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View Full Version : [Sectarian Article] The Ash'ariyyah & Matrudiyyah



Dhahabi
02-22-2005, 03:14 PM
Foreword
All Praise is due to Allaah, we praise Him, seek His aid and His Forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allaah from the evils of our souls and the evils of our actions. Whomsoever Allaah guides there is none to misguide and whomsoever Allaah misguides there is none to guide. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, alone, without any partners and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.
O you who believe! Fear Allaah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islaam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allaah. [Aali Imraan 3:103]
O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allaah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allaah is Ever an AllWatcher over you. [An-Nisaa 4:1]
O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-fire and made to enter Paradise). [Al-Ahzaab 33:70-71]
Introduction:
Even though, Allaah (swt) enjoined the Muslims to hold fast to his rope, they, during the course of history, split up in sects and sub-sects, following the way of the Jews and the Christians as it was predicted by the Prophet Muhammad (saw) (…my ummat will split up in seventy three sects, all of them in hell fire except one.).
Nowadays, many Muslims ignore that some of these misguided movements had already emerged at the time of sahabas and tabi’een (r a) such as the Qadarias, the Jabarias, the Shiites, the Murji’a, the Khawarij, and the Jahmiyya.

How Murj’a and khawarij emerged?
From the linguistic view; Murji'ah comes from Irjaa' which was mentioned in the Holy Qur'an as in the following verse: "You have a hope from Allah that for which they hope not" [4:105]. This verse was explained by Imam Ibn Katheer as follows: "both you and the Kafireen will suffer, but you hope for the forgiveness of Allah, His victory and His support, as on the other hand the Kafireen do not hope for anything of that.
From the linguistic point of view and as mentioned in the above verse, the meaning of al-Murji'ah (this misguided faction) is putting off all deeds and actions and isolating these deeds from Faith. Thus, they postpone the judgement of Allaah and His Prophet(saw) and entertains the idea that nobody can judge. By this they have given hope for all wrong-doers that their bad deeds are not in conflict with their Faith.
A – The roots Of Al-Murji'ah :

The movement of Al-Murji'ah had started just before the appearance of the Khawarej that even though being originally Murji, they tried to refute the numerous Murji sub-sects of the time.
Both asserted that Eeman is one entity that cannot be portioned (one entity), that is it does not increase nor decrease. However, regrettably, they adopted two opposite extreme opinions.
The Khawarij hold the opinion that if someone commits a major sin they would be called disbelievers, but, in truth, some other sub-sects expel the opponent out of the fold of islam just for being an opponent.
On the other hand, the Murji’a perpetuate the idea that deeds do not affect the faith in anyway and that nothing hurts whether it is a major sin or a minor one.
The first to proclaim Irjaa' is Bathr Bin Abdullah Alhamadani. This man was put down by the people of his time and they never returned his salaam. Then the Bida'a of Irjaa' appeared largely in all Koofa (Iraq) and it was represented by people like Mohammad Bin Karram.
Al-Murji'ah differed between themselves about the definition of Eeman. Some of their denominations, known as Al-Jahmiyah (attributed to Jahm), that is the kurramiyyah,declared that it is enough to know Allah in your heart, and hence all people are faithful, except someone who says that he does not know Allah. By this illogical argument they judged that Christians, hypocrites, Jews and other Kafirs to be all people of faith.
With these beliefs they have led the nation into the Devil's road: Today, worst than ever before most groups are simultaneously khawarij and Murji’a : In general, they are Murji with their countrymen and Khawarij with foreigners, does it make sense? . On the other hand, when someone exposes the Murji’a they would accuse them of being Khawarij and vice versa.
B – Al-Murji'ah's Negative Effects
1 - Shari’a ( morals and behaviour): Al-Murji'ah have misled the people by telling them that all their bad deeds can’t prevent them from entering Heaven, so do whatever you like and you can get away with it, they had even dropped some limits in the name of following a specific scholar. This concept led to the loss of morals and values; it also led to ridiculing Allah's religion: Worst crimes are on the increase, that is, grave worshipping; homosexuality and pedophelia; racism, tribalism and colour; abusing women in the name of religion; hating Arabic language; blindly following any aquidah; to name but few.
2 - Postponing Allaah’s judgement in Aquidah: Someone that has been qualified as being Kafir by Allaah and His Prophet (saw) they would consider them as Muslims. They also allowed them to marry a Muslim woman, when in the true religion it is an abrogated marriage.
3 - Manhaj (methodology): During the course of history this cancer, that is the Murji’a and the khawaridj, has been the main reason of the decline of islam by adhering to either the enemies of islam or forming coalitions with the heretic groups among the Muslims solely to the detriment of Ahlu Sunna.
C – Jahmiyyah were Ghulaat Murji’a:
Not only were the Jahmiyya considered to be Murji’a but also they were regarded as disbelievers(Ghulaat Jahmiyyah), and it is related that al-Bukhari said: "I hold as ignorant whoever does not declare the Jahmiyya to be disbelievers The Jahmiyya are the followers of Jahm ibn Safwan Abu Muhriz al-Rasibi al-Samarqandi or al-Khazari or al-Tirmidhi (d. 128). Bukhari narrated in the first chapter of his "Khalq Af`’al al-`Ibad" that Jahm once came out of his house saying: "Allah is the wind and everything else." Ibn Hajar in the introduction of "Fath al-Bari" defined his sect as: "Those who deny Allah’s attributes which the Book and the Sunna affirm, and who say that the Qur’an is created." Ibn Kathir states that Jahm’s teacher in Kufa was al-Ja`d ibn Dirham, who was the first to say that the Qur’an was created, and that Jahm’s student was Bishr al-Marisi: "To him [Jahm] are ascribed the Jahmis, who claim that Allah is in every place in His Essence." Ibn `Asakir and others traced the genealogy of Jahm’s doctrine thus: Jahm ibn Safwan < Ja`d ibn Dirham < Bayan ibn Sam`an < Talut - the nephew and son-in-law of Labid ibn A`sam, who once cast a spell on the Prophet (saw).
Ibn Kathir, "al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya" (9:382, 10:21).
Fortunately, the Jahmiyyah and their alike were completely banned by the umayade dynasty and had ceased to exist because of the rulers of the time.
Regrettably, when the Abasside rulers took over, they adopted the beliefs of the Mu’tazilites who were perpetuating the same beliefs as those of Jahmis and Jabris. This notorious sect was founded by waasil b.Atta’(d 131/748) after he was kicked out of the study circle of his sheikh Hassan basri (d 110/728 koofa). The Mu’atazilites are called the rationalists: they use their intellect instead of the texts. They reject all the beautiful names of Allaah, his attributes and his qualifications as well. They hold that the Quran is created which is a kufr innovation because the Quran is the knowledge of Allaah (swt) and is not created. They deny predestination and believe that Allaah (swt) doesn’t create evil.

D – Abul hassan Al-ash’ari (260/873-324/935)
He was one of the scholars who started their career as a Mutazilite (his sheikh was Al- Jubbaa’ee(d 303/915) one of the leaders of Mu’atazila), but later recanted from Mu’atazila and went through two other stages:

1st stage:
Abul-hassan Al-ash’ari and Abu Mansour Al-Maturidi[A so-called hanafi school of thought scholar whose beliefs affected the majority of the indo-pak continent even today (Samarqand d 944)] wanted to adopt a middle path between the Muaatazila and Ahlu-sunna by implementing rational theology or scholastic (‘ilm kalam), which is rejected and considered as an innovation (misguidance) by the four Imams.
Moreover, Al-ash’ari accepted the aquida of Ibn Kullab Al-Qattan whose followers are the Kullabiyyah who were absorbed later on by the Ash’ari sect that’s why some great scholars in the past call them “Jahmia kullabia” because actually the adopted the way of Ibn Kullab. As we go along we will know why they should have been called Kullabiyya instead of Ash’aaria.
With regards the qualifications of Allaah (swt) they perpetuated many corrupt beliefs, among other things, they used to believe in only seven attributes of Allaah(swt), namely: Life, knowledge, Power, self-will, speech, hearing, sight, whereas the Maturidis believe in these seven attributes, plus the attribute “takween”.

- ??????(maturidis) ?????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ? ??? ???? ????? ??? : ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ?????? ? ??????? .

Certainly, anyone can conclude that the people of kalaam are deviants because it is known from Islam by necessity that Allaah’s names are over a hundred names!

2nd stage:
Later on, Abul hassan met Saji (contemporary hambali scholar) who convinced him to refer to “kitab essunna” written by Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmed B.Hanbal. That was the main reason why he decided to embrace the creed and the methodology of Ahlu-sunna whole-heartedly. He then wrote a book entitled “Al-ibana”wherin he declared himself free from ash’arism by exposing its falsehood and left that which had been following. He then remained, f From then on, his followers increased in number and didn’t want to repent like him and sticked to the 2nd stage of Abul-Hassan who used to perpetuate the same teachings as those of ibn kullab, that’s why they don’t deserve to be named after the name of Al-ash’ari: we should rather call them “Jahmia kullabiyya”.
The Book “Al-Ibanah” – Abu Hassan al-Ash’ari’s Last Book
In the present time many ascribe themselves to Abu Hassan al-ash’aree and call themselves Ash’ariyyah claiming that they are holding fast to the aquida he was upon, especially in the matters of Allah. However, the truth is that they have not taken the aquida that he embraced at the end of his life, which is propounded in his two books al-ibaanah an usool id-diyyanah and maqalaatu lislamiyyeen.
What is more strange, then again is their claim that he wrote his book al-ibaanah out of taqiyyah(deception) and as an attempt to outwit the Hanbalees, fearing them for his life. This is inconsiderate since even a common muslim seeks to be free from nifaq, let alone a Muslim scholar. Not only is such slander an oppression against him but also it is a clear forgery. Below are the names of Scholars who testified the authenticity of al-ibaanah as well as clearing the character of Abu lhassan:
Al-Hafid ibn Assakir (Tabyeenul Kadhabul-Muftaree p152)
Al-Bayhaqee (Al-I’tiqaad p31)
Imaam adh-Dhahabee (Al-uluww no276)
Ibn ul-‘umaad
Furthermore, there are numerous scholars who verified and adopted the same stance as those mentioned above, namely:
Ahmad bin thabit turqee, Abu Uthmaan As-Saboonee, Abu Ali Hassan Al-Farissee,
Abu Fath Nassr Al-maqdissee, Abul-ala’ Al-m’allee, Abu Mohammad Al—baghdadee, many of which were asha’irah themselves.

Another blatant deception :
Allaah the Most High the Magnificent states, “ they love to be praised for what they have not done – think not you that they are rescued from torment…” S3V188

The people of kalaam similarly to all deviants in this world, try in vain to praise themselves for what they have not done. For instance, the Asha’iras claim that Allaah ‘azza wa jal’ and His Prophet praised them! Upon revelation of the verse (Allah shall bring a people whom He loves and who love Him( (5:54), the Prophet pointed to Abu Musa al-Ash`ari - Allah be well-pleased with him - and said: "They are that man's People." Asha’iras such as Al-Qushayri, Ibn `Asakir, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn al-Subki, and others said that the followers of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari - i.e. Ash`aris who were mostly Sufis - are included among Abu Musa's People.
There are numerous arguments to refute the above mentioned deception, viz:
- Even if we assume that Abulhassan Al-Ash’aree didn’t repent it can never prove that someone’s aquida or methodology is right 100% just because the Prophet praised his ancestors.
- The immunity is in the texts. Therefore, guided people are supposed to stick to the texts and not to their feelings.


