:sl: brother Muslim knight,
Sorry for the delayed response.
As for Question 1, he refuted
You need to watch your terminoloy, brother. Refute means that he has completely proven my assertions to be false. Having read his responses, it is quite clear that he may have responded
to my assertions, but he has clearly not refuted
On to his responses (or rather what he has copied and pasted from other websites)...
With regards to Uzayr, he has only pasted a response to the Islamic-Awareness site. He has not responded at all to the quote that I gave from Muhammad Asad, a former Jew himself
, who pointed out that, as mentioned in At-Tabari's tafsir, some Jews came to the Prophet Muhammad pbuh and said, "How can we follow you when you do not believe Uzayr is the son of God?". Noice that the Qur'an doesn't say that the Jews believe
Uzayr is the son of God, but the Qur'an is very precise in saying that the Jews say
Uzayr is the son of God. Thus, it cannot be a contradiction in any way since the Qur'an is only responding to the verbal proclamation of a group of Jews!
Also interesting is Dr. Muhammad Mohar Ali's comments on this issue:
Of course there is no evidence in the extant Old Testament about it; but the Qur'an was not referring to what is written in the Old Testament about 'Uzayr but to the belief and assertion of some of the Jews of the time who regarded 'Uzayr as the son of God. In fact the 'ayah in question, 9:30, starts with the expression: "And the Jews say". The commentator Al-Baydawi, to whome Watt refers a number of times in his book, (fn. Watt, Muhammad's Mecca, 108, note 2 to Chapter 1 and notes 2 and 10 to Chapter III) makes it clear with reference to this 'ayah that because the Old Testament was given its present form by 'Uzayr, many of the Jews of the time considered him a "son of God" and that specifically at Madina there was a group of Jews who held that belief. Al-Baydawi futher points out that the 'ayah in question was read out and recited as usual but no Madinan Jew came forward with a contradiction (fn.Al-Baydawi, Tafsir, I, second Egyptian impression, 1968, p. 412). It is to be noted that this 'ayah is unanimously regarded as Madinan. Hence the silence of the Jews of the place on the matter is suggestive enough, particularly as they were avowed critics of the Prophet.
Not only Al-Baydawi but also other commentators mention that the 'ayah refers to the views of a particular group of the Jews. For instance, Al-Tabari bives a number of reports together with their chains of narrators specifically mentioning the leading Jews of Madina who considered Uzayr a son of God. The most prominent of those Jews were Finhas, Sullam ibn Mishkam, Nu'man ibn Awfa, Sha's ibn Qays and Malik ibn al-Sayf (fn. Al-Tabari, Tafsir, XIV, 201-204). Similarly, Al-Qurtubi mentions the same fact and the same names adding that the expression "the Jews" occuring at the beginning of the 'ayah means "some particular Jews", just as the expression "people told them" (qala lahum al-nas) means not all the people of the world but some particular people. He further says that the Jewish sect who held that 'Uzayr was God's son had become extinct by his (Al-Qurtubi's) time (fn. Al-Qurtubi, Tafsir, Pt. VIII, 116-117). (Muhammad Mohar Ali, The Qur'an and the Orientalists, Jam'iyat 'Ihyaa' Minhaaj Al-Sunnah 2004, p. 66)
So as for what he quotes,
Notice the words "proposed" and "assumption". There are no records from any Jewish community that believed Ezra was the Son of God!
First of all, this is the fallacy of argumentum ad ignorantium
which we can refute with the expression, "absence of proof is not proof of absence". In other words, just because we don't have historical evidence that shows that some Jews believed this, does not prove that no Jews ever believed this!
Secondly, as was previously mentioned, there are specific historical narrations related by Qur'anic commentators like Al-Baydawi and At-Tabari which state the names of specific Jewish leaders who came forward to the Muslims and said "We cannot believe you since you do not accept Uzayr as the son of God". And notice that the Qur'an doesn't say that the Jews believed
Uzayr was the son of God, it says quite clearly that they said
he was the son of God. So, the Qur'an was responding to an explicit proclamation of the Jews. Either the Jews were intentionally lying, or they actually believed what they said - but in any event the Qur'an can't be wrong since the Jews of Madinah actually said
Suppose, as in the case of the Qur'an's error that Mary was a member of the Trinity, there was a heretical sect of Jews who believed that Ezra was the Son of God. An all-knowing God would know that the vast majority of the Jews DO NOT believe this. Why is the majority opinion important in this case?
