03-29-2007, 12:30 PM
The following is piece of excellent research by a sister on the narration of malik dar and how it was understood by the ulema:
Bismillah, wal-hamdulillah was-salatu was-salamu 'ala Rasulillah.
I have come across many discussion regarding the narration of Malik al Dar about tawassul, and all of them were concentrating on the "authenticiy" of the narration, discussing its chain.
But I haven't come across any discussions on the text of the hadith itself, the story.
Except for some quotes here and there from some current shaikhs, sited in ahl alhadith forum, and those 2 or 3 points mentioned by those shaikhs led me to search on the text and story of the hadith in classical books of past scholars, and I have found it very interesting and informative.
The things I discovered and read show a totally different understanding of the narration, than what is understood by many shaikhs of today, it only needs for one to go deep and see where the scholars of the past quoted the narration, in which chapter and what they said before quoting it to understand the real meaning of the hadith.
To make the story short, I will go straight to the points that I have regarding the text and story of this narration of Malik al Dar.
Note: this narration is used by Sufis as evidence for tawassul that is asking the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) to make duaa to Allah for them AFTER HIS DEATH.
The text of the narration:
It is related from Malik al-Dar, `Umar's treasurer, that the people suffered a drought during the time of `Umar (his khilafah), whereupon a man came to the grave of the Prophet and said:
"O Messenger of Allah, ask for rain for your Community, for verily they have but perished," after which the Prophet appeared to him in a dream and told him: "Go to `Umar and give him my greeting, then tell him that they will be watered. Tell him: You must be clever, you must be clever!"
The man went and told `Umar. The latter said: "O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!""
1_ The ones who use this hadith for this type of tawassul say that Umar radiyallahu anhu did not rebuke the man who did istisqa' at the grave.
Reply: There is no clear evidence in the hadith that the man told Umar of him going to the grave, but clearly he did tell him of the dream, telling him the message of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
so to say that he told him about his istisqa' at the grave is an assumption, and we cannot use assumptions as evidence.
2_ What Imams of Hadith and other Imams understood this hadith to mean:
a. al Hafidh Ibn Hajar al Asqalani -rahimahu Allah- in his books "Fath al Bari":
He sites it in the chapter "The people asking the Imam to do istisqa' in times of drought", in the chapter heading section, in which he quotes hadiths that have relevance to the chapter heading, and that connect it with hadiths that come under that chapter.
And amongest those narrations he mentions the narration of Malik al Dar, and he only quotes part of the narration, he stops at "go to Umar", he used this as evidence that people ask the Imam to do istisqa for them in times of drought. He didn't mention the rest of the hadith because it has nothing to do with the chapter heading, he only quoted what he believed fits the chapters title, for he says at the end of the section, after mentioning this narration:
ظَهَرَ بِهَذَا كُلّه مُنَاسَبَة التَّرْجَمَة لِأَصْلِ هَذِهِ الْقِصَّة أَيْضًا وَاَللَّه الْمُوَفِّق .
"From all of this appears the relevance of the chapter heading to the origin of this story"
so, al Hafidh Ibn Hajar rahimahu Allah understood from this hadith that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was directing the man to go ask the Imam, during that time (Umar radiyallahu anhu), to do istisqa' for them.
b. al Hafidh Ibn Kathir -rahimahu Allah-:
He sites it in his book "al Bidayah wan Nihaya", in which he mentions some narrations, right before he mentions Malik ad Dar's narration, that explain the meaning of the narration.
The narrations before it are by Sayf Ibn Umar, and in them is the mentioning of Umar radiyallahu anhu, after hearing about the man's dream (who is said to be Bilal al Harith), asking the people on the minbar if they have seen anything bad from him, and then he tells them about the dream that the Bilal saw, so they told him: "Bilal has spoken the truth, so make istiqatha (seek or ask for help) to Allah, then the Muslims". So then Umar radiyallahu anhu does istisqa' through al Abbas radiyallahu anhu.
and in the second narration, they said "he found you slow in doing istisqa', so do istisqa' for us ", so he did.
(Note: these 2 narrations could be weak, but the point is that al Hafidh Ibn Kathir rahimahu Allah mentioned them right before the narration of Malik, showing what it is about, and means, which shows what he understood it to mean, same as what Ibn Hajar (r A) understood from it).
c. Shihab adDeen Abdur Rahman bin Askar al Baghdadi al Maliki (d. 732) in his book "Irshad as-Salik ila Ashraf al Masalik fi fiqh al Imam Malik":
He sited it in chapter of (istisqa' - asking for rain), in which he said (before siting the narration of Malik al Dar):
ويستحب الاستشفاع بأهل الخير والصلاح وأهل بيت النبوة
"and it is recommanded/liked to do istishfa' (intercession)
by righteous/pious people, and ahl al bayt"
Then he quotes the narration that is in sahih, the tawassul of Umar through al Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma), and right after it he says "and Ibn Abi Shayba narrated", and quotes Malik ad Dar's narration.
