women and children".

Of the splendour of Islamic morals is the advice of Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, to Yazid, in his expedition to Al Sham,(7) "Do not kill a child, a woman or an aged person. You will pass by people who retained themselves in hermitages, leave them to their own devices until Allah takes up their lives in such a state of misguidance. Oh, Yazid! Do not kill a child, a woman, or an aged person. Do not destroy an inhabited area, sterilise fruitful trees, kill a riding animal, or a sheep (save to eat), burn or sink palm trees, defraud or be a coward. The Prophet (r) has forbidden starving animals to death."

8- Islam extends care to war captives. When the captive surrenders his weapon, he acquires the protection granted to weak people. War is not intended to subjugate or humiliate man, but it is rather intended to be the last resort, in the cause of establishing right and justice, when dialogues fail between Moslems and others. Of sublime care extended to the captives:

a. Separation between mothers or fathers and their children, as well as between brothers, in captivity is not allowed. The Prophet (r) was quoted saying; “A mother is not to be aggrieved with separation from her child."

b. Islam has considered that feeding the captive is an approximation to Allah, as He says

(ويطعمون الطعام على حبه مسكينا ويتيما وأسيرا. إنما نطعمكم لوجه الله لا نريد منكم جزاءا ولا شكورا)

"They give food for the love of Allah, to the indigent, the orphan, and the captive: (saying) 'We feed you only for the sake of Allah; we desire no recompense from you, no thankfulness'." (76:8-9)

So, social and medical care is a right to the captives. After the battle of Badr, the Prophet (r) commanded his followers to honour the captives. So, they served them their meals first.

c. Islam did not neglect the psychic care of the captives. After the battle of Khaibar, Bilal passed by two Jewish female captives crying over the bodies of their people. The Prophet (r) blamed him saying; "Are you deprived of mercy, Bilal, as you pass by two women crying over the dead bodies of their men?" Thus, kindness and justice are extended to non Moslems, either be they in the lands of Islam or on fields of battle between right and wrong.
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