Information about the unknown the Prophet (saas) revealed in the hadiths
O my people! You are about to conquer Egypt. Keep the welfare of the conquered people in view. You shall have to abide by the divine covenant that their life and property and their honour should be protected.212
In the hadiths, the Prophet (saas) gave the good news that Egypt would be conquered. At the time when he communicated that message, Egypt was under the dominion of the Byzantines. Furthermore, the Muslims had yet to attain any great power. Yet, these words of the Prophet (saas) came true, and, not long after his death, the Muslim armies under the command of Amr bin al-As conquered Egypt in 641 A.D., during the caliphate of Omar. That is one example of the Prophet (saas) accurately knowing the unknown.
Kisra (Khosrau, King of Persia) will die; there will be no Kisra after him, and Qaisar (Caesar, King of Rome) will die; there would be no Qaisar after him, but, by One in Whose Hand is my life, you will spend their treasures in the cause of Allah.213
The word "kisra" that appears in this hadith was a name that used to be used for kings of Persia. The title "caesar" was used for the Roman Empire. The Prophet (saas) gave the good news that the Muslims would come into possession of the treasures of both these rulers.
What needs to be stressed here is that when the Prophet (saas) related that fact, the Muslims still lacked the necessary economic, military and political strength to effect such a great conquest. Furthermore, at that time, the Persian and Byzantine Empires were the two most powerful states in the Middle East. For that reason, such an event was out of the question, at the time when the Prophet (saas) delivered those tidings. However, things actually happened as the Prophet (saas) predicted they would. Iran was conquered during the time of Omar and all its goods seized. The kingdom of the Persian "kisra" thus came to an end.
The death of "caesar" and the reversion of his treasuries to the Muslims came about with the capture of important Roman centers, particularly during the time of the Muslim caliphs. Starting with the time of Abubakr, important centers under the dominion of "caesar" such as Jordan, Palestine, Damascus, Jerusalem, Syria and Egypt were conquered. The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453 meant the collapse of the Roman Empire, and the end of the title of "caesar."214
Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror's capture of Constantinople and the collapse of the Roman Empire meant the end of the title of Caesar.
In his book The Venture of Islam, the American researcher M. G. S. Hodgson describes the Muslim capture of territories belonging to Byzantium and the Persian Empire:
"Muhammad, an Arab of Mecca, sets up a religiously organized society in Medina, and expands it over much of the Arabian peninsula to march with and even locally replace Sasanian and Roman power."215
In this way, these important conquests, that seemed to be totally impossible at the time of the Prophet (saas) both politically and economically, actually happened, as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (saas) by Allah.
Great Allah sent many tribulations to Kisra by his son Shireveyh, who killed him in this month, on this night at this hour!216
In the near future, my religion and its sovereignty will reach Kisra's throne.217
The Prophet (saas) decided to invite the rulers to turn to Islam, and sent one of his companions, Abdullah bin Hudhaafah, to the Kisra, the Persian King, as an ambassador. The Persian Kisra, swollen with pride, rejected the Prophet (saas)'s offer. He even sent two ambassadors of his own to the Prophet (saas), telling the Muslims to submit to him. The Prophet (saas) first invited these two ambassadors to accept Islam. Then he called them into his presence the next day to learn their decision.218
The next day, the Prophet (saas) told the two ambassadors what Allah had revealed to him:
"Great Allah sent many tribulations to Kisra by his son Shireveyh, who killed him in this month, on this night, at this hour!"219
He also personally told them:
"Tell him that my religion and my empire will reach far beyond the kingdom of Kisra; and say to him from me: Enter Islam, and I will confirm you in what you have, and I will appoint you king over the people of Yemen."220
The ambassadors then returned to Yemen and described what had gone on. Badhan said:
"We will see what happens next. If what he said is true, then he is the prophet whom Allah has sent."221
He then turned to his men and asked what they thought of him. The ambassadors had been greatly impressed by the Prophet (saas), and said:
"We never saw a ruler more majestic, more fearless and less guarded than him. He walked humbly amongst the people."