The Qur'an is focused on refuting all misconceptions on God, no matter who believes in them. The Qur'an mentions the Jews alongside the Christians here because it points out that no one
is the son of God, whether they be Christ, Uzayr, Krishna, etc.
Notice that the Qur'an says "The Jews", and not "some Jews"! This wording indicates that this verse is talking about the mainstream majority of the Jewish community.
This is an example in the Qur'an where the wording is 'aam
(general) but the meaning is khaas
(specific), just like the example before, "and the people said" does not mean every person in the world.
Notice also that this passage says "The Christians" (referring to the majority of Christians) call Christ the Son of God in spite of the fact that there were heretical groups in Arabia who denied this belief.
Nevertheless, the ones the Muslims came in contact with believed this.
Since God is perfect and cannot error, He did not produce this verse. So, the question is : how did Muhammad make this error? The first possibility is that Muhammad knew nothing of Jewish theology and beliefs and either thought this in his own mind or heard it from someone else who was equally uniformed. The second, and more likely explanation, is that Muhammad knew the facts (the Jews did not regard Ezra as the Son of God) but distorted the truth to fit his needs of the moment.
The truth of the matter is that this was an actualy statement uttered by the Jewish leaders, whose names have been listed previous in the quote by Dr. Muhammad Mohar Ali.
On to the second question....
And they (the disbelievers) schemed, and Allah schemed (against them): and Allah is the best of schemers. (3:54 Pickthal)
Translation: The term "scheme" in Arabic language is 'makara' which brings the meaning of a deceiver and a scheme-planner. It is used in negative connotation. Therefore Allah is pictured as a best schemer and the excellent deceiver.
The word 'makara' does not necessitate a negative connotation. The meaning of the verse here is that the disbelievers though they could plot an evil scheme yet they failed to realize that they were already subject to God's divine plan, and God is the best of planners. I find it hilarious that a Christian is complaining about God planning in the Qur'an, whereas in the Bible it explicitly states that God deceives!
"And for this cause God shall send them strong DELUSION, that they should believe a LIE" (2 Thess. 2:11)
Explain that for us!
First: Allah 'makara' against jinns
"Then, when We decreed (Solomon's) death. nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when the Jinns saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating penalty (of their task)." (Quran, 34:14)
Allah swt allowed the Jinns to continue in their labour though Sulayman was dead in order to teach them a lesson: that only God knows the unseen and even the Jinn have limited understanding.
Second: Allah uses deception to save 'Isa alaihissalam
"That they said (in boast) " We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah - but they killed him not, nor crucified him but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for a surety they killed him not-" (Quran, 4:157)
The disbelievers sought to murder Prophet Jesus pbuh, so Allah allowed them to be confused and deceived in that matter, but the true followers of Prophet Jesus pbuh were not deceived for they were fully aware of this from before.
Third: Allah uses deception to save Muhammad
"Remember in thy dream Allah showed them to thee as few: if He had shown them to thee as many, ye would surely have been discouraged, and ye would surely have disputed in (your) decision: but Allah saved (you) for He knoweth well the (secrets) of (all) hearts" (Quran, 8:43)
This is a matter of Allah swt granting the Prophet Muhammad pbuh courage and protecting Him. This is not deception because the Prophet Muhammad pbuh was receiving revelation from Allah, such as the above verse.
But we find other verse in which Allah says;
"And cover not Truth, with falsehood, nor conceal the Truth when ye know (what it is)." (Quran, 2:42)
This is a command for human beings not to distort the revelation of God.