so this clearly shows that he used the narration of Malik as evidence for "doing istishfa' through ahl al bayt, for al Abbas ra was the uncle f the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and the dream the man saw, was guiding him to ask Umar to do istisqa' for the people, in which he did it through al Abbas radiyallahu anhu
d. Ala' ad Deen Ali al Mutaqi al Hindi al Burhan Furi (d. 975) in his book "Kanz al Ummal":
He sites it in chapter of (salat al Istisqa' - prayer for rain), which shows that the narration of Malik is connected to narration about tawassul by al Abbas, in which Umar did salat al istisqa' (prayer for rain).
Thus the narration of Malik is understood by Allama Mutaqi Hindi to mean what the other Imams (above) understood it to mean.
so we get from all of this, that the story of Malik al Dar's narration is connected to the hadith about Umar's tawassul through al Abbas.
all leading to doing istisqa' through the living, and not through the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam after his death.
3_ There are narrations of the same story, with an addition, if they are authentic (the authenticiy is not known to me so far), they would give very strong support to the understanding of the above scholars.
and it also shows what the scholars who sited the narrations believed the narration to mean.
a. Imam Ibn Abd al Bar al Maliki in his book "al Isti'ab fi ma'rifat al As-hab":
أصاب الناس قحط في زمن عمر فجاء رجل إلى قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: يا رسول الله استسق لأمتك فإنهم قد هلكوا. قال: فأتاه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في المنام، وقال: " إيت عمر فمره أن يستسقي للناس، فإنهم سيسقون، وقل له: عليك الكيس الكيس " . فأتى الرجل عمر فأخبره، فبكى عمر، وقال: يا رب، ما آلو إلا ما عجزت عنه يا رب ما آلو إلا ما عجزت عنه
The people suffered a drought during the time of 'Umar (his khilafah), whereupon a man came to the grave of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and said:"O Messenger of Allah, ask for rain for your Community, for verily they have but perished," after which the Prophet appeared to him in a dream and told him: "Go to 'Umar then tell him to do istisqa' (ask Allah for rain) for the people, and that they will be watered. And tell him: You must be clever, you must be clever!" So, the man went and told 'Umar, and Umar cried and said "O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!"
b. Abu Ja'far Ahmad Abdullah at Tabari (d. 694 ) in his book "ar Riyadh an Nadhirah fi Manaqib al Ashara":
ذكر إحالته صلى الله عليه وسلم من سأله
في منامه الدعاء عليه
عن أنس بن مالك قال: أصاب الناس قحط في زمن عمر فجاء رجل إلى قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال يا رسول الله استسق لأمتك فإنهم قد هلكوا، قال فأتاه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في المنام. وقال: " أئت عمر فمره أن يستسقي للناس فإنهم سيسقون، وقل له عليك الكيس الكيس " . فأتى الرجل عمر فأخبره فبكى عمر وقال: يا رب ما آلو إلا ما عجزت عنه، خرجه البغوي في الفضائل وأبو عمر.
Anas bin Malik narrated:
The people suffered drought during Umar's time, whereupon a man came to teh grave of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), and said: "O Messenger of Allah, ask for rain for your community, for verily they have but perished,", he said so the Messenger of Allah came to him in a dream and told him "Go to 'Umar then tell him to do istisqa' (ask Allah for rain) for the people, and that they will be watered. And tell him: You must be clever, you must be clever!" So, the man went and told 'Umar, and Umar cried and said "O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!".
narrated by al Baghawi in al fada'il and Abu Umar.
4_ It didn't rain until after Umar radiyallahu anhu made istisqa' by al Abbas radiyallahu anhum, in which he made duaa to Allah for rain.
If the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam was capable or had permission to do du'aa to Allah after his death, when asked by others, then the rain would have come down the same day the man asked him for istisqa'.
But the sky didn't rain until after Umar made isitisqa' by al Abbas radiyallahu anhuma, immediatly after.
this shows that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, was guiding the man too ask the Imam to do istisqa' and not him, hinting to Umar by saying to him "be clever!", and when Umar did istisqa' by al Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma) the sky rained.
