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جوري
01-16-2008, 05:50 PM
Charles Q. Choi
Special to SPACE.com
SPACE.com
Fri Jan 11, 11:02 AM ET



Antimatter, which annihilates matter upon contact, seems to be rare in the universe. Still, for decades, scientists had clues that a vast cloud of antimatter lurked in space, but they did not know where it came from.




The mysterious source of this antimatter has now been discovered — stars getting ripped apart by neutron stars and black holes.




While antimatter propulsion systems are so far the stuff of science fiction, antimatter is very real.




What it is




All elementary particles, such as protons and electrons, have antimatter counterparts with the same mass but the opposite charge. For instance, the antimatter opposite of an electron, known as a positron, is positively charged.




When a particle meets its antiparticle, they destroy each other, releasing a burst of energy such as gamma rays. In 1978, gamma ray detectors flown on balloons detected a type of gamma ray emerging from space that is known to be emitted when electrons collide with positrons — meaning there was antimatter in space.




"It was quite a surprise back then to discover part of the universe was made of antimatter," researcher Gerry Skinner, an astrophysicist at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., told SPACE.com.




These gamma rays apparently came from a cloud of antimatter roughly 10,000 light-years across surrounding our galaxy's core. This giant cloud shines brightly with gamma rays, with about the energy of 10,000 suns.




What exactly generated the antimatter was a mystery for the following decades. Suspects have included everything from exploding stars to dark matter.



Now, an international research team looking over four years of data from the European Space Agency's International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) satellite has pinpointed the apparent culprits. Their new findings suggest these positrons originate mainly from stars getting devoured by black holes and neutron stars.


As a black hole or neutron star destroys a star, tremendous amounts of radiation are released. Just as electrons and positrons emit the tell-tale gamma rays upon annihilation, so too can gamma rays combine to form electrons and positrons, providing the mechanism for the creation of the antimatter cloud, scientists think.


Billions and billions


The researchers calculate that a relatively ordinary star getting torn apart by a black hole or neutron star orbiting around it — a so-called "low mass X-ray binary" — could spew on the order of one hundred thousand billion billion billion billion positrons (a 1 followed by 41 zeroes) per second. These could account for a great deal of the antimatter that scientists have inferred, reducing or potentially eliminating the need for exotic explanations such as ones involving dark matter.


"Simple estimates suggest that about half and possibly all the antimatter is coming from X-ray binaries," said researcher Georg Weidenspointner of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany.


Now that they have witnessed the death of antimatter, the scientists hope to see its birth.


"It would be interesting if black holes produced more matter than neutron stars, or vice versa, although it's too early to say one way or the other right now," Skinner explained. "It can be surprisingly hard to tell the difference between an X-ray binaries that hold black holes and neutron stars."


Weidenspointner, Skinner and their colleagues, detailed their findings in the Jan. 10 issue of the journal Nature.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/space/200801...ntimatterfound
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Woodrow
01-16-2008, 11:16 PM
:sl:

Of course that got me wondering about what in the Qu'ran might relate to the existence of ant-matter. this comes to mind.


84: 1. When the heaven is split asunder Y S C

84: 2. And attentive to her Lord in fear, Y S C
84: 3. And when the earth is spread out Y S C
84: 4. And hath cast out all that was in her, and is empty Y S

84: 5. And attentive to her Lord in fear! Y S C
84: 6. Thou, verily, O man, art working toward thy Lord a work which thou wilt meet (in His presence). Y S C
84: 7. Then whoso is given his account in his right hand Y S C
84: 8. He truly will receive an easy reckoning Y S

84: 9. And will return unto his folk in joy. Y S C
84:10. But whoso is given his account behind his back, Y S C
84:11. He surely will invoke destruction Y S C
84:12. And be thrown to scorching fire. Y S

84:13. He verily lived joyous with his folk, Y S C
84:14. He verily deemed that he would never return (unto Allah). Y S C
84:15. Nay, but lo! his Lord is ever looking on him! Y S
84:16. Oh, I swear by the afterglow of sunset, Y S C

84:17. And by the night and all that it enshroudeth, Y S C
84:18. And by the moon when she is at the full, Y S C
84:19. That ye shall journey on from plane to plane. Y S C
84:20. What aileth them, then, that they believe not Y S C

84:21. And, when the Qur'an is recited unto them, worship not (Allah)? Y S C
84:22. Nay, but those who disbelieve will deny; Y S
84:23. And Allah knoweth best what they are hiding. Y S
84:24. So give them tidings of a painful doom, Y S
84:25. Save those who believe and do good works, for theirs is a reward unfailing. Y S C

Pickthal's Quran Translation
Perhaps, perhaps not. but, a very interesting thought to contemplate.
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The_Prince
01-16-2008, 11:35 PM
wrong, they arent black-holes, the ones who are taking down the stars are a group known as Al-Qaeda in the Heavens, similar to Al-Qaeda in Iraq, and Al-Qaeda in Algeria.......

they are taking down the stars.....official from fox news.
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جوري
01-17-2008, 12:04 AM
Originally Posted by Woodrow
:sl:

Of course that got me wondering about what in the Qu'ran might relate to the existence of ant-matter. this comes to mind.


Perhaps, perhaps not. but, a very interesting thought to contemplate.
I received this article in an email from a respected colleague today with the underlined message in the subject matter

(************@yahoo.com) has sent you a news article.
(Email address has not been verified.)
------------------------------------------------------------
Personal message:

GOD is such a genius

Source of Mysterious Antimatter Found - Yahoo! News

http://news.yahoo.com/s/space/200801...ntimatterfound
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guyabano
01-17-2008, 07:54 AM
It sounds a little bit futuristic, but Antimatter might be the source of energy of the future, an abundant energy source.
Also, based upon theories of Stephen Hawkins, Space is not linear, but also 'bow down' to gravity fields and black wholes, means concentration of antimatter.
Black wholes might be the solution to travel in space much faster than lightspeed which means again travel in time.

Anyway, it's a little bit, what happens in Starship Enterprise. The Warp Bubble around the ship is nothing more than an antimatterfield, which is able to bend the linearity of space means again travel much faster than lightspeed.

Here are two interesting links concerning Antimatter:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimatter
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_hawkins
http://www.anti-matter.org/
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جوري
01-17-2008, 08:05 AM
pretty cool...
I found this related to time travel, from same link above, and I guess it relates to one of the threads in this section not a few days/weeks ago.. the future will prove interesting one way or the other :coolalien



You Can't Travel Back in Time, Scientists SayBy Sara Goudarzi, LiveScience Staff Writer

posted: 07 March 2007 09:01 am ET


The urge to hug a departed loved one again or prevent atrocities are among the compelling reasons that keep the notion of time travel alive in the minds of many.

While the idea makes for great fiction, some scientists now say traveling to the past is impossible.



Can You Time Travel?
The joys, terrors and true possibilities of navigating the fourth dimension, with quantum physicist Michio Kaku and astrophysicist Charles Liu.

How to Time Travel!
How can you swim upstream in the river of time? Liu and Kaku have some answers.


There are a handful of scenarios that theorists have suggested for how one might travel to the past, said Brian Greene, author of the bestseller, “The Elegant Universe” and a physicist at Columbia University.“And almost all of them, if you look at them closely, brush up right at the edge of physics as we understand it. Most of us think that almost all of them can be ruled out.”



In physics, time is described as a dimension much like length, width, and height. When you travel from your house to the grocery store, you’re traveling through a direction in space, making headway in all the spatial dimensions—length, width and height. But you’re also traveling forward in time, the fourth dimension.

“Space and time are tangled together in a sort of a four-dimensional fabric called space-time,” said Charles Liu, an astrophysicist with the City University of New York, College of Staten Island and co-author of the book “One Universe: At Home In The Cosmos.”

Space-time, Liu explains, can be thought of as a piece of spandex with four dimensions. “When something that has mass—you and I, an object, a planet, or any star—sits in that piece of four-dimensional spandex, it causes it to create a dimple,” he said. “That dimple is a manifestation of space-time bending to accommodate this mass.”

The bending of space-time causes objects to move on a curved path and that curvature of space is what we know as gravity.

Mathematically one can go backwards or forwards in the three spatial dimensions. But time doesn’t share this multi-directional freedom.

“In this four-dimensional space-time, you’re only able to move forward in time,” Liu told LiveScience.



A handful of proposals exist for time travel. The most developed of these approaches involves a wormhole—a hypothetical tunnel connecting two regions of space-time. The regions bridged could be two completely different universes or two parts of one universe. Matter can travel through either mouth of the wormhole to reach a destination on the other side.



“Wormholes are the future, wormholes are the past,” said Michio Kaku, author of “Hyperspace” and “Parallel Worlds” and a physicist at the City University of New York. “But we have to be very careful. The gasoline necessary to energize a time machine is far beyond anything that we can assemble with today’s technology.”

To punch a hole into the fabric of space-time, Kaku explained, would require the energy of a star or negative energy, an exotic entity with an energy of less than nothing.

Greene, an expert on string theory—which views matter in a minimum of 10 dimensions and tries to bridge the gap between particle physics and nature's fundamental forces, questioned this scenario.

“Many people who study the subject doubt that that approach has any chance of working,” Greene said in an interview . “But the basic idea if you’re very, very optimistic is that if you fiddle with the wormhole openings, you can make it not only a shortcut from a point in space to another point in space, but a shortcut from one moment in time to another moment in time.”



Another popular theory for potential time travelers involves something called cosmic strings—narrow tubes of energy stretched across the entire length of the ever-expanding universe. These skinny regions, leftover from the early cosmos, are predicted to contain huge amounts of mass and therefore could warp the space-time around them.

Cosmic strings are either infinite or they’re in loops, with no ends, said J. Richard Gott, author of “Time Travel in Einstein's Universe” and an astrophysicist at Princeton University. “So they are either like spaghetti or SpaghettiO’s.”

The approach of two such strings parallel to each other, said Gott, will bend space-time so vigorously and in such a particular configuration that might make time travel possible, in theory.

“This is a project that a super civilization might attempt,” Gott told LiveScience. “It’s far beyond what we can do. We’re a civilization that’s not even controlling the energy resources of our planet.”

Impossible, for now

Mathematically, you can certainly say something is traveling to the past, Liu said. “But it is not possible for you and me to travel backward in time,” he said.



However, some scientists believe that traveling to the past is, in fact, theoretically possible, though impractical.

Maybe if there were a theory of everything, one could solve all of Einstein’s equations through a wormhole, and see whether time travel is really possible, Kaku said. “But that would require a technology far more advanced than anything we can muster," he said. "Don’t expect any young inventor to announce tomorrow in a press release that he or she has invented a time machine in their basement.”

For now, the only definitive part of travel in the fourth dimension is that we’re stepping further into the future with each passing moment. So for those hoping to see Earth a million years from now, scientists have good news.

“If you want to know what the Earth is like one million years from now, I’ll tell you how to do that,” said Greene, a consultant for “Déjà Vu,” a recent movie that dealt with time travel. “Build a spaceship. Go near the speed of light for a length of time—that I could calculate. Come back to Earth, and when you step out of your ship you will have aged perhaps one year while the Earth would have aged one million years. You would have traveled to Earth’s future


http://www.livescience.com/technolog...me_travel.html
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guyabano
01-17-2008, 08:49 AM
Give 2 persons a clock. You synchronize them perfectly, let's say, it's an atomic clock. You put one person in a rocket with one clock onboard an let it travel close to light speed for a day (since lightspeed is actually not possible), the other stay on earth. Once, back to earth, you compare the 2 clocks, and you will notice, that the clock which travelled in space show a few seconds behind the clock which stayed on earth.
Conclusion: Travelling with (nearby) lightspeed makes the time pass slowier or even you can pretend, you are able to travel in time ! Now focus this one a higher speed than lightspeed. What will happen? Nobody can say that yet precisely as we are ot able to do it yet.
And antimatter is an important element in these discoveries.
Now, if you can travel back in time, don't know that.
But the more, science progress, the more the variable 'time' play an important role in those equations, when it comes to antimatter.

This is an very interesting read: http://www.astronomytoday.com/cosmology/gravity.html

and here you can see, how gravity can bend space: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/stra...l/gravity.html

Now if you focus that on antimatter, which is much more powerful than gravity, you can 'create' a wormwhole. This means you can travel from A to B by using a very huge shortcut
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root
01-17-2008, 08:50 AM
Of course like any science, the title should read Probable source of mysterious antimatter found. We still do not know enough about our universe.

In reference to time travel, I often ponder;

If time travel is possible, where are they?

Why do people upon seeing bright lights and round orbs travelling at speed look up and say "Hey, look at that time machine"?

If time travel is possible and we don't have evidence of time travellers, does that mean mankind went extinct?

Just random thoughts
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Keltoi
01-20-2008, 02:33 PM
Originally Posted by root
Of course like any science, the title should read Probable source of mysterious antimatter found. We still do not know enough about our universe.

In reference to time travel, I often ponder;

If time travel is possible, where are they?

Why do people upon seeing bright lights and round orbs travelling at speed look up and say "Hey, look at that time machine"?

If time travel is possible and we don't have evidence of time travellers, does that mean mankind went extinct?

Just random thoughts
Ouch...interesting perspective.
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