This is a prayer straight towards Allah, and this is supposed to be eternal du'a that is a prayer which was present before Creation. In this clear view, this either means that Quran is living personal entity different from Allah, since it is praying to Allah, or Allah in the sense that He is praying to Himself since time immemorial. If this position is true then it shows that there are two different eternal entities, Allah and Quran, meaning there are two Gods if there is no other god or Allah is present in a multitude within Himself (as in Trinity).
This confusion is clarified in the following article by Dr. Ali Ataie:
According to Geisler and Saleeb, Islam's conception of the Qur'an is exactly identical to the Christian concept of Christ as the Divine Logos. They contend that Muslims should have no scruples in accepting the divinity of Christ as the second person of a triune deity, since Muslims claim the same about the Qur'an.
To elaborate further, the Qur'an is the UNCREATED word of God (according to Sunni Orthodox Muslims as opposed to the Shia or Mu'tazilite position) and His final revelation. The Qur'an, not the physical book but rather the words themselves, are inseparable from God.
Christian fundamentalists like the two mentioned above maintain that Christ too is uncreated and cannot be separated from God in his nature, as well as His final revelation. Therefore, Muslims worship the Qur'an as the second entity in their godhead just as Christians worship Jesus as the second person in their godhead!
This very weak argument smells of guilt on the side of the Christian because he knows that he has made a religion for himself that in no way resembles the true spirit of what Christ taught.
After years and years of trying to justify and qualify the trinity as the "one true God," the Christian has resorted to the tactic of pointing the finger outward toward the Muslims of all people! In order to understand the position of the Qur'an in relation to the so-called "divinty" of Jesus, we must examine more closely the Muslim concept of God.
According to the Qur'an, the God of Islam has 99 attributes called asma-ul-husna. These attributes or names are NOT the essence of the Almighty, but only a reflection of His essence or nature. For instance, the attribute of Mercy, Ar-Rahman, is a title God uses for Himself many times in the Qur'an.
We as human beings can conceive of some one acting in a very Merciful way towards us. When we examine, however, the nature around us, the endless sustenance of all creatures, our gifts of sight, sound, and smell, our loving and fruitful relationships with other human beings, and our faculties of understanding and reason, can we possibly grasp the true meaning and all encompassing significance of God's title Ar-Rahman? Certianly not!
Therefore, the attributes of God are really reflections of His true Essence and Nature, a nature that no human mind can grasp. They (the attributes) are NOT the Essence itself. According to Christian theology, God's Essence(s) are/is His attribute(s). Therefore, because God showed love for all of humanity by sending his "Son" to die a criminal's death, God IS Love. Because God bestows mercy in difficult times, He IS Mercy.
This of course is extremely problematic and very contradictory. If God's essence IS His attribute, then since He also created evil, He must be Evil! If God's essence IS His atttribute, then since He also punishes sinners and is Wrathful, God IS Wrath! Muslims would rather believe that God is lovING, and MerciFUL, and WrathFUL.
The Christian quest for the Divine Essence of the Almighty arises from his insatiable infatuation with his Lord. Instead of searching out what God requires, or what He Wills, the Christian tries to ascertain what God is. This foolish journey will get him nowhere, if not move him backwards. He believes in One God, yet claims that this ONE Essence or Nature, appeared in three distinct and separate persons, namely, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Geisler claims that since Jesus is the Word of God and His uncreated divine revelation, he bears no difference to Islam and their holy book, the Qur'an. Therefore, he contends, Muslims are not really monotheistic but bitheistic! Simply put, he says the Muslim belief toward the Qur'an is IDENTICAL to the Christian belief toward Jesus. To counter this argument, one must have a basic understanding of Christian theology.
According to Christianity, Jesus is a "separate and distinct person" from the Father and Holy Spirit. No Muslim however, regardless of denomination or philosophy, will put forward the claim that the Qur'an is a "separate and distinct person or entity" from God, the Creator, the Most High, the All-Knowing, etc.
Secondly, the Christian fails to comprehend WHY the Qur'an is so highly esteemed. The Qur'an certainly is not a separate and distinct reveletion OF a single Essence, but rather it is a reflection or revelation emanating FROM that single Essence -- It is the Speech of God (Kalam), not God the Speech.