Badhan waited for a while to see whether the Prophet (saas)'s words about the ruler would come true or not. In that way, he said, he could be sure that Muhammad (saas) was Allah's messenger. A short while later, a letter reached Badhan from the ruler's son, Shireveyh: "I killed Kisra. When this letter reaches you, take the oath of the people in my name. Regarding what Kisra wrote to you, wait and do nothing until a new command from me."222
When Badhan and his men worked it out, they realized that all this had happened just as the Prophet (saas) had said it would.223 Badhan came to believe after that great miracle, and accepted Islam. He was followed by the Yemeni Abna.224 Badhan became the first governor appointed by the Prophet (saas), and the first Persian governor to be a Muslim.225
It is a historically documented fact that in 628 the Prophet (saas) sent a letter of invitation to the Persian King Kisra, and that he was killed by his son that same year.226
The Prophet (saas)'s hadiths regarding the signs of the end times
Many details of what the Prophet (saas) said would happen before the last days have reached us. These events are happening one by one in our own time, proving to be yet another miracle of the Prophet (saas). These events, that are happening 1,400 years after the Prophet Muhammad (saas), were explained in great detail, as if he had witnessed them himself.
These are the Prophet (saas)'s prophecies regarding the signs of the end times and the last day, taken from the hadiths:
The Last Hour will not come unless there is much bloodshed.227
Near the establishment of the Hour there will be much Al-Harj, and Al-Harj means killing…228
The day of Judgment will not come until people openly deny Allah.229
Great cities will be ruined, and it will be as if they had not existed the day before.230
Gains will be shared out only among the rich, with no benefit to the poor.231
(Left)Acts of violence and terror, one of the signs of the final times, are continuing with increasing violence all over the world.The parallel between the warning issued by the Prophet (saas) in the past and the events being experienced today reveals to us one of the miracles of this blessed man. (Right) The wars in many countries of the world, in which innocent people are killed for no reason, are another of the portents of Doomsday related by the Prophet (saas).
People will indulge in homosexuality and lesbianism.232
There will be prevalence of open illegal intercourse.233
The Hour (Last Day) will not be established until murders will increase.234
Pity poor Taliqan (a region in Afghanistan) that at that place are treasures of Allah, but these are not of gold and silver but consist of people who have recognised Allah as they should have.235
There is an indication in the hadith that Afghanistan will be occupied during the end times. The Russian invasion of Afghanistan took place in 1979, or 1400 according to the Hijri calendar. In other words, it coincided with the start of the fourteenth century under the Hijri calendar.
These pictures show examples of the oppression suffered by the people of Afghanistan during the invasion by the Russian army in 1979.
It (Euphrates) will uncover a mountain of gold (under it).236
Soon the river "Euphrates" will disclose the treasure (the mountain) of gold, so whoever will be present at that time should not take anything of it.237
The Reichstag (German Parliament) after its destruction in 1945. The picture below shows the same building in 1999, after reconstruction. Many buildings are being restored and brought back to their former appearance in the same way.
The rebuilding of the ruined places in the world, and the ruination of constructed places are signs and portents of Doomsday.238
There are two signs of our Mahdi; ...and those signs are that moon will eclipse in the first night of its fixed nights of eclipse and sun will be eclipsed in the middle of the fixed days for its eclipse, during the month of Ramadhan.239
There will be two eclipses of the sun in Ramadan before the Mahdi emerges.240
There will be two eclipses of the Moon in Ramadan...241
The common points emerging from the above three hadiths are:
1. There will be solar and lunar eclipses during the month of Ramadan.
2. These will be spaced about 14-15 days apart.
3. The eclipses will be repeated twice.
In line with those calculations, there was a lunar eclipse in 1981 (Hijri 1401), on the 15th day of Ramadan, and a solar eclipse on the 29th day of the month. There was a "second" lunar eclipse in 1982 (Hijri 1402) on the 14th day of Ramadan, and a solar eclipse on the 28th day of the month.
It is also particularly significant that in that particular instance, there was a full lunar eclipse in the middle of the month of Ramadan, a most striking prophecy.
Before he comes, a comet spreading light will come from the East.242
The birth of that star will follow the eclipse of the Sun and Moon.243
A tailed star will be born from the East and spread its light. Its daily direction will be from East to West.244
- In 1986 (Hijri 1406), in other words at the start of the 14th century, Halley's comet passed by the Earth. The comet is a bright, shining star.
- It travels from East to West
This happened after the lunar and solar eclipses of 1981 and 1982 (1401-1402)
People will go on the hajj with no imam at their head. When they descend to Mina, the tribes will savage each other like dogs and there will be great wars. To such an extent that feet will be covered in a lake of blood.245
A fire will appear in the sky from the East and a redness will cover the sky for three or seven days in a row.246
A fire will enfold you. That fire is currently extinguished in the valley called Berehut. People will be enfolded in that fire with terrible suffering. That fire will burn and destroy people and belongings. For eight days it will rage over the world like wind and cloud. The heat of night will be fiercer than that of day. That fire will stretch from the heads of man to the highest heavens, and there will be a terrible noise like thunder between the earth and sky, he said.247
- The burning oil in Kuwait led to the deaths of people and animals. According to experts, half a million tons of oil went up into the atmosphere as smoke. Every day, more than 10,000 tons of soot, sulphur, carbon-dioxide and large quantities of hydrocarbons with their carcinogenic properties hang suspended over the Gulf. It is not just the Gulf, but the world itself that is burning.248
- Two wells that were set alight produced as much oil as Turkey does in one day, and the smoke from them can be seen from Saudi Arabia, 55 kilometres away.249
- Continuing news of disaster from the Gulf: Hundreds of oil wells set alight in Kuwait are still burning fiercely. Experts say it will be "exceedingly difficult to put those fires out," and it is said that the fires will affect a wide area from Turkey to India for the next 10 years.
The fire and smoke coming from the wells constantly pollute the atmosphere. Daytime resembles night in Kuwait. The brown smoke that rises together with the flames remind one of the sky as the autumn turns into winter … It will take at least a century for Kuwait to be completely habitable again. The smoke that rises with the flames is visible from miles away, totally blocking out the sky and making the country unfit to live in. The wealthy are abandoning Kuwait.250
He(The Mahdi) will not come until there is a portent from the Sun.251
The solar eclipse of August 11, 1999 was the last of the century. During this eclipse, the likes of which take place only every 400 years, the sun, the moon and the world align. It was the first time that so many people had been able to watch and study an eclipse for so long a duration. Below are some newspaper headlines regarding the phenomenon. This can be interpreted as the "portent from the Sun" referred to in the hadith. (Allah knows best, of course).
Before the Hour comes, there will be a tribulation like patches of dark night...252
The word "tribulation (fitna)" implies anything that turns peoples' reason and hearts away from the true path, or war, incitement, chaos, disorder and conflict. The tribulation in the hadith will leave smoke and dust behind it, we learn.
Furthermore, the way that tribulation is described as "darkness" in the hadith, can be seen as an indication that its origins are unclear, that it is unexpected. Looking at it from that regard, it is probable that the hadith is referring to the world's worst terrorist attack, on the cities of New York and Washington in the United States on September 11, 2001.
The inhabitants of Egypt and Sham would kill their ruler and his commands…253
The people of Sham will take prisoner the tribes of Egypt.254
Today, the states in the region in question include Israel. That is why the hadith could be pointing to the war between the State of Israel and Egypt, and the invasion of Egyptian territory.
The Hour (Last Day) will not be established until ... earthquakes will be very frequent.255
There are two great events before the day of Judgment ... and then years of earthquakes.256
The signs of the end times are coming one after the other
In the hadiths that have come down to us from the Prophet (saas), news is given concerning the end times and the Golden Age of Islam. When we compare these signs with the things that are taking place in our time, we can see many indications that we are living through the End Times and which also herald the arrival of the Golden Age of Islam.
We must make it clear that some of the signs pointed to in the hadiths that we have been considering in this chapter may have been witnessed to one extent or another throughout the 1,400-year history of Islam, in some part of the world. That does not mean, however, that those were the end times. Because, in order to describe one period as the End Times, all the signs of the last day need to happen at the same time, one after the other. That situation is referred to in a hadith:
"Signs following one another like bits of a necklace falling one after the other when its string is cut."257
In the hadiths, the beginning of the End Times is described as when discord grows, and war and conflict are on the increase, when there is chaos and moral degeneration rears its head and people turn away from the morality of religion. At the time in question, natural disasters will occur all over the world, poverty will reach unseen levels, there will be a large increase in the crime rate, and murder and brutality everywhere. Yet this will be only the first stage. During the second phase, Allah will rescue mankind from this chaos and replace it with a blessed existence full of plenty, peace and security.
The Hour will not be established … till the people compete with one another in constructing high buildings.258
The Last Day will not be established until... time will pass quickly.259
Great distances will be traversed in short spans of time.260
The Last hour will not come before time contracts, a year being like a month, a month like a week, a week like a day, a day like an hour, and an hour like the kindling of a fire.261
The century we are living in has seen the capability of constructing supersonic aeroplanes, and the ability, thanks to trains and other improvements in means of transport, to make journeys in a few minutes that would once have taken months, and in great comfort. What this hadith indicates is also taking place in this manner.
Communication between continents would take weeks hundreds of years ago, but is now a matter of seconds, thanks to the Internet and improvements in technology. Goods that used to take weeks to arrive, following a long journey, can now be delivered at a moment's notice. Billions of books can now be printed in the time it would take to write a single letter just a few centuries ago. As well, other technological developments have meant that we no longer waste large amounts of time on cooking, cleaning and child minding.
One could go on citing similar examples. Yet, the important thing here, of course, is that the signs of Doomsday, as set out by the Prophet (saas) in the seventh century, are now happening one by one.
The last hour will not come before the end of a man's whip speak to him.262
The whip is known as a tool used in earlier times when riding or guiding pack animals such as horses or camels. When we look closely at this hadith, we can see that the Prophet (saas) is making a comparison. Let us ask people living at the present time a question, "Is there a modern implement that talks and resembles a whip?"
The most logical reply to that question is the mobile telephone, with its long antenna, or similar communications equipment. If we bear in mind that mobile or satellite phones are comparatively recent developments, then the wisdom behind the Prophet (saas)'s description of 1,400 years ago is even clearer. That is just one more indication that we are living through the period prior to Doomsday.
There will be no Judgment ... until a person's own voice speaks to him.263
The message in the hadith is quite clear: A person's hearing the sound of his own voice is another sign of the end times. There is no doubt that in order to hear the sound of one's one voice, one first needs to record it, and then to play it back to himself. Sound recording and reproduction equipment are products of the twentieth century. That development marked a scientific turning point, and led to the birth of the communications and media industries. Sound reproduction is nearly perfect now, thanks to computer and laser technologies.
In short, the electronic gadgets of our time, microphones and speakers, allow us to record sound and play it back, and are also manifestations of that related in the above hadith.
The sign of that day: A hand will be extended from the sky, and people will look and see it.264
The sign of that day is a hand extended in the sky and people stopping to look at it.265
The Arabic word for "hand" in the above hadiths is "yed." As well as "hand," the dictionary also provides such meanings as "power, force, strength, means etc." It is probable that in these hadiths the word is used in those senses.
The idea of a "power, force, strength or means" extending from the sky and looked upon by people might not make much sense in the context of past ages. Yet, it sheds considerable light on equipment such as the television, camera and computer, which have become such an indispensable parts of modern life, as described in the hadiths. In other words, the "hand" mentioned in these hadiths is used in the sense of force. It clearly points to pictures coming down from the sky in waves, in other words television broadcasting.
People will reap 700 measures of wheat for every one they sow … People will throw down a few handfuls of seeds and reap 700 handfuls … Although much rain will fall, none will be wasted.266
The Prophet (saas) provided many other details of the technological advances that will accompany the end times. Attention is also drawn in the hadiths to the move towards modern agricultural techniques, the development of new production methods, seed improvement research, and increasing production as a result of better use of rainwater by building new dams and artificial lakes.
At that time ... life spans will grow longer.267
Fourteen centuries have passed since the Prophet (saas) brought forward that news. The average expected lifespan is much higher now than it has been at any other time in recent history. A great difference can be seen even between the figures for the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. For instance, it is estimated that a baby born in 1995 will live some 35 years longer than one born around 1900. Another striking example on the same subject is that in the recent past very few people lived to be 100, whereas now it is a great deal more common.
208. Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997, p. 287-299
209. Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997, p. 287-299
210. Elmalili Hamdi Muhammad Yazir, Kuran-ý Kerim Tefsiri (Qur'an Tafsir)
211. Imam Taberi, Taberi Tefsiri, (Tafsir at-Tabari)
212. Al Hafiz ibn al-Dayba al-Shaybani,Taysir al-'usul ilaJami al-'usul, Volume 15, p. 420
215. M.G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, Volume1, Ýz Publications, Istanbul, 1993, p.61
217. Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum,(The Sealed Nectar), http://www.quraan.com/Raheeq/32.asp
223. Salih Suruç, Kainatýn Efendisi Peygamberimizin Hayatý, (The Life of the Prophet (saas)), Yeni Asya Publications, Istanbul, 1998, p.225
225. Salih Suruç, Kainatýn Efendisi Peygamberimizin Hayatý, (The Life of the Prophet (saas)) Yeni Asya Publications, Istanbul, 1998, p.225
226. H.G. Wells, A Short History of the World, http://www.bartleby.com/86/41.html; http://www.encyclopedia.com/printablenew/25555.html
227. Sahih Bukhari Hadith
228. Sahih Bukhari Hadith
229. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p. 27
230. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p.38
231. Tirmidhi Hadith
232. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanzul Ummaal
233. Sahih Bukhari Hadith
234. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2 no: 146
235. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p.59
236. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88, Number 235
237. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88, Number 235
238. Ismail Mutlu, Kýyamet Alametleri, (Signs of the Last Day), Mutlu Publications, Istanbul, 1999, p.138
239. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p.47
240. Imam Sarani, Olum-Kýyamet- Ahiret ve Ahir Zaman Alametleri, (Death, Judgment and Resurrection), Bedir Publications, Ýstanbul, p.440
241. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 54
242. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 54
243. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p.32
244. Imam Rabani, Mektubat-ý Rabbani, (Maktubat Imam Rabbani) Translated by Abdulkadir Akcicek, Istanbul Daðýtým A.S., Istanbul, 2/1170
245. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p.35
246. Ýsmail Mutlu, Kýyamet Alametleri, (The Signs of the Last Day) Mutlu Publications, Ýstanbul, 1999, s.166
247. Ýmam Sarani, Ölüm-Kýyamet- Ahiret ve Ahir Zaman Alametleri, (Death, Judgment and Resurrection), Bedir Publications, Ýstanbul, p.461
248. Necati Özfatura, Kurtlar Sofrasýnda Ortadoðu, Adým Publications, 1983, p.175
249. Hurriyet Newspaper, 23 January 1991
250. Necati Özfatura, Kurtlar Sofrasýnda Ortadoðu, Adým Publications, 1983, p.175
251. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 47
252. Sunan Abu Dawud Hadith
253. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 49
254. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 49
255. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 17, Number 146
256. Ahmad Diya'al-Din al-Kamushkhanawi, Ramuz al-Ahadith, 187/2
257. Tirmidhi Hadith, Number 1447
258. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Number 237
259. Sahih Bukhari Hadith
260. Sahih Musnad Hadith
261. Tirmidhi Hadith
262. Tirmidhi, Number1450
263. Al- Qurtubi al-Tezkirah
264. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 53
265. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-zaman, p. 69
266. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 43
267. Ibn Hajar Haytahami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi'alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 43