As for Maturidis, they claim as well that they are referred to in the narration of the Prophet from Bishr al-Khath`ami or al-Ghanawi with a sound (sahîh) chain according to al-Hakim, al-Dhahabi, al-Suyuti, and al-Haythami: "Truly you shall conquer Constantinople and truly what a wonderful leader will her leader be [Muhammad Al- Fatih Sultan - Allah be well-pleased with him -], and truly what a wonderful army will that army be!"
Among other statements: “Both the leader and his army were classic Hanafi Maturidis and it is known that Muhammad Al- Fatih loved and respected Sufis, practiced tawassul, and followed a Shaykh”.
Not only do these statements contain many contradictions and ambiguities but also they are quite similar to those made by Ash’aris and can be disproved as follows:
- Apparently, the hadeeth praises Muhammad Al-Fatih for the conquest and for many other deeds, that is legislation, perseverance,etc. However, under no circumstances should such praise be a proof of the Maturidi aquida he was perpetuating.
- The phrase ‘Hanafi Maturidi’ suggests that Abu Hanifa was a Maturidi. But in truth, he was not a Maturidi since Abu Mansour Al-Maturidi came 200 years after him. Furthermore, Abu hanifa expelled ,out of the fold of islam, the Jahmiyya who believed that the Qur’aan was created. So did At-tahhawee, Abu yussef, Muhammad, Ahmad bnu Hambal.
- Probably the one to be blamed is his Shaikh and to follow a Shaikh is not sufficient because most deviants claim to study under a Shaikh.
- As a result of this, no sooner Muhammad Al-Fatih had passed away when his successors spread grave worshipping all throughout the world under the guise of tawwassul on the account of blindly following their sheikhs.

Differences between Maturidis and Ash’aris:

According to people of kalam, while al Maturidi in the East engaged himself in fighting the Mu'tazilites in general and particularly the Baghdad group, his contemporary al Ash'ari in Iraq took a prominent part in resisting the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and perpetuating the aquida of Ibn Kullab. But it appears to them that al Maturidi began his movement long before al Ash'ari appeared on the scene and most probably while the latter was still in the Mu'tazilite camp.

The difference between the attitude of al Maturidi and of al Ash'ari may be judged from this: If al Ash'ari's attempt during the later period was to strike a middle path between rationalism and traditionalism, al Maturidi certainly took a position between what may be called Ash'arism(Kullabism) and Mu'tazilism. The important points of difference between these two leaders of Kalam, more strictly, between the two schools, have been reckoned by some writers as fifty in number.
[Al Biyadi, op. cit., pp. 53 56; Shaikhzadah, Nazm al Fara’id, Cairo, 1317/1899; `Abd Allah b. `Uthman, Risalah fi al Khilaf bain al Ash'ariyyah wa al Maturidiyyah. MS. Cairo.]
Note
References will be made, as we go along, to some of the most important of them and we need not enter here into a discussion of the rest.).

As a result of these differences, there was once a tendency of bitter rivalry between the followers of these two schools but happily in course of time this tendency subsided and both the schools regarded themselves as orthodox , but in truth they are not to be considered as ahlu sunna wal jama’a, in other words they are both deviants.

But how profoundly the educated Muslims in the indo-pak subcontinent of today are influenced by the system of al Maturidi without realising that they don’t hold to the aquida of Abu Hanifa anymore.

BELIEFS OF PEOPLE OF KALAAM:

1 – Khabar Ahaad (a single chain of narration):

The Asha’ira consider one chain narration Hadiths as doubtful even though there is consensus among the sahabas and the Tabi’een that khabar ahad is an authenticated proof for legislation as well as for Aquida. The Asha’ira accept ahad hadith only as a source of legislation but they reject it with regards to Aquida (beliefs).
So, they are guilty of two innovations so far:
a- They cast doubt on the majority of hadiths (thousands) of the six books, namely: Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, Ibn maajah, Annassa’i.
b- They differentiate between legislation and Aquida by accepting Ahad hadeeths as a legislative source and this is wrong because the hadith narrated only by Omar Ibnl Khattab “ Actions are by intentions…” says about intention which is a Aquida issue and we know all Muslims have accepted this hadeeth, thus legislation and aquida are inseparable.

As for the maturidis (kawtharis), khabar ahaad is not valid for both legislation and aquida. Eventhough it is the aquida of m’utazilites, it has always been adopted by the maturidis such as al-kawtharee and the scholars from Deoband who agreed with him:
They went so far as to discredit the sahih of Bukharee and Muslim as well as books of other sincere scholars, that is Addaramee and hammad bin salamah. Such innovations didn’t take place at the time of the sahabas(r.a) and tabi’een. Hence the Maturidis are closer to the Mu’atazilites in comparison to the Asha’irah.

- ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????(Maturidis) ???? ???? ? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ? ??? ???? ??? ????? ? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? : ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? . ???? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? . ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? .
Contemporary people of kalaam :


- The Ash’ari leader of Hizb Tahrir (Umar Bakri) said :”I trust the punishment of the grave (hadith (ahad) narrated only by Aicha (ra)) but I don’t believe”.
- The Ash’ari Sufi (shadli path) Hamza yussef: refer to his videocassette “I.F.of Islamic civilisation” in which he claimed that Ibn Sina the Ismaeli shouldn’t be called a kafir (1H 24 mn).
- That Shaikh Muhammad `Abduh (d. 1323/1905), one of the leaders of the modern pseudo-reform movement in Islam, in his endeavour to reconstruct islamic theology, closely followed the system of al Maturidi, is evident from his Risalat al Tauhid. Unfortunately, Muhammad Abdu, Rasheed ridha (the teacher of Hassan Al-banna) and Al-Afghani made many illicit issues halaal under the banner of modernism.

- The modernist Ash’ari Muhammad Al-Ghazzali (May Allaah grant him mercy) who tried in vain to cast doubt on the book of tawheed (names and qualifications of Allaah (swt)) of Ibn Khuzaima (Imam of Imams and Ameerulmu’amineen in hadeeth- he used to memorise over five hundred thousand hadeeth-) and the book of sunna written by Abdullaah the son of Ahmed B.Hambal because they confirmed the Essence and Attributes of Allaah (swt) as follows:

The oneness of names and attributes should be without taqyeef (to say how), without tashbeeh (anthropomorphism), without ta’teel ( Asha’ira and their grand fathers Mu’tazilah who reject and change their meanings),without tafweed(to pretend not to know them) and without tamtheel(equating the creator to the creation).
Allaah (swt)said :
“There is nothing like unto him and he is the All-Hearer, the All-seer.” S42 V11
Allaah(swt) confirmed his quality of hearing and his quality of seeing but we should not liken them to others.
Allaah(swt) said:
“To one whom I have created with both my own Hands.” S38 V75
Despite Allaah the Almighty confirmed that he has got two hands the Asha’ira reject them and claim that the hands are the power of Allaah or the bounty of Allaah(swt) that is why they accuse the scholars of Ahlu Sunna wal Jama’a to be hashwiyya like the other deviants such as Mu’tazilah and Jahmia who call them mushabiha(anthropomorphist).
He also said:
“The Most Gracious (Allaah) Istawa (rose) over the (mighty)Throne.” S20 V5


So, He rose over the Throne really in a manner that suits his majesty and dignity. And Allaah is over His Throne over the seventh heaven clear from the creation, as
The slave-girl pointed towards the heavens when the Prophet(saw) asked her as to where Allaah is. This is to expose some contemporary Asha’ira who use lies and deception by stating that the book Al-ibana of Abul Hassan ( written in the third stage of his career) contains a Wahhabiyy’s misguidance, including an expression by which they claim that all the Muslims upon supplicating,say “O Lord, the one who inhabits the skies.” This last vicious lie is unfounded and wrong for many reasons:
- The word samaa’ has been wrongly translated by the word skies instead of heavens.
- They seem not to know about astronomy because the seven heavens (Allaah knows best) are the seven parts of the universe or even there might be seven universes and Allaah knows best.
- According to the Prophet(saw) the Kursi of Allaah(swt) is greater than the universe like a ring in the desert and the Kursi compared to the Throne is too small and like a ring in a desert as well ! Thus, if someone can’t conceive the dimensions of Allaah’s essence, how dare on earth can you accuse them of anthropomormism?
- Allaah the Almighty said: “ His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth,…”.So, he confirmed that his Kursi (chair and not Throne as it is wrongly translated most of the time) is greater than the universe.
- The statement”inhabits the skies”is rather their own belief because on the one hand, some Ash’ari believe that Allaah is everywhere bithateeh(his essence) and on the other hand, some others claim that He is everywhere and nowhere.Glory be to Allaah from what they ascribe to him.
- One of the beautiful names of Allah is Al-Adheem (The Magneficent), that is the Immense of size and volume referring to his essence and attributes who cannot be perceived by the intellect. How dare on earth can someone be regarded as an anthropomorphist if they do believe in Al-Adheem?
- Allaah subhanahu wa t’aala says, “Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the
Heaven(man fi sama’), will not cause the earth to sink with you, then it should quake?S67V16
Let these asha’irah translate this verse. Undoubtedly, the word samaa’ is heaven.

They call the Saudis “Wahabiyys” thus as the other deviants such as Bareilawis,Sufis,Shiites and others,which is wrong because Alwahhaab is one of the beautiful names of Allaah Taala. But, in truth, the deviants as it is their habit throughout history, label anyone who adhere to Ahlu sunna wal Jama’a to incite their followers to never think about the other side of the story.
Anytime you don’t wear a hat or don’t worship graves they brand you as wahhabiy. Thus,only deviants use such word!

In addition, ,Bukhari,Muslim, the four Imams,Suyuty, and hundreds of others have got the same Aquida as Ibn Khuzaima.

2 – precedence of the intellect over the text:
Anytime a text (a verse or a hadeeth) contradict their silly intellect, they give precedence to their intellect to the point that sometimes they declare some Vigorously authenticated hadeeth from the collection of Bukhari as forged!
That’s why the Asha’ira ,most of the time, use their intellect as an evidence to the extent that when someone reads their books he would notice that in sixty or eighty pages not a single verse or hadeeth is mentioned: you would rather find many similar evidences as the following:”a poet said” or “our scholars said”.
Due to this innovation, I won’t be surprised to see our youngsters being contaminated by students who are members of Hizb Tahrir (the Party of Freedom : Ash’ari sub-sect) whose aim is not to learn Islamic principles but to struggle in politics.
Muhammad Al-Ghazzali and Jamal Badawi are famous and belong to another Ash’ari sub-sect : the Muslim Brothers, which is the school of thought of many groups throughout the world.
These two Modernist scholars rejected the following hadeeth: “ The people who are ruled by a woman will never prosper.” According to them the Isnad is sahih but the matn (meaning) is wrong because the two countries Great Britain and India have prospered even though respectively M.Tatcher and I.Ghandy have ruled
them. This is really a zandaqa (I didn’t practice ta’yeen) of the twentieth century because they didn’t use properly their silly mind : it is obvious that prosperity includes worldly life and the hereafter.

3-Definition of Imaan:
According to Maturidis (school of thought of Deoband) Al-Maturidi surpasses Imam al-Tahawi as a transmitter and commentator of Imam Abu Hanifa's legacy in kalâm: This is fallacious for it suggests that Abu Haneefa was indulging in ilmul kalaam. Both al-Maturidi and al-Tahawi followed Abu Hanifa and his companions in the position that belief (al-îmân) consists in "conviction in the heart and affirmation by the tongue," without adding, as do Malik, al-Shafi`i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and their schools, "practice with the limbs." Al-Tahawi, `Aqida §62: "Belief consists in affirmation by the tongue and acceptance by the heart." See "Ibn Abi al-`Izz," Sharh al-`Aqida al-Tahawiyya (4th ed. p. 373-374, 9th ed. p. 332). See also Risala Abi Hanifa ila `Uthman al-Batti in `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, Namadhij (p. 21-28). To My mind, that is a grave mistake in “aquida tahawiyya” that sunnis should omit.

The Asha’ira and the Maturidees are Murjia Jahmia with reference to the definition of Imaan :

1. Some ash’aris consider that Imaan is the decisive trust of the heart (tasdeeq jazim) based on evidence, which is Jahmia definition. Refer to Hizb Tahreer page 31
Some others add to it the declaration of the tongue, which is Murji’a fuqaha definition. However, the right definition is the one given by Abdullaah b.Abbas and other scholars of Ahlu Sunna wal Jama’a : “Imaan is the saying and the actions of the heart, the declaration of the tongue and the actions of the bodily members(jawarih).”
The Ash’ari Hamza yussef, on many occasions, considers the Jaafari sect : Shi’a twelvers as the fifth school of thought!
Moreover, this fallacious definition is one of the reasons that led the leaders of Hizb Tahreer in Aughust 1989 to try to praise Khumaini and his book Hukuma Islamia,which is full of innovations, in order to join the shia in their political struggle. Refer to wa’y magazine whose leader is Umar Bakri N18 page3 on the 4/8/1989.