5_ If going to the grave of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam to ask him to make duaa to Allah was permissable, Umar radiyallahu anhu would have done that when wanting to do istisqa' instead of doing it through the uncle of the Messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, who was alive, and Umar's (r.a) saying "we used to make tawassul through your Prophet's duaa, and now we do tawassul through the uncle of your Prophet...", indicates that they don't make tawassul through the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam anymore (after his death), and only when he was alive
Ibn Abi Ahmed
03-29-2007, 04:18 PM
Excellent brother. Jazakillah Khayr. Don't mind if I quote a post of yours from IA:
Tahirul Qadri says in his book "Islamic concept of Intermediation" when discussing the narration of Malik Dar: "Ibn Taymiyyah has endorsed its authenticity in his book Iqtidā’-us-sirāt-il-mustaqīm mukhālifat ashāb-il-jahīm (p.373)"
Sheikh Yasir Qadhi exposes this lie in the following link:
Also i heard that Imam Ibn Taymiyyah in Iqtida as-Sirat al Mustaqim p. 373 has authenticated the narration. he said "he was personally aware of such incidents" when he was referring to a man visiting the grave of nabi saw.
I would be grateful if you check this up. jazakallah
Subhan Allah... never ever trust anything you read from the people of innovation. How many times have I personally come across their misquoting and even blatant lying against the scholars of Islam, wAllahu al-Musta'aan.
This statement is such a gross exaggeration; almost unbelievable! Shaykh al-Islaam, in this work, dedicates over 150 pages in refuting the concept that certain places, such as graves, should be taken as places of worship. He has an excellent discusison of the hadeeth of the Prophet salla Alllahu alayhi wa salam in which he said, "Do not take my grave as a place of regular visitation..." and he also mentions numerous athaar from the early scholars (including two great-grandsons of the beloved Rasool) who forbade turning the blessed qabr into a place of worship. And he explains that the reason for this is NOT because the people in these graves do not deserve respect, but rather because it is the primary stepping stone to shirk. He also disucussed the numerous ahadeeth that the Prophet said on his death bed cursing the people of other religions when they took the graves of their prophets as places of worship.
(Side note here: notice as I've said many times before, Ahl as-Sunnah base their religion on Quran and hadeeth. Even if it is mentioned that some unknown person came to the grave of the beloved Rasool and made du'aa to Allah, the blessed Prophet himself forbade this, in his life! One needs to ponder over *WHY* the Prophet salla Alllahu alayhi wa salam, on his death bed, made numerous references to other religions who deviated in this regard; on why he made a du'aa, on his death bed, 'O Allah, do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped' )
Then, Ibn Taymiyyah begins explaining some of the evidences that are used by these people to justify their deviant practices, and of course of these evidences is this story.
Ibn Taymiyyah *DOES NOT* anywhere pronounce a verdict on the authenticity of this narration; rather he actually hints at its inauthenticity by using the phrase 'wa yurwa'. As the student of hadeeth knows, when a muhaddith says, 'yurwa' (it has been narrated) this usually is a sign that it is not authentic. However, as I said, Ibn Taymiyyah DOES NOT explicitly pronounce any verdict on this narration.
He then states that this story does not prove what they are trying to prove, simply because the action of an unknown person cannot be used to establish a precedent or belief in our religion. He explains that it is possible that such an instance can occur to someone even other than the Rasool, and he then says, '...and I personally know such instances,' meaning that he knows of people who have made du'aa to Allah at the graves of other people and seen their du'aas responded to. He then states that the fact that such a du'aa is responded to DOES NOT imply that it is recommened to make du'aa there, how can it (he says) when the Prophet salla Alllahu alayhi wa salam himself forbade them from doing so? Rather, sometimes Allah responds to poeple's du'aas merely becuase He knows their state and situation, and He realizes that it is in their best interest to respond.
Shaykh al-Islam also says that much has been narrated of miraculous occurrences around graves; of Allah protecting the graves of prophets, and punishing those who try to harm them, and of some poeple seeing lights over them, and of animals and beasts of prey being diverted away from them, and he states, '...and the basis of this (protection) is true.... and the actual sanctity that these places occupy in the sight of Allah is even greater than what most of men can realize, and this is not the place to discuss this issue in detail, BUT ALL OF THIS DOES NOT NECISSITATE THAT PRAYER , OR DU'AA, OR ACTS OF WORSHIP BE DONE AT THESE LOCATIONS."
And he continues discussing this in greater detail.
The point is that no Muslim can ever deny the sanctity and holiness of the blessed grave, but this is a separate issue from travelling to visit it and intending to make du'aa at it (much less TO it). And perhaps it has indeed occurred that throughout the history of Islam some du'aas have miraculously been accepted at such locations, and this is something that Ibn Taymiyyah is not denying, but again this does not mean we should make a point of going there. Ibn Taymiyyah points out that this act has not been narrated by any of the scholars of the pious predecessors, in fact quite the opposite has been narrated. He also points out that the early scholars of the four mad-habs all held the same opinion - that du'aa should not be made facing the grave.
And he goes on and on in his usual academic style...
I hope that clarifies this issue, wa Allah ta'3ala alam.
03-29-2007, 04:29 PM
Masha'allah!! Baarkallahu Feekuma for providing such excellent information. Right when I'm teaching the Chapter of prohibition of invocation at the graves.
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