Just as the attribute of Mercy cannot be separated from God, His Speech cannot be either. In this sense, the Islamic conception of Jesus as a word from God is justified and the Christian notion of Jesus as God the Word is exploded. (God said "Kun," an uncreated Word that initiated the creation of Jesus. Jesus is not THE Word, but rather resulted FROM the Word)
In the Qur'an Jesus is called "Kalimatullah," a word FROM God. The Qur'an is called "Kallamullah," the Word OF God.
The Christian however, contends that Islam's God is only viewed as Good because He DOES good. Whereas, the Christian God does good because He IS Good. Again, this line of reasoning leads to many unexplained questions when it comes to the problem of evil in the world (theodicy). If God Wills evil, then is He evil? Yes, according to Christians. In Islam however, if God Wills evil, HE certainly is not evil!
The Christian finds fault with the Qur'an calling God by 99 names and attributes and claims that in Islam God is just as Merciful as He is Destructive; He is 1/99 Just, and 1/99 Great, and 1/99 the Punisher, and 1/99 the Vengeful, etc. (!!!)
Again, the Christian mind has failed to realize the importance of these names in the Qur'an. Obviously, God has laid much more stress on His Attributes of Compassion and Mercy. 113 of the 114 chapters of the Qur'an begin with the refrain, "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful."
God reveals in the Qur'an, "He has inscribed the Law of Mercy upon Himself." Clearly, the dominating attribute of God in Islam is His abounding Mercy. (SOURCE
Does Allah make prayer?
In Sura 33:056
“Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect.”
The phrase “send blessings” was originally “pray upon”. The translator didn’t think it is appropriate to say that God and His Angels would pray upon (inferring praying to) the prophet Mohamed, so he had to change it to “send blessings.”
This is an example of the difficulty translators sometimes face when trying to literarily translate the Quran, and how they have to deviate from the original text to present something that makes sense. We are not trying to say here that Muslims believe that God or Muslims pray to Mohammed
Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi writes:
The word “salah” literally means “to come close and near”. It is used in the Qur’an for prayers as well as for blessings. Through our salah or prayers we try to come closer to Allah with submission and surrender. Allah also draws near to His Prophet and the believers through His blessings.
In the Qur’an it is also mentioned that Allah sends “salah” on the Prophet (Al-Ahzab 33: 56) as well as on the believers (Al-Ahzab 33: 43). When Allah comes closer to His Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and to other believers, it means that He comes closer to them with His blessings, love and favor. Allah says in the Qur’an, [Lo! Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. O ye who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation.] (Al-Ahzab 33: 56) and [He it is who blesseth you, and His angels (bless you), that He may bring you forth from darkness unto light; and He is Merciful to the believers.](Al-Ahzab 33: 43)
Thus when it is said that Allah sends His salah on the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) it means that He blesses the Prophet. When it is said that angels send salah, it means that they pray to Allah for His blessings for His Prophet. When we, the believers, are told to do so it means the same thing that we should ask Allah to bestow His blessings on Prophet Muhammad.
Allah sent and continues to send His blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and the believers. His blessings are countless and they come in numerous ways. We should pray to Allah to send more and more blessings on Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet Muhammad himself has instructed us that when we send blessings unto him, we should say “Allahumma salle `ala Muhammad wa `ala ale Muhammad kama sallaita `ala Ibrahima wa `ala `ale Ibrahim. Innaka hameedum Majeed.” This and a number of other similar versions of salah `ala al-nabee are mentioned in many authentic Hadiths. In our prayers we should use only those authentic versions and should not make any changes from our side.
Allah told us that we should send salah on Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) then told us that the best way to do that is to request Allah to send His blessings upon him. So there is no shirk (associating other partners with Allah). We are not sending blessings on him. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) wanted to include his Aal also in this blessing. The word Aal has various meanings. It could mean his family as well as his followers. (SOURCE
So we see that the word 'salah' has many meanings.
As for Question 3, he wants to know the position of the woman in Paradise, who is her husband in the end. Please refer to original thread.
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-Munajjid has written a lengthy article on this topic, quoted here:
I hope this helps.