2. They entertain that Imaan is static: it does neither increase nor decrease. In this
issue the khawarij and the murji’a have the same opinion, but unfortunately both went to opposite extremes. On account of imaan being static they claim that actions are not a part of imaan, thus do whatever you like and you can get away with it. On the other hand, the khawarij call you a kafir for any action if you are an opponent for the same reason. The implication of this innovation is that anybody can consider a fassiq (evil doer) to have the same faith as the Prophets(pbut) and the Angels!
Allaah the Most High said:
“ And whenever there comes down a Surah, some of them (hypocrites) say :”which of you has had his faith increased by it? As for those who believe, it has increased their Faith, and they rejoice.” S9 V124
If you try to explain this to Hizb Tahreer students they will never handle it because they blind follow and their hearts are sealed.

3. They consider the Muslim major sin doer(fassiq) to be on the edge:according to them he is neither a Muslim nor a kafir and this is the aquida of wassil b.At’a the founder of Mu’atazila. It is known from Islam by necessity that a fassiq is still a Muslim but he is not a Mu’min or Muhsin(3rd level of Imaan).
Allaah(swt) said:
“The Bedouins say: “we believe.” Say:” You believe not but you only say, “we have surrendered in Islam”,for faith(2nd level of Imaan)has not yet entered your hearts.”
S49 V14

4-The definition of the Holy Qur’aan:

They claim that the speech of Allaah(subhanahu wa taala) can’t be heard :Allaah(swt) talks within himself contrary to the Hadeeth collected by Bukhari wherein he affirmed that Allaah(swt) will talk,on the day of Judgement, with his voice (in accordance to his Majesty) and all creatures will hear him wether they are far or close.
Furthermore, they pretend that the meaning of the Qur’aan is created[Sharh al `Aqa'id al `Adudiyyah, p. 188.], which is very close to the Mu’atazilah who say the Qur’aan is created (kufr innovation). But al Shahrastani asserts that, according to al Ash'ari, the words are created and the "mental" meaning (al ma'na al nafsi) is eternal[ Nihayat al Iqdam, p. 320], this last is the view of all the eminent Ash'arites. [Imam al Haramain, al Irshad, Cairo, 1950, pp. 102 et sqq.; al Ghazali, al Iqtisad, Cairo, pp. 71 72.] If so, there is not much difference on this question between the Mu'tazilites and the Ash'arites.

Imaam Tahaawi (239-321AH) affirmed that the Qur’aan is not created and if someone claims the contrary, they are unbelievers. He quoted the following verses:
“This is nothing but the word of a human being.””I will cast him into Saqar.”It is obvious that Saqar is a part of Hell Fire that nobody can leave. S74 V25-26
Aquida ettahhawiyya
In addition, Allaah(swt) said:
“Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you till you follow their milla. Say:’Verily, the guidance of Allaah that is the guidance. And if you were to follow their desires after what you have received of knowledge( the Qur’aan), then you would have against Allaah neither any wali nor any helper.” S2 V120
Consequently, anyone who claims that Qur’aan is created, he entertains the idea that Allaah (swt), some time ago, was not the All-Knowing.Glory be to Allaah from what they ascribe unto him.

- ????? (maturidis)??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? . ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? . ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ? ??? ????? . ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? . ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? .
The maturidis still adopt this mu’tazili belief. As regards the Word of God (Kalam Allah), al Maturidi maintains that the divine speech cannot be composed of sounds and letters like human speech, because sounds and letters are created. So, in reality, he asserts, only the "meaning" of which the words are an expression can be termed as the kalam of Allah. This "meaning" which existed with God from eternity can be heard and understood only through the medium of created sound. Accordingly, they claim that Moses did not hear the eternal speech, but God made him hear and understand the eternal speech through created words and sounds( without feet to stand upon!). Now, what is heard by or revealed to the prophets –according to the maturidis- is called the kalam of Allah figuratively (majazan) eternal speech without giving any evidence from the qur’aan and the sunna for the so-called figure of speech as it is their habit.
It is evident from the above account that al Maturidi refutes the idea of Ahlu sunna wal Jama’a who identified the revealed Qur'an with the eternal speech, and he agrees in principle with the Mu'tazilites who held it to be a creation of God.
Al Ash'ari(when he was still), like al Maturidi, maintains that God has eternal speech and the attribute of speaking, [Kitab al Luma`, p. 63; also ibn Humam al Musayarah, Cairo, 1347/1928, p. 11; `Abd al Rahim, Nazm al Fara'id, Cairo, 1317/1899, pp. 15 18;abu `Udhbah, al Raudat al Bahiyyah, Hyderabad, pp. 44 45] but it is not clear from his lengthy discourses in Kitab al Luma what he exactly meant by kalam of Allah and what, according to him, was eternal in the Qur'an words or meanings? He maintained that the eternal speech could be heard directly without the medium of created sound.
Kitab al Luma`, p. 63; also ibn Humam al Musayarah, Cairo, 1347/1928, p. 11; `Abd al Rahim, Nazm al Fara'id, Cairo, 1317/1899, pp. 15 18;abu `Udhbah, al Raudat al Bahiyyah, Hyderabad, pp. 44 45.

This statement, together with general trends of his ideas and his mode of reasoning as reflected in his printed books, corroborates a statement according to which both words and meanings were regarded by him as eterna1.

Beatific Vision It has been noticed that al Maturidi , in terms of the question of seeing God in paradise by the believers, he is wholly in agreement with Ahlusunna wal Jama’a, and firmly holds that.
- ??????(maturidis) ?????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ? ??? ???? ????? ??? : ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ?????? ? ??????? . ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? [ ?????? ??????? ] ?? ???? ????? ? ?? ???? ????? ? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? . ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ??? " ?????? ??? ????? ? ?????? ??? ????? ? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? - ????? - ????? ????? : ( ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ) .



5- Istiwa’ : Rising over the Mighty Throne:

Similarly to their cousins Mu’tazilites, the Asha’ira refute that Allaah(swt) rose over His Throne, they use the word istawla instead of istawa by referring to a poem! on Bishr which is inconsiderate.

According to them subdue (qahara), conquer (istawla), and prevail or overcome (ghalaba), as in the poet's saying concerning Bishr ibn Marwan's conquest of Iraq: istawa bishrun `ala al-`iraq and that boasting: idha ma `alawna wa istawayna `alayhim ja`alnahum mar`a li nisrin wa ta'irin or: "When we tower over them and overcome them, we shall make them a pasture for eagles and other birds." Ibn Battal and Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi attribute the interpretation of 20:5 as istawla chiefly to the Mu`tazila;
Moreover, according to them "To rise," "ascend," and "rise above" must be understood in the sense of rank and lordship (where is the evidence?), not in the sense of physical elevation (why not?). Among the least injurious and most befitting meanings (referring to their intellect)of verse 20:5 is also "subdue" (qahara) and "conquer" (istawla). Then again, according to them, Allah praises Himself as the Irresistible (al-qahhar) in declaring that even the greatest of all creations, the Throne, lies subject to Him. If the word “rose” is a figure of speech i.e. majaaz where is their proof? Moreover, if the verbs to overcome or to subdue is to be considered then everything that exist is subdued and subject to Allaah including the Throne. Therefore to rise is specific to the throne alone as it suits Allaah the Almighty the Wise and can’t be applied to anything else.
Undoubtedly they have no proofs.
One day, a man asked Imaam Malik(179-795 d) in his study circle about the howness of Istiwa’(rose above the Throne). Imaam Malik was very angry and replied: “Istiwa’ is known, the Howness is ignored, to believe in it is an obligation, to ask about it is a bidaa and went on to say: ‘you are only a trouble maker’ and kicked him out of his study circle.So, if Imaam Malik was alive he would kick out of his study circle the so-called Maliki Hamza Yussef who associates with the so-called Shafi’ee extreme sufi Noe Keller: a contemporary Ash’ari from Azhar University(Egypt) wherein he was taught to make takfeer on Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyya for preserving the aquida of ahlusunna wal jama’a..
All the sub-sects of Ash’aria make takfeer on someone who believe that Allaah is Above the Throne contrary to Abu Hanifa and Abu Yussef who call a disbeliever anyone who reject that Allaah istawa above the Throne!
So, as a result, the implication of their stance is to make takfeer on the four Imaams!

6- Destiny and Predestination:

Concerning the Qada’(Predestination) and Qadar (Destiny), the Asha’ira, like they always do, seek to follow the middle path between the Qadarites and the Jabrias(two heritic sects). It is so difficult for them to give a proper definition that they leave it out most of the time. They claim that our actions are not true but they are a mirage!
Fakhr Arraze is one of their leaders who used to say :

which means a human being has no free will but he is metaphorically choosing. Does it make sense?.
Moreover, vis-à-vis the verse “ Allaah is not pleased with the kufr of his servants”,they think that this concerns only the believers. so, is Allaah pleased with the kufr of the disbelievers? Glroy be to Allaah from what they describe unto him.
Allaah Exalted be He said:“Truly, Allaah is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind.” S2V143
7- Jinn:

Many Asha’ira deny the fact that a Jinn can posses a human being even though it is known from Islam by necessity.
Allaah (swt) said :
“ Those who eat Riba will not stand (on the day of judgement) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitaan…” S2 V275

8 – Black Magic:

Among the contradictions of some Asha’ira is to refute that the Jews worked magic against the Prophet because, on the one hand, it is narrated by khabar ahad; and on the other hand, it is against the prophetic immunity. Punishment of the grave/page5 /U.Bakri Hizb tahrir
Umar Bakri might have ignored that Imaam Nawawe stated this:” Some innovators have rejected this hadeeth because of the immunity of the Prophet(saw)…All their claims are invalid and unfounded.” Sharh Muslim by Nawawe/ 14-425 Hadith2189
Refer also to Fath Baree/Asqalaani/10-226
Allaah The Almighty said:
“…Then behold ! Their ropes and their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though as they move fast” S20 V66
It is obvious that the magic mentioned in the verse has worked on Mussa (pbuh) and Mussa (pbuh) never lost his immunity!

9 – Islamic Fitra:
The rationalists don’t believe that Allaah has created within us the instinct to know that Allaah exists that is why their definition of imaan is so corrupt.
According to the leaders of Hizbu Tahrir Imaan is the decisive trust from qat’ee and not dhannee (doubtful evidence khabar ahad for them), which agrees with reality(Murji-Jahmia definition).Hizb Tahrir/Ch9 Page 31.
For them you need to look at the signs around you otherwise the guidance bestowed upon you by Allaah(swt) is not enough!


10 - The controversial ‘ the intention to visit the Prophet ’s grave’:
According to them and their shaykhs, the visit to the grave of the master of Messengers -- PBUH -- is among the greatest of the acts that draw near to Allah and those who earn the most reward and it is close to being a required act even if one forms the intention, at the time of departure, to visit the Prophet -- PBUH -- and along with that intention he intends to visit his masjid and other blessed spots and noble graves.
Moreover, Ibn al-Huham (Maturidi) said: LET HIM DEVOTE HIS INTENTION SOLELY TO THE VISIT OF HIS GRAVE. This is according to the narration: "WHOEVER COMES TO ME AS A VISITOR DRIVEN BY NO OTHER NEED BUT MY VISIT, IT IS INCUMBENT UPON ME TO BE HIS INTERCESSOR ON THE DAY OF RESURRECTION." However, Tabarani narrates it in al-Kabir
and al-Awsat from Ibn `Umar with a chain containing Maslama ibn Salim and he is weak." Therefore, the above-mentioned hadith is not a proof for them but, in fact,a proof against them.
As for Ibn Taymiyya,who was Shaikh Al-islam of his time, he issued the controversial fetwa that someone must not intend to visit other than the noble prophetic masjid, on the basis of the hadith "Mounts are not to be saddled except to go to three masjids,"

Regrettably, the people of kalam, as it is their habit to support the grave worshippers, claim that the hadith does not indicate an absolute prohibition. Not only do they contradict themselves but also they have no feet to stand upon.
In order to wash down the drain this erroneous aquida the proofs below are sufficient:
- The phrase ‘La tushaddu arrihaal’ is self explanatory and clear prohibition. Thus, since ibaada is tawqeefiyya, and having the intention to do an act of worship is an obligation, it is not permissible to intend to visit the grave of the prophet or any of their Ghawth.
- Even if the former hadith was sound, for argument’s sake, in usool fiqh a prohibition is given precedence over a permissibility.
- Ibn Taymiyya never sanctioned not to visit the grave of the Prophet(saw) but according to him it is an act of obedience, only when someone reach His Mosque.
- These deviants are all same, whenever you stick to the truth they accuse you of not loving the Prophet (saw) or slander you for inciting people not to visit the grave of the Prophet (saw)
- The manifest inconsistency of people of kalaam led the grave worshippers not only to saddle mounts to the grave of the Prophet(saw) but also to form the intention to visit the graves of their dead masters all throughout the world.
- Rather, if one endowed with understanding and learning considers carefully the hadith that prohibits to erect mosques over graves They would come to a conclusion that the fetwa of Ibn Taymiyya was spot on : It was in the right time since extreme Sufism, that is grave worshipping, was rife. As a result, he was incarcerated after a coalition of all deviants had been formed. The same thing happened to Imam Ahmed, that is the coalition of Mu’tazilites and Rafidha against him during the Abasside rule. Therefore, the case of Ibn Taymiyya is identical to Ahmad bin Hambal-The imam of Ahlu sunna of his time.

Regrettably, the common belief between all schools of thought in Deoband, today and in the past, is that of the so-called special merit of the noble spot of the grave of the Prophet (saw) which contains limbs is more meritorious even than the Ka’ba, the Throne, and The Kursi, as explicitly declared by their fuqaha without feet to stand upon. One day one student asked his shaikh to prove this belief, the latter told him off and said to him either you believe or you don’t. Obviously, that is absolutely nonsense,it is, rather, Hinduism.

11 – Allegations of Anthropomorphism
In 1994 Sayf ad-Din Ahmad Ibn Muhammad (probably student of shaikh As-Saqqaf) compiled a book entitled “Albani unveiled”. Rather, the content of the book unveiled its author since it is full of deceptions one of which is to introduce the ash’ari school of thought at the end of the book. Regrettably, his aim was to deceitfully revile and slander Shaikh al-islam Ibn Taymiyyah without referring to the latter’s books and that is really inconsiderate.
Many people today accuse some of the greatest scholars of Islam of blasphemy and kufr (disbelief). One who is frequently attacked, especially on the internet, is Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah [Rahimahullah]. In actual fact he is slandered and lied against. People say things about him which he never said... in actual fact things which he was totally against!! These people who do should fear Allah, and remember that they should be just and judge a man with justice and from knowledge, rather than judging him from ignorance and heresay ( i.e.someone said !)
Therefore let there be a warning to those who blemish his name - a severe warning indeed- that they may not slander him, for a scholar's flesh is poisonous.
Following are two slanders:
1 – Ibn Batootah statement:
He (d.779H) alleges in his Rihlah (1/110):
"I was in present in Damascus on Friday where he (i.e. Ibn Taymiyyah) was admonishing and reminding the people from the pulpit of the congregational mosque During his speech he said: Indeed Allaah descends to the lowest heaven of the world just as I am descending now. He then descended one step of the pulpit ..."
The falsehood of this daim can be shown from a number of angles:-[1]
Firstly: This contradicts the madhhab (way) of'Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah concerning the Sifaat(Attributes) of Allaah -- the Most High - which was the same madhhab as that of the Salafus-Saalih (Pious Predecessors), being built upon the saying of Allaah - the Most High --: "There is no likeness unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer." [Soorah ash-Shooraa 42:1 1] So Allaah's Attribute of am-Nuzool (Descending ) is *affirmed in a manner that befits His Majesty and Perfection, but it is not like the descending of any of His creation. Indeed, throughout his writings concerning Allaah's Sifaat, Ibn Taymiyah ah clearly states the forbiddance of likening Allaah to His creation.
lbn Taymiyyah says in at-Tadmuriyyah (p.20): "It is a must to affirm that which Allaah affirms For Himself, whilst negating any likeness to Him with His creation .. Whosoever says: His knowledge is like my knowledge, His Power is like my power, or Love like my love, or Pleasure like my pleasure, or Hand like my hand, or lstawaa (Ascending) like my ascending - then he has resembled and likened Allaah to the creation. Rather, it is a must to affirm (Allaah's Attributes ) without any resemblance, and to negate (what Allaah negates for Himself), without ta'teel (divesting Allaah of any of His affirmed Attributes)."
Ibn Taymiyyah said in Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa (5/262); "Whosoever considers the Attributes of Allaah to be like the attributes of the creation -- such that the Istawaa (Ascending) of Allaah is like the ascending of the creation, or His Nuzool (Descending) is like the descending of the creation, or other than that -- then he is a deviated innovator."
Secondly: Itis not possible that Ibn Batootah witnessed Ibn Taymiyyah deliver this speech, since Ibn Batootah clearly states in his Rihlah (1/102) that he entered Damascus on the 9th of Ramadhaan in the year 728H. However, Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah was - before, during and after that time - in prison. Ibn Katheer states in al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (14/135) that Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned on the 6th of Sha'baan in the year 728H and remained there until his death on the 20th of Dhul-Qa'dah 728H.
Thirdly: Ibn Taymiyyah - rahimahullaah -- has a separate book concerning the hadeeth of Allah's Descending, entitled. Sharh Hadeethin-Nuzool. In it there is no trace whatsoever of the tashbeeh and tamtheel (anthropomorphic beliefs) - that he has falsely been accused of.
Fourthly: Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah did not used to give admonitions to the people from the pulpit, rather he used to sit upon a chair. Al-Haafidh ash-Dhahabee said. "And he became very famous and well-known, and he started giving tafseer of the Mighty Book from his memory, on the days of Jumu'ah, sitting upon a chair."
2 – Another Lie Against Ibn Taymiyyah
After previously quoting the words of Imaam an-Nawawee concerning the kufr (disbelief) of one who ascribes to Allaah a jism ( body), Hasan as-Saqqaaf- apparently quoting the words of Ibn Taymiyyah -- said in his footnotes to Daf' Shubah at-Tashbeeh (pp.245-246):
"Entering into this category is al-Harraanee (Ibn Taymiyyah) ... who has affirmed tajseem (Allaah having a jism) in many of his books. So from this is his saying in at-Ta'sees (1/101): "And there is not in the Book of Allaah, nor in the Sunnah of His Messenger, nor a statement from any one of the Saluf of this Ummah and its Imaams that He is not a jism (body), and that His Attributes are not bodily, consisting of organs ..." I say: By Allaah who originated the heavens and the earth - your saying is ignorance and misguidance. Is not Allaah - the Most High's -- saying: "There is no likeness unto Him." [Soorah ash-Shooraa 42. 11] sufficient in negating tajseem and its reality, 0 al-Harraanee?!! And what about the Imaams of the Ummah and the Salaf- O al-Harraanee - and their censure of tashbeeh ..."
And this is from one of as-Saqqaaf's many deceptions - so beware!
Shaykh Mashoor ibn Hasan -- hufidhahallaah -- said:[2]
These words are from one who does not know what fairness is, who acts haphazardly in his rulings, and who falsely accuses the Scholars of wickedness. This becomes apparent in a number of ways:-
From them: That the previously mentioned words are not from the writings of Ibn Taymiyyah in which he is clarifying his own views, or even stating them rather, he is quoting the saying of the people of kalaam ( innovated speech and rhetorics). However, as-Saqqaaf has conveniently omitted the beginning of the quotation from Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, where he clearly stated: Qaaloo (they say)!!
From them: That as-Saqqaaf overlooks the words of Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah - rahimuhallaah - concerning the overall use of this term in reference to Allaah - the Mighty and Majestic - and he halted where he halted upon knowledge. However, justice is very rare - and there is no power or movement except with Allaah.
Shaykhul-Islaam said, in the course of this topic: "Indeed, the term al-jism (body), al-'arad (organs), al-mutuhayyiz (extent) and their like, are all newly-invented terminologies. We have mentioned many a time before, that the Salaf and the Imaams have not spoken about such things -- neither by way of negation, nor by way of affirmation. Rather, they declared those who spoke about such matters to be innovators, and went to great lengths to censure them."
This is what has been repeatedly affirmed by Shaykhul-Islaam - rahimuhnlluab - in many of his books, such as: Sharh Hadeethin-Nuzool (pp.69-76), Majmoo'al-Fataawaa (3/306-310, 13/304-305), Minhaaj us-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (2/134-135, 192, 198-200, 567). Indeed -- in Sharh Hadeethin-Nuzool (p.71) - Shaykhul-Islaam has labelled ascribing Allaah with the term jism as being: "An innovation in the Sharee'ah, a corruption of the language and a contradiction to the [sound] intellect. Rather, it is repudiated by the Sharee'ah, the language and the [sound] intellect."
And from them: That Shaykhul-Islaam mentions the intended meaning of ascribing Allaah with the term jism, by saying: "Whosoever alleges that the Lord is composite - with the meaning that he accepts division, separation and partition (for Allaah) -- then he is the most disbelieving of people and the most ignorant. Indeed, his statement is more evil than the one who says that Allaah has a son -- with the meaning that a part of Him split and thus became His son."
So as you can see Alhamdulillahi As-Saqqaf, Sayf ad-Din and the neojahmi Nuh Keller are refuted and exposed.



12 – Other beliefs:
- Some Ash’aris entertain the thought that the children (who didn’t reach puberty) of the kuffar will go to Hell Fire. This is the aquida of Khawarij and Mu’tazilites and the most accurate aquida is that they will be in Paradise.
- The Asha’ira claim that worshipping Allaah out of love is enough ,which is unfounded because love, fear and hope are three fundamental branches of faith. Consequently, we Ahlu sunna wal jamaa worship Allaah the Most High out of love, fear( punishment) and hope(expecting a reward).
-They, similarly to other deviants such as Extreme Sufis, Bareilawis, Shi’a and others, perpetuate the bid’aa of celebrating the birthday of the Prophet(saw).
The Ash’ari extreme sufi so-called shaf’iee Noe Keller and others quote in their tapes many Ahadeeth from sahih Bukhari in order to try in vain to prove themselves but they failed miserably because they are all used out of context e.g. some Sahabas in the time of the Prophet(saw) use to do things on their own and He used to approve it and confirm it as sunna. This is invalid because the Prophet (saw) was a legislator and he is not alive to approve their bidaa.

STANCES OF MATHHABS VIS-À-VIS ASHA’IRA:
All schools of thought are unanimous regarding the fact that the Ash'ariyyah do not enter into Ahlusunna wal Jama’a at all. Rather they are outside it and Imaam Ahmed and Ibn al-Madeenee have stated textually that whoever involves themselves in any theological rhetoric is not counted amongst the Ahl us-Sunnah, even if by that he arrives at the Sunnah, until he abandons debating and surrenders to the texts. So they do not lay down as a condition that a person merely agrees with the Sunnah, rather that he must take and derive with it (alone). So he who takes from the Sunnah is from its people even if he makes an error, and he who derives from somewhere else is in error even if in conclusion he agrees with it. But the Ash'ariyyah as you will see, take and derive from other than the Sunnah and they do not agree with it in their conclusions, so how can they be from its people [people of the Sunnah].
A summary of the sayings of the scholars regarding the Ash'ariyyah are presented below:

1 – The Malikis
The Haafidh of the west and its outstanding scholar Ibn Abdul Barr reported with his chain of narration from the scholars of the Maalikees in the east, Ibn Khuzaimah, that he said in the book of witnesses (Kitaab us-Shuhudaat) in explanation of the saying of the Maalik that it is not permissible to accept the witness of the people of innovation and innovated sects, and he said: "The people of the innovated sects in the view of Maalik and the rest of our Companions are the people of theological rhetoric (Kalaam). So every person of the theological rhetoric is from the people of the innovated sects and innovation: whether he is an Ash'aree, or other than an Ash'aree, and his witness is not accepted in Islaam ever. Indeed he is to be ostracized, and punished for his innovation and if he persists in it and repentance is to be sought from him"
Jaami Bayaan il-Ilmi wa Fadlihi (2/117)
Also Ibn Abdul Barr himself reports in [Al-Ihtiqaa] from the three scholars: Maalik, Aboo Haneefah and Ash-Shaafi'ee that they forbade theological rhetoric and spoke severely against its people, and that they are innovators and are to be punished. Its like is reported by Ibn ul- Qayyim in [Ijtimaa ul-Juyoosh il-Islaamiyyah] and what are the Ash'ariyyah except people of theological rhetoric?

2 – Shafi’is
Imaam Abul-Abbaas ibn Suraij known as 'ash-Shaafi'ee the second' and he was a contemporary of Al-Ash'aree, said: "We do not speak with Ta'weel (interpretation) of the Mu'tazilah, the Ash'arees, the Jahmiyyah, the apostates, the anthropomorphists (Mujassimah and Mushabbihah), the Karraamiyyah and those who declare Allaah to be like His creation (Mukayyifah - those asking about the modality of His attributes). Rather we accept them [the texts about Allaah's attributes] without interpretation (Ta'weel) and we believe in them without declaring any likeness with the creation (Tamtheel)."
See Ijtimaa ul-Juyoosh il-Islaamiyyah (p.62) for the belief of Ibn Suraij
Imaam Abul-Hasan al-Kurjee, one of the Shaafi'ee scholars of the fifth century said: "The Shaafi'ee Imaams have not ceased disdaining and detesting that they should be ascribed to al-Ashariyy and they disassociate themselves from that which al-Ash'aree built his madhhab upon, and they forbid their companions and beloved ones from approaching it, as I have heard from a number of the shaikhs and imaams. He then gave an example of the shaikh of the Shaafi'ees of his time Imaam Aboo Hamid al-Isfaareenee who was known as 'ash-Shaafi'ee the third' saying:

"The severity of the Shaikh against the people of theoretical knowledge is well known, to the point that he even made a distinction between the principles of the fiqh of ash-Shaafi'ee and the principles of al-Ash'aree. Notes upon this were added by Aboo Bakr ar-Raadhiqaanee and it is with me. He was followed in this by Shaikh Aboo Ishaaq ash-Sheeraazww in his two books, 'al-Lumaa' and 'at-Tabsirah' to the point that if a point of al-Ash'aree agreed with one saying amongst our companions he made distinction and said: "It is the saying of the Ash'ariyyah" and he did not include them amongst the companions of ash-Shaafi'ee. They disdained and avoided them and their madhhab in the principles of fiqh not to mention with regard to the principles of the Religion." [ At-Tis'eeniyyah (p. 238-239) and see 'Sharhul-Asfahaaniyyah' (5:31) from the Fataawaa al-Kubraa itself. See also Ijtimaa ul-Juyoosh il-Islaamiyyah and Mukhtasirul Uloom for his belief and also Tabaqaatush-Shaafiyyah for his biography.]


3 - Hanafees
As is known the author of at-Tahaawiyyah and its explainer were both Hanafees, and at-Tahaawee was a contemporary of al-Ash'aree. He wrote his Aqeedah to explain the Aqeedah of Imaam Abu Haneefah and his companions, and it is very like what is found in Fiqh al-Akbar from him. They report from the Imaam that he clearly states the Kufr (disbelief) of one who says that Allaah - the Most Perfect and Exalted - is not upon the Arsh (throne) or remains silent about it.
Also his student Aboo Yoosuf declares Bishr al-Maareesee to be a Kaafir, and as is well known the Ash'ariyyah deny Allaah's ascension and deny that He the Most High is above the Arsh (Throne) and it is also well known that their principles were taken from Bishr al-Maareesee!!
[See what is mentioned in Siyar A'laamin-Nubulaa in the Biography of Bishr (10/200-201) and al-Hamawiyyah (p.14-15)]

4 - Hanbalees
The position of the Hanbalees with regard to the Ash'ariyyah is more famous than to need mention. So since Imaam Ahmad declared 'Ibn Kullaab' to be an innovator and ordered to be ostracized, and he was the true founder of the Ash'aree madhhab. The Hanbalees have not ceased to be involved in a long battle with them. Even to the time of the state of Nizaam ul-Mulk in which they behaved presumptuously, and after it the Hanbalees ejected every speaker who mixed anything from the madhhab of the Ash'ariyyah into his speeches. Ibn ul-Qushairi was one of those who experienced this, and because their madhhab had become so widespread, and due to the agreement of the scholars of the state, especially the Hanbalees that he should be opposed, so the Khaleefah al-Qaadir sent out al-I'tiqaad al-Qaadiree which clarified the aqeedah which was binding upon the Ummah in the year 433H.
[See al-Muntazam of Ibnul-Jawzee, events of the year 433, 469 &475 - (vols 8 & 9)]

And Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah quotes that when Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee was asked: "Has there ever been one who was a Walee of Allaah who was upon other than the aqeedah of Ahmad bin Hanbal?" He replied: "That has not occurred and will never occurr."
7. Al-Istiqaamah (pp.85-86)


5 – Some contemporary scholars
Shaikh Ibn al-Uthaimeen - may Allaah protect him - said: "So - for example - the Ash'arees and the Maatooreedees are not considered from Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah in this particular matter (i.e. concerning the Names and Attributes of Allaah). Rather, they oppose what the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) and his Companions were upon with regards to accepting the Attributes of Allaah - the Most Perfect - upon their haqeeqah (real meaning). This is why, whoever says that Ahl us-Sunnah are two groups: the Ash'arees and the Maatooreedees - then such a person is indeed mistaken. Rather we say: How can both be considered Ahl us-Sunnah and they differ with each other? What is there after Truth, except misguidance. How can they all be Ahl us-Sunnah, whilst each one of them refutes the other - this is not possible - except if it is possible to reconcile the opposites. How is it possible to say Ahl us-Sunnah are of two differing groups, but we say that they are in agreement? So where is the agreement and concensus? Rather, Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah are those who hold on to what the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) and his Companions were upon.

C- SCHOLARS OF AHLU SUNNA WAL JAMA’A:

1-Anas b.Malik(d 93/712) one of the ten most prolific transmitters of hadeeth(Sahabi)
2-Abdullaah b.Umar(d74/693) Sahabi scholar narrator of Hadeeth. 3- Maalik b.Anas(d179/795). 4- Mujaahid b.Jubair Al-Mekkee(21/642-104/722) student of Ibn Abbaas. 5- Abdullaah b.Abbas(Sahaabi d68/687)the commentator of Qur’aan.6- Sufiane Thawree(97/716-161/178) Ameerul Mu’mineen in hadeeth, born koofa lived in Mecca and Madina.7- Abu Hanifa Nu’maan. 8- Ashafi’ee(150/767-204/819). 9-Al-Bukharee(194/809-256/870). 10- Ahmed.b hambal brought in Baghdad. 11- Muhammad Zuhree(51/671-125/742) the first to compile hadeeth.12- Al-awza’ee :Mujtahid Mutlaq of Shem and Andalusia(d157/774). 13- Alqama b.Qais (d61/680)and Masrook both students of Abdullaah b.Mess’ood(at koofa). 14- Muhammad b.Seereen (d110/728) great scholar of hadeeth more reliable than Hassan Basri who used to report Mursal Hadeeth.15- Saeed b.al-Mussayyib(d94/712) great scholar on hadeeth. 16- Abul Haarith Al-layth b.Saad(94/713-75/791) Mujtahid Mutlaq according to Shafi’ee he was more knowledgeable than Malik. 17- Sufyane b.Uyaynah(107/725-198/814) born at koofa but settled at Mecca. 18- Muhammad Tabaree(224/839-310/923) faqih Mujtahid. 19- Muhammad b.Maajah(209/824-273/886) one of the six most authentic collection.20- Hassan Al-Basree(d110/728).
21- Muslim.22-Tirmidhi 23Ibn Habbaan.24- Annassaee.25- Ibn Qaim Jawziyya.26 Ibn Katheer.27-Ahmed b.Taymiyya(661-728AH).28- Ibn Khuzaima. 29- Al-Hakem
30- Al-Maadinee 31- Dhahabee( memorised over a hundred thousand hadeeth).32-Attahawee(239-321AH). 33- Abu Yussef(student of Abu Hanifa). 34- Hundreds of scholars following them.
As a matter of fact, one of this great scholars like Abu-Hanifa or Shafi’ee outweight the one hundred and twenty three Ash’ari scholars mentioned in the books of Umar Bakri(Hizb Tahreer) because he just wants to blind follow them for fame and fortune, despite that none of them belong to the first three generations praised by the Prophet (saw)(Sahabas,successors and successors of succesors ended by 240 A.H).


MATURIDI SCHOLARS :

Abu L’iussr al-bazdawee – Abu- almu’een Annasfee – Najm Eddine Annasfee – Al-Kamal bnul-Hammam – Al-Kawtharee – Ahmad Al-Afghanee Al - bareilawi Abdulmustapha – Annadwee – Assaharnforee – Waliuallaah Addahlawee - Etc.

- ??? ????? ??????? [421-493??] ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????

- ??? ?????? ?????? [438-508??] : ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???????
- ??? ????? ??? ?????? [462-537??] : ?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? … ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ??? ????? ?????? : ??? ?????

ASH’ARI SCHOLARS:

- Abu Ishaq al- Isfarayiniyy- Abu Nuaim al-asbahanee- Abul Ma’alee Al-Juwainee(The sheikh of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazzalee)- Abu Mansur Tamimee- Al-Bayhaqee – Ad-daraqutnee- Abu Bakr bnu Fourk(d403) - Al- Khateeb al Baghdaadee( d 421)- Sanussee – Asha’rawee – Al-beejuree - Abul kassim al Kushairee- Abu Ishaa asheeraazee- Abu Hamid al Ghazzalee- Al farawee- Abul waleed bajee- addamaghanee – Ahmad Rifaee- Fakhr eddine Razee- Al-Baqillanee- Al Qurtubee – Zaynuddine al Iraqi- As subkee- Murtada Azabeedee – Abdullaah Ash Sharqawee(Sheikh of Azhar university 100 years ago)- Abdullaah al Hararee- etc
Some comments on these scholars
1 – All the Ash’ari scholars as well as the maturidi scholars were born after the year 300 AH: they don’t belong to the pious generations. Abul hassan the founder himself died in the year 324AH.
2 – Some scholars are wrongly attributed to their sect:
a. Abu Hajar Asqalaanee was very harsh on Asha’ira even though he was affected little bit by them.His book Fath lbaree (12 volumes explaining Sahih Bukharee), which is a proof against those who claim he was an Ash’ari.
b.Imam Nawawee was affected little bit as well but he is not to be considered as an Ash’aree. His book Sharh sahih Muslim is a strong evidence against the Asha’ira.
3 – As for them mentioning some great leaders in the past such as Salah Eddine Al-Ayyubee and Muhammad Al-Fatih for being people of kalaam, is not an evidence that they are on the right path because not only have they been deceived by the scholars around them who used to pretend to follow the four Imaams(the four schools of thought have been affected by Ash’arism) but also the immunity is in the texts(Qur’aan, Hadeeth and consensus of Sahabas Kiram).Since Jami’ Azhar was built by Salah Eddine(urged by so-called Shafi’ee scholars) it has never stopped to spread Sufism because every Ash’ari is a Sufi.
4 – They always claim that the scholars of Ahlu Sunna make takfeer on them, which is a lie: we refer to their books of fiqh and consider them people of ta’weel (who misinterpret texts) or innovators still inside the fold of Islaam.
5 – The Asha’ira such as Hamza Yussef, Abdelkarim Murad, Umar
Bahri(Hizb Tahreer) and Noe Keller bit around the bush and put words in the
mouth of Sunni scholars in order to delude the listener.
6 – Whenever they lack proofs they use deception as last resort to exhort their followers to blindly follow them. For instance, when Munir Agha, the founder of the Egyptian Islamic Press, published a book entitled ‘Epistle on the Assertion of Establishment and Aboveness’(Rissala fi Ithbaat al-Istiwaa’ wal fawqiyyah), whose author was Imam Abu Muhammad al-Juwainee who undoubtedly recanted Ash’arism and exposed it, not only did they slander al-Juwainee of dying as an innovator Jahmee but also they also casted doubts on his ‘Rissala’, claiming that it has been promoted without verification.
7 – The Rotten NeoJahmi Nuh Keller:
FOLLOWING ARE FEW INVOCATIONS OF SHAADHILI ORDER BY NUH HA MIM KELLER:
1. Violations of Muslim Creed (Aqeeda)
Violations of the Muslims Creed (Aqeedah)
In Page 1, Keller says:
“This blessed collection contains those of the invocations and prayers of the Pole and Succor my master Abul Hasan al-Shadhili”
Comments:
Before stating the comment, let’s consider first the definition of the terms “pole” and “succor”. The term Pole in Sufi literature means the “perfect man” who holds Allah’s attention in this world; all the affairs of creation revolve around him. He takes his way in the universe, both the seen and unseen parts of it, as the spirit takes its way in the body. He could also be called al-Gouth (Succor, i.e. helper) because people seek his assistance in case of adversity. Ahmad al-Tijani (the founder of the Tijani Sufi order) said, “The reality of the Pole status is that he is great vicegerent of Al-Haqq (i.e. Allah) in all the universe, wherever Allah is a God, the pole is his vicegerent in the sense that he (i.e. the pole) carries out all the decrees that Allah might have. So, nothing will reach the creation except through the pole.” [This is sufism by Abdulrahman al-wakeel, pages 124 and 125. Published by Dar al-Kutub al-‘ilmiyyah, third edition 1979.]
1. A Muslim wonders where the Sufis got these ideas from. The Sufis claim that they follow the Quran and the Sunnah but they adopt concepts that contradict these two sources. 2. Why would Allah need a human to help Him run the affairs of the universe? 3. What are our duties as “generic” Muslims towards the Pole? 4. Should we seek help, in case of adversity, from Allah or from the Pole/Succor? Let Nuh Keller answer and try to repent.
2. Keller and his support for old extreme Sufi's
3. Over praising Sheikhs
4. Sufi heresies
5. Sufi orders- disunite Muslims
6. Putting oneself in a position of Legislation belonging to Allah and the Prophet SAAWS
7. Using problematic Sufi terms or concepts
8. Weak / confusing / meaningless statements


CONTEMPORARY ASHA’IRA :

- Nabahanee(ex Mustaslim Brother and founder of Hizb Tahreer in Palestine) – Muhammad Al-Ghazzali (Mustaslim Brother Movement) and his Sheikh Al-kawtharee – Jamel Badawee – Umar Bakri(leader of H.T) – Assabuni – Al Butee(he works for the Nussairee regime in Syria and mostly praised by Hamza Yussef) – Attantawee(he works for the Pharaonic regime in Egypt and head of Azhar University) – Noe Keller(an extrem Ash’ari who makes takfeer on B.Taymiyya) – Sheikh Sakkaf (from Egypt)- Hamza yussef (extreme Murji) – Hassan Heetoo( from Kuwait)- All Hafidh and Imaams from Azhar University.

SUB-SECTS OF ASHA’IRA:

1 – Hizbut Tahreer : Party of Freedom:

The Party of freedom started in al-Quds(Palestine) in1372AH (1953) whose only aim is to get involved in intellectual and Political struggle. The Members of this movement are full flesh deviants for the following reasons:

a – Erroneous aquida :
Among other things, if you believe in one of the issues mentioned underneath(khabar ahaad) you are a sinner according to Umar Bakri(Hizbut Tahreer) because you are only supposed to say ‘I trust’( ussadik ):
- The Prophethood of Adam, the ten promised Paradise, the precedence of the Prophethood of Muhammad(saw) over the other prophets(pbut), the merits of the Prophet(saw), the Qareen of the Prophet(saw) surrendered in Islaam, the questions of Munkar wa Nukair in the grave, the great intercession of the Prophet on the day of resurrection, the intercession of the Prophet for the sinners of his ummat, the major sin doers won’t be forever in Hell Fire, the soul of Martyrs are in green birds in Paradise, most of the Mericles of the Prophet(saw), the descent of ‘Issa (Jesus) (pbuh), Description of Paradise and Hell Fire, description of the day of Judgement,the origine of the Black Stone (from Jannat), the Punishment of the grave(which includes the squeeze of the grave, rolled on hot coal, serpent), the seventy thousand from the ummat who enter Paradise without reckoning, faith in destiny and predestination good and bad, faith in the Pen and the sacred Tablet(Lawhul Mahfoodh) wherein everything is written, specific Angels informing the Prophet(saw) the salaam(Darood)
of his Ummat.
b – Wrong methodology(Manhaj):
Similarly to the Shi’a and others, Hizbut Tahreer put dodgy conditions on enjoining good and forbidding evil, namely:
- There is no such a thing without a Caliphate and this is unsound because it contradicts the Sahih hadeeth regarding the permanent victorious group(people of hadeeth and Mujahideen) and there were many expeditions that were carried out without a Caliph in Islamic history to be taken into account.
- They consider themselves to be in the Mecca period, which is untenable because the whole Qur’aan has been revealed to be implemented and nobody can gamble or drink alcohol anymore!
C – Legislation (Shar’):
Many things are made permissible or disliked(Makrooh)only to enable their blind followers to do many evil actions. So, smoking tobacco, listening to music, shaking the hand of a woman, free mixing and many other evil actions are permissible for them. By the way have you ever seen a HT student growing a beard?!
2 – Muslim Brothers :Ikhwaane:

a – their aquida:
Most of their scholars are Modernist Asha’ira and are called people of intellect. With regards to this issue they are worst than Hizbut Tahreer because they don’t believe in Tawheed Hakimiyya(oneness of governance): According to the Holy Qur’aan Allaah is the only lawgiver but for the Democrat Ikhwaane the people is the only lawgiver.
b- Their Methodology:
Their Manhaj is similar to Hizbut Tahreer: Both of them believe that Jihaad can be waged only against the original kafir but not the apostates of their countries, which is totally unfounded because the apostate(murtad) is the worst kafir. For instance, Parties like Hamas in Palestine and the other Hamas in Algeria consider their entire kafir regime to be their brothers in faith. May Allaah give them hidaya.
c- Their legislation:
Their main concern is to try to increase the number of their followers. To do so, their scholars try always to be soft as well as to make Haram Halaal to please them to the point that they didn’t leave anything that they didn’t make permissible. Finally, they ascribe to it an Islamic name e.g. Islamic songs, Islamic Democraty, Islamic Reebae and may be one day, they will utter ‘Islamic Zina as well’. We seek refuge in Allaah from it.
3 – Jam’aa islamiyya of Abula’la Mawdudi:

Apart from having the same methodology and fiqh as the Muslim brothers’ movement and some occasional mistakes Mawdudi's (Maududi) characterization of Imam al Ghazali as a reformer is to be praised.
Indeed, being the founder of Jama’aa islamiyyah Abul A'ala Mawdudi, one of the religion reformers of the present time, introduces Imam al-Ghazali as a reformer in his book The Revivalist Movement in Islam. He writes:
"Imam al-Ghazali extirpated the Greek thoughts so as to remove their effects from Muslims' minds. He corrected the mistakes of those who attempted to defend Islam against philosophers and scholasticism according to their own thoughts. He revealed the rational effects of the principles of belief, reopened the spirit of ijtihad, arranged the programs of education, introduced the moral principles of Islam and invited the government and officials to follow Islam. Yet he was inefficient in the knowledge of the Hadith, and he dwelt too much on rational knowledge and inclined to tasawwuf more than necessary."
This statement is spot on and those who disagree let them prove the contrary for generally what they do is to disagree by showing their feelings without mentioning to their followers that Abu hamid Al-Ghazzalee was an Ash’ari(deception).
He genuinely attributes, on the whole, the three aforementioned three defects to this great scholar, who has been one of the greatest Ash’ari scholars. He calls these obvious defects "dangerous attitude" since the people of kalaam or the Jahmiyya Kullabiyyah are not Ahlu sunna wal Jama’a. He honestly and accordingly goes on:
"Ibn Taymiyya removed these dangers, revived Islam's spirit of idea and morals and accomplished the explorations of renewal. A little before him(approximately 200 years), no one had dared to invite the people to Islam out of the fear of being calumniated; the narrow-minded scholars had cooperated with the cruel rulers, and it was his lot to unfurl the flag of renewal against them. He was profound in interpretation of the Qur'an and a leader in the Hadith and he took Islam from where al-Ghazali had left it forward. He defended Islamic faith and found more beautiful proofs for Islamic spirit than al-Ghazali had. Al-Ghazali's judgement had remained under the harmful influence of rational thoughts (The Asha’iras and the Maturidis). Ibn Taymiyya was more effective and chose the way of reason, which was closer to spirit of the Qur'an and Sunnat. Thus, he won a wonderful success. Those who were educated scholastically(the people of kalaam) were not able to establish the connection between themselves and the Qur'an and Hadith. It has been only Ibn Taymiyya's lot to confirm the real explanation of Islam which is the path of the pious predecessors. He made ijtihads by deriving his inspiration directly from the Holy Book, from the Sunnat, and from the way of living of the Prophet's companions. Ibn al-Qayyim, his disciple, studied over the divine causes, the meanings of which had not been solved, and put Islamic rules. By clearing out the evil effects that had leaked into Islamic system, he purified and refreshed it. He attacked the bad customs that had been accepted as parts of Islam and had been support for religious punishments and tolerated by scholars for centuries. This honest act turned the whole world against him. Those who came later raced with one another to calumniate him."
G – SUB-SECTS OF MATURIDIS :

1 – Deobandi school and Annadwiyyah school:

This school was built in1283(H) where scholars are keen on publishing the science of hadeeth. Thus the Deobandi Imaams teach both the textual and the intellectual knowledge (ilmul kalam). However, most of them are Sufis to the core and perpetuate quburi innovations as it is indicated in their book entitled “Al-muhannad ‘ala Al-mufannad”, one of the most important books of Deobandis in aquidah, and written by Eshaikh Ahmad Assaharnforee – one of their imams - . On the other hand, there is no much difference between the latter and nadwiyyah school of thought which is being known as Maturidi in aquidah.

2 – Bareilawi school of thought:
This school of thought was founded in 1272 H and was named after their leader Ahmad Ridha Khan Al-Afghanee the Sufee Maturidee whose name is Abdulmustapha (born in1340 H). Since the beginning of his career not only was he keen on calling to grave worshipping but also showing enmity to Deobandis and expelling them out of the fold of islam let alone the Ahlu sunna.

3 – Al-Kawtharee School of thought(1296 H):
As its name suggests, the name of this school has been named after Ashaikh Muhammad Al-kawtharee Al-hanafee Al-Maturidee (1371 H) whose main efforts were to bitterly and inconsiderably try to discredit and curse the imams of islam for, according to him they are anthropomorphist. As for the books such as Attawheed, Al-ibaana, Ashari’a, Assifaat, and other authentic books he states that they contain nothing but anthropomorphism and paganism. Then again, he adopted so many shirk innovations and extreme Sufism, that is, worshipping graves and the deceased people in their graves under the guise of “tawassul” as it is mentioned in his book “Maqalaat Al-kawtharee” as well as his commentary on the book of Al-Baihaqee.


Statements such as this: “ Our Shuyukh in the Most Distinguished Naqshbandi Path, especially the Imam of Tariqa and Ghawth of creatures Khwaja Baha' al-Din Naqshband, and Sultan al-Awliya', the teacher of our teacher, Sayyidi `Abd Allah al-Fa'iz al-Daghistani; and our beloved Shaykh, the light of our eyes, Mawlana al-Shaykh Muhammad Nazim al-Haqqani; and the rest of our Masters…” are on the increase and have been taught in Deoband university since it was built. By the way Ghawth means ‘saviour’ and this suggests that some of the scholars practice istighatha and tawassul from others than Allaah.

To justify the shirk of tawassul, that is ascribing partners to Allaah, their scholars say many absurdities such as the following argument:
“While a prayer is accepted for the sake of one's good deeds, it is certain that the prayers sent through those who have performed the best deeds will be accepted. 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (radi-Allahu 'anh) prayed for rain by putting Hadrat 'Abbas (radi-Allahu 'anh) as an intermediary. None of us, Sahabat al-kiram objected to it. The reason why he did not pray through Rasulullah ('alaihi 's-salam) or through his blessed grave but through Hadrat 'Abbas was because he deemed himself very low and considered Rasulullah's ('alaihi 's-salam) relatives higher than himself”

This is really ludicrous and non-sensical for below reasons:
- Hadhrat Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) was alive when Umar Bin Khattab(ra) put him as an intermediary
- None of the pious predecessors put anyone among the dead pious people as intermediaries. What is the difference between the Christian who make duaa to Jesus and the so-called Muslims who make duaa to Abd Al-Qadir Jillani and the Messenger (PBUH).
As Muslims we cannot perform particular forms of Tawassul. That is saying things like Oh Allah grant me this by the Glory of Muahammed, or by the Honour you have bestowed upon Muhammad as both these are shirk
- The Prophet (saw) never urged people to use objects, dead people or even himself after his death as wassila. The only thing is that these scholars wish to use their own intellect to misguide million of people
- They falsely claim that they do not ask Allah directly out of respect for Him, saying that He must have an intermediary, just as a king can not be asked except through an intermediary, and that Allah is more deserving of this than a king, then again it is from their own reasoning because Allaah the Almighty does not need such thing
- Their claim is worst than the one of Quraish since they had no preserved revelation and they used to make idols as intermediaries
- The Prophets are not alive in their graves (Refer to Surah Zumar). Therefore, the intercession of the Prophet (saw) takes place only when he is alive.
The Prophet said:
" Every Prophet has an invocation that will be answered; and every Prophet hastened in his invocation, but I withheld my invocation so that I may intercede for my people on the Day of Judgement. Allah willing, my invocation will include those of my nation who died without setting up partners to Allah " [Muslim]
- The polytheists of the early period (Quraish) believed in Allah as their Lord, Creator, and Sustainer but they relied on Prophets and friends and protectors[who died], angels, trees and stones, etc. in the hope of gaining their intercession with Allah and nearness to Him as Allah said in the holy Qur’aan. Allah did not pardon them nor the Prophet (s.a.w). Indeed Allah has renounced them and has described them as infidels and polytheists. Allah has also disproved their claim that those gods will intercede for them with Allah and take them nearer to Him.
- ????? ?????? ? ??????? [ 1283??- …] ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? .
- ????? ???????? [1272?? -…] ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? [1340??] ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? .
- ????? ??????? [ 1296?? - …] ? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? (1371??) ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ????? ???? : ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? . ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? .
H – Verdict on people of kalaam:
The asha’ira and maturidis always claim that the scholastical and theological systems of respectively al Maturidi and al Ash'ari have long since been accepted by the general populace of the Muslim world. However, this argument is unfounded because not only is the number of followers not a proof by itself but also their followers don’t even know their aquida. Regrettably, these scholars use deception even with their students.
They are innovators and deviants regarding many aspects of Islaam. Consequently, they can never be considered to be Ahlu sunna wal Jamaa. We don’t make takfeer on them because we implement mawani’ attakfeer (Impediments). It will be up to Allaah The Most High to forgive them or punish them in the Hereafter(khabar ahaad!).
However, anyone who commits Shirk (obedience, governance, etc…) we would expel them out of the fold of Islaam like ordinary Muslims because there is no excuse in major Shirk.
Oh Allaah guide us to the truth by your leave, in that which they have
Differed for verily you guide whom you will to a straight path.Praise be to Allaah and peace and blessings be upon Allaah’s Messenger,his family and his followers.Ameen


AT-TAWHEED



The three principles that every Muslim, male and female, must learn are knowing one’s Lord, Religion and Prophet.

If it is said to you, ‘Who is your Lord?’ Say, ‘My Lord is the One who nurtured me and all of the creation with His Bounties. He is the One that I worship, I have none to worship but Him.’

If it is said to you, ‘What is your Religion?’ Say, ‘My Religion is Islam, which is submission to Allah with Tawhid (Islamic Monotheism) and obedience to Him in worship, and disassociation from Shirk (polytheism) and its people.’

If it is said to you, ‘Who is your Prophet?’ Say, ‘Muhammad (?) bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim. Hashim is from Quraysh. Quraysh are from the Arabs and the Arabs are from the children of Ismail bin Ibrahim.’

There are two issues which are the foundation of the Religion:

1. The order to worship Allah alone, without any partners, instigating that worship, having loyalty towards it and to consider the one leaving it as an unbeliever.

2. Warning against Shirk in worshipping Allah, to be stern and to show enmity against it and to consider the one doing it as an unbeliever.

Following are the 7 conditions of La ilaha ill-Allah (None has the right to be worshipped except Allah) with supporting evidences from the Qur’an and Sunnah:

1. Knowledge (of its meaning) - as Allah says:

“So know (O Muhammad ?) that La ilaha ill-Allah (None has the right to be worshipped but Allah)...” Surah Muhammad Ayah 19


“…Except those who bear witness to the truth, and they know.” Surah Az-Zukhruf Ayah 86

They testify La ilaha ill-Allah, pronouncing with their tongues (while they know) with their hearts.

In a hadith narrated by Uthman he says the Messenger of Allah ? said, “Whoever dies knowing ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’ will enter Jannah (Paradise).” Muslim


2. Certainty (which is complete knowledge that negates doubt and suspicion - the condition for honesty in the faith is absence of doubt. The one with doubt is of the hypocrites) - as Allah says:
“Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful.” Surah Al-Hujurat Ayah 15

In a long hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah, that the Messenger of Allah ? said: “Whoever you meet behind this wall and testifies ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’, with certainty in his heart, give him good tidings of Jannah.”

3. Sincerity (that negates Shirk) - as Allah says:

“And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him)...”

In a hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah he says that the Prophet ? said, “The most fortunate person to have my intercession is the one who says, ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’ sincerely from his heart and soul.”

4. Truthfulness (that negates lying and prevents hypocrisy) - as Allah says:

“Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: ‘We believe,’ and will not be tested. And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars.”

Muadh bin Jabal narrated that the Prophet ? said, “No servant testifies ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’ truthfully from his heart except that Allah will make him forbidden for the Fire.”

5. Love (for these words and what they means, and to be happy with it) also it is do with wala’ wal bara’, that is to love and hate for the sake of Allaah - as Allaah says:

“And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else)...”

“O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his Religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers…”
Anas narrated that the Messenger of Allah ? said, “One who has three qualities will find the sweetness of Iman: Allah and His Messenger are more beloved to him than anyone else, he loves a person for the sake of Allah, and he hates to return to unbelief after Allah has saved him from it, as he hates to be thrown into the Fire.”

6. Submission(to its duties [Qur’an and Sunah], which are compulsory actions sincerely for Allah, seeking His pleasure) - as Allah says:

“And turn in repentance and in obedience with true Faith (Islamic Monotheism) to your Lord and submit to Him (in Islam), before the torment comes upon you, then you will not be helped.”

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ?) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.”

7. Acceptance [inwardly and outwardly] (that negates rejection) - as Allah says:

“And similarly, We sent not a warner before you (O Muhammad ?) to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: ‘We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.’ (The warner) said: ‘Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following?’ They said: ‘Verily, we disbelieve in that which you have been sent.’ So We took revenge of them, then see what was the end of those who denied (Islamic Monotheism).”



The four Categories Of Tawhid.

1. Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah - This is the Tawhid of Allah in his Essence, his Names and Attributes, and His Actions. This is to attest that Allah is The Lord, Creator and Owner of everything. That He is the One Who gives and takes life, that He is the One Who benefits and harms. That He alone responds to the invocation in times of desperation. The command is solely with Him, all good is in His Hand. He is capable of what He Wills, and He has no partner. This category includes faith in Qadr (predestination). Allaah subhanahu wa ta’aala is unic in His Essence i.e. His throne, etc.

This Tawhid alone is not enough for a servant to enter Islam. He must accept the other categories of Tawhid (which follow). The polytheists in the time of the Prophet ? attested to this Tawhid but it did not enter them into Islam. The Messenger fought them and made their blood and wealth halal, as Allah says:

“Say (O Muhammad ?): ‘Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or Who owns hearing and sight? And Who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And Who disposes the affairs?’ They will say: ‘Allah...’”

2. Tawhid Al-Asma Was-Siffat - This is to attest that Allah has knowledge and power over everything. That He is Al-Hayy (The Ever-Living), Al-Qayyum (The Sustainer), He is not affected by fatigue or sleep, His will prevails, He has infinite wisdom, He is As-Sami (The All-Hearer), Al-Basir (The All-Seer), He is Ar-Rauf (The Most Kind), Ar-Rahim (The Merciful), He is above the Throne and He encompasses all creation.

Again this type of Tawhid alone is not enough to enter Islam. One must also accept the categories of Tawhid.

3. Tawheed Al-Hakimiyya (unicity in lawgiving) - This to attest that Allaah is unic in his actions (ruling is one of them) and nobody has the right to tamper neither with Allaah’s rule on earth nor with his legislation. This category is based on the fundamental concept that Allaah alone is the only Lawgiver.
In regards to this Allah said: "Is it not Allah the best of rulers(Ruling includes legislating, judging and executing the orders) ?" [Al-Quran, Surah At-Teen, Ayah 8]
Likewise he also said "And he Allah doesn't allow anyone to share with him in his rule." [Al-Quran, Surah Al-Kahf, Ayah 26]
Since Allah is the only Lawgiver, Tawheed Al-Hakimiyyah is known of Islam by necessity. As for those who attempt to hide Tawheed Al-Hakimiyyah from the believers, they slide it underneath Tawheed Ar-Rububiyyah and claim they mean the same thing.
4. Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah or Lailahailla Allaah - This category has been one of contention for the people of the past and present. This is the Tawhid of Allah with our actions. This is based on sincere worship of Allah. Worship which includes love, fear, hope, dependence and invocation to Allah alone. All acts of worship, both the inward and outward, must be performed purely for Allah. None of these acts of worship can be performed for anyone else, whether an angel, prophet or human, as Allah says:

“You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and every thing).”


Shirk or Polytheism

1. Shirk in the worship of Allah - This is the greatest sin that can be committed against Allah because it is transgression against His Lordship and an aggression against His Divinity. Shirk is to equate Allah with others in what is exclusive to Allah. Why should this not be the greatest sin committed against Allah when He is the One Who brought the creation into existence and sustained them with His Bounties? Included in this is slaughtering for other than Allah, like for the Jinn or graves, as Allah says:

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases…”

The different types of Shirk

Shirk is of three types: major, minor, and hidden. Allah does not forgive major Shirk or accept any righteous deed associated with it, as Allah says:

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases...”

“…If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers.”

“…But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.”

Shirk is not forgiven except with repentance. If one meets Allah committing this Shirk he will abide in the Hellfire for all eternity, as mentioned in the previous Ayah (verse) from Surah An-Nisa.

This is why the polytheists from amongst the grave worshippers and others will say to their gods in the Hellfire:

“By Allah, we were truly in a manifest error, when we held you (false gods) as equals (in worship) with the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists).”

They did not equate their gods with Allah in creating, sustaining, giving and taking life. They only equated them in love - which is the essence of worship, and reverence - which is a great act of worship. That is why Allah condemned those who do not revere Him:

“What is the matter with you, [that you fear not Allah (His punishment), and] you hope not for reward (from Allah or you believe not in His Oneness).”

Evil, in its entirety, goes back to associating others with Allah.
Major Shirk is of eight types:
1.Shirk of Ibada:

a – Offering sacrifices for Jins or idols or graves S6 V162 / S108 V2
Anyone sacrificing for the Awliya (friends), idols or jinn has left Islam and entered into the domain of unbelief and error for directing an act of worship to other than Allah. Included in major Shirk is sacrifice for other than Allah. Sacrificing for Allah is an act of worship, as He says:

“Say (O Muhammad ?): ‘Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the Alamin.”


b – Vowing S76 V7
Whoever makes a vow in the name of a Wali (friend) has discarded the ties of Islam from his neck, because it is not allowed to make a vow except in the name of Allah. Making a vow for other than Allah is contrary to what the Prophet ? was sent with.23
c – Seeking refuge from Jins S72 V6
d – Other fundamental branches of faith such as repentence, etc.

2.Shirk in Dua (supplication) - Allah says in the Qur’an:
Allaah (swt) says, “ And invoke not besides Allaah any such that will never profit you nor hurt you, but if you did so, you shall certainly be of the Dhalimoon” 10 : 106/107
Anyone who places intermediaries between himself and Allaah, and seek assistance from them, has committed major shirk. So wassila is permissible only when a person is still alive [likewise Umar (ra) from the uncle of the Prophet (saw)]
Shirk, in our time, has become more extreme than in the past, because the people of the past used to commit Shirk in easy times and were sincere in hard times. However, Shirk in the
present age is permanent in both easy and hard times
One who makes intermediaries between himself and Allah, invoking them, asking them for intercession, and depending on them. This person is an unbeliever by Ijmaa (consensus).

There are two types of intercession:

b. Disapproved intercession - This is sought from other than Allah and is the most frequent and dangerous. Many, ascribing to Islam, who do not know Islam or its reality, have made intermediaries between themselves and Allah, invoking them to remove tragedies, relieve distress and hardship.

This consists of making Duaa to saints in the graves. Or saying Ya Abd Al-Qadir Jillani help me (in any matter)..... Saying Ya Muhammed (pbuh) as if he is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. It is permitted to go to his grave in Medinah and give him salams.
What is the difference between the Christian who make duaa to Jesus and the so-called Muslims who make duaa to Abd Al-Qadir Jillani and the Messenger (PBUH).
As Muslims we cannot perform particular forms of Tawassul. That is saying things like Oh Allah grant me this by the Glory of Muahammed, or by the Honour you have bestowed upon Muhammad as both these are shirk. Allah responds to this in Sura Az-Zumr verse 3:

"Now, surely, sincere obedience is due to Allah (alone) and (as for) those who take guardians besides Him, (saying), We do not serve them save that they may make us nearer to Allah, surely Allah will judge between them in that in which they differ; surely Allah does not guide him aright who is a liar, ungrateful."

The type of tawassul mentioned above was never practised by any of the Sahaba. Indeed when there was a drought in Medinah Umar went to the living uncle of the Messenger (pbuh) Abbas and asked him to pray for it to rain. He (Omar) never went to the grave of the Messenger(pbuh) and did tawassul like some of the people do today.


This makes them unbelievers, by the consensus of the Muslims, because Allah did not reveal Books and send Messengers except to propagate the message to worship Him alone. The grave worshippers refused and made intermediaries, asking them to bring benefit and avert harm. They have made this the worship Allah commanded. When anyone disapproves of this practice, they accuse him of not respecting the Awliya and the righteous. They falsely claim that they do not ask Allah directly out of respect for Him, saying that He must have an intermediary, just as a king can not be asked except through an intermediary, and that Allah is more deserving of this than a king. However, Allah says in the following verses:

“Say (O Muhammad ?): ‘Call upon those whom you assert (to be associate gods) besides Allah, they possess not even the weight of an atom (or a small ant), either in the Heavens or on the Earth, nor have they any share in either, nor there is for Him any supporter from among them. Intercession with Him profits not, except for him whom He permits…”

“And invoke not besides Allah, any that will neither profit you, nor hurt you, but if you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zalimun. And if Allah touches you with hurt, there is none who can remove it but He; and if He intends any good for you, there is none who can repel His Favour, which He causes it to reach whomsoever of His slaves He will. And He is the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

In a hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas, he said that when it was said to the Prophet ?, “What Allah and you will,’ he said, ‘Have you made me an equal with Allah? What Allah wills alone.”

b. Affirmed intercession - This is sought from Allah and it is only for the people of Tawhid and Sincerity. This is with two conditions:

- Permission from Allah for the intercessor, as He says:

“…Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission?..”

- Allah’s pleasure with the one being interceded for, as He says:

“…Whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and pleases.”

This means pleased with his actions and words. The actions of the polytheists will be scattered dust. They will have no intercession as a compensation for their intentions. One who hastens something before its time is punished, by being forbidden that thing.

3. Shirk in Niyah (intention), Iradah (thought), and Qasd (aim) –
Allah says:
“Whosoever desires the life of the world and its glitter; to them We shall pay in full (the wages of) their deeds therein, and they will have no diminution therein. They are those for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but Fire; and vain are the deeds they did therein. And of no effect is that which they used to do.”

The Shirk in intention is a never-ending ocean with very few escaping from it. Whoever wants other than the pleasure of Allah, intends other than to get closer to Him and seeks reward from other than Him has committed Shirk in his intention and action.

This Shirk is major when the intention is completely for other than Allah (shirk of hypocrites).
If the intention was for Allah and then it changes to Riya (showing off), then this is considered to be minor Shirk. However, it is regarded as major sin.
As for the hidden showing off it might be a minor sin or fall into the category of major sin or forgiven with its specific du’aa. Hidden Shirk is mentioned in an authentic hadith:

“Shirk in this Ummah (community, nation) is more inconspicuous than the movement of an ant...”

The expiation of this Shirk can be found in the saying of the Prophet ?: “O Allah! I seek refuge with You from associating anything with You, while knowing, and I seek Your forgiveness for what I do not know.”


4. Shirk in Ta’ah (Obedience) - Allah says in the Qur’an:

“They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah, and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Torah and the Gospel] to worship none but One God (Allah) La ilaha illa huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and Glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him).”

This Ayah is explained by the hadith reported by At-Tirmidhi, and others, from Adi bin Hatim. He heard the Prophet ? reading the Ayah ‘They have taken their rabbis and monks and the Messiah, son of Maryam, as lords besides Allah.’ He said to the Prophet ?, ‘We did not worship them.’ He said, ‘Did they not make haram what Allah made halal, and you made it haram, and they made halal what Allah made haram, and you made it halal?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ The Prophet ? said, ‘That is worshipping them.’

5. Shirk in Mahabbah (Love) - Allah says in the Qur’an:

“And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else)…”

You find polytheists loving their idols just as they love Allah or even more. If the idols are violated against they become angrier than they do for Allah. They rejoice for the idols more than they rejoice for Allah.
There are four types of love and a distinction must be made between them:

a. Love of Allah - This is not enough to be saved from the punishment of Allah and attain His reward, because the polytheists, Christians and Jews love Allah.

b. Love of what Allah loves - This is what brings one into Islam from unbelief. The most beloved people to Allah are the strongest in this love. This is wala’ and Bara’.

c. Love for the sake of Allah - This is a requisite of what He loves.

d. Loving others with Allah - This love is Shirk and anyone who loves anything with Allah, not for His sake, has taken it as a partner besides Allah. This is the love of the polytheists as illustrated in the previous Ayah.

6. Shirk of Hakimiyya
Tawheed Al-Hakimiyyah is known of islam by necessity. Approving today’s parliaments, voting for them is major shirk because Allah said in regards to his governance : "And he Allah doesn't allow anyone to share with him in his rule." [Al-Quran, Surah Al-Kahf, Ayah 26]
If someone claims that to dismantle the Shariah is Minor shirk they are wrong as it implies that Allah is an oppressor and Allah has overreacted when He turned the Jews into apes and swine for tempering with the Sabbath? Allaah is Just and they are the wrong doers.

Moreover, ruling in Arabic includes three different meanings that are the three stages in the process of ruling, that is : Legislating (shari’a), judging and executing the orders.
If the legislating is not tampered with and there is occasional breach in judging or executing the orders then it is minor. But if the legislating has been changed it is the major shirk known of islam by necessity.

7. Shirk of Magic and those who claim to know the unseen
Allaah has ordered His Prophet to convey to the people:
" Say (O Muhammad s.a.w): I possess no power of benefit or hurt to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Ghaib (unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe " [7:188]
If the leader of all mankind and the best of them, our Prophet (s.a.w) does not possess any good nor any harm for himself except what is willed by Allah, how could any other human being do so? There are numerous verses in the Noble Qur'an in this context.
As regards learning magic, teaching it, and practicing it is regarded as an open kufr. To consult the soothsayers, magicians, astrologers and others of their tribe who try to predict the unknown, it is a reprehensible act; to believe in them is more reprehensible and objectionable and it is form of blasphemy because the Prophet (s.a.w) has said:
" The prayers of a person who consults a soothsayer about anything,
will not be accepted for forty days " [Muslim]

8. Shirk At-tawaaf
This is the shirk of doing tawaaf around the graves of people. Tawaaf (circumbulating around the ka’ba) is a form of worship because a person needs to be in a state of Woodoo. There is a Hadith from the Messenger (pbuh) which means that Tawaaf is salah. Since tawwaf is a act of worship you cannot associate others with Allah. This practice is found in places like Egypt, India and Pakistan. We should give evidence to ignorant people indulging in such thing before pronouncing them kafirs.

Minor shirk is of many types, namely:

1. Shirk of fear
Allaah (swt) said, “…but when the fighting was prescribed for them, a section of them fear men as they fear Allaah…” 4:77
This is minor as far as someone does not deny one pillar of islam.

2. Shirk of tawakkul
It is a minor shirk to put someone’s trust on other creatures in order to seek protection.

3. Showing off :
This Shirk in worship nullifies the reward of the action; if the action is obligatory, one may be punished for it because it is as if he did not do the action and so is punished for leaving the order. Eventhough it is a minor shirk it is regarded as a major sin.
4. To swear with names other than Allah
This was a common practice of the Arabs during the Prophet's (s.a.w.s.) time. They used to swear with the Ka'aba's name, with a pious ancestor's name, or more commonly, with the names of the idols they worshipped, e.g. Al-Latta, Az-Uzza etc. This is shirk because indirectly it gives some recognition of power or glorification to the being named. Says the Prophet (s.a.w.s.):
“ Whoever swears with other than Allah, he has committed an act of shirk and kufr.”
5. To adorn something that is believed to be a form of 'protection from misfortune'
Again, this was a common practice of the early Arabs and is to some extent still prevalent today. Wearing certain bangles, necklaces and amulets was believed to be able to weaken jinn or evil spirits or protect oneself from 'al-ain', misfortune etc.
6. To believe in evil omens
This happens when a person intends to do something, but decides not to do it because of experiencing or 'seeing' certain evil signs or omens such as no 13, a cat crossing the way, ect.
The eight types of major Shirk (previously mentioned) take one out of Islam because they are supposed to be known from islam by necessity, apart from the shirk of tawaaf. In this case, someone should be given evidence first on the basis of impediments of takfeer. Allaah (swt) has called them unbelievers for calling others with Him, as He says:

“And whoever invokes (or worships), besides Allah, any other ilah (gods), of whom he has no proof, then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely! Al-Kafirun (the disbelievers) will not be successful.”
Why does shirk occupy such a serious position in Islam?
Several of the main reasons are:
1. Shirk causes the greatest downfall of human status and dignity
Man is the best creation of Allah (s.w.t.), created in 'the highest of forms' (Al Tin:4). He is the khalifatul fir ardh [the vicegerent of Allah (s.w.t.)]. He falls 'to the lowest of the low' (Al Tin:5) when he takes any other creation of Allah (s.w.t.) as deities or gods.
? Turn unto Allah (only), not ascribing partners unto Him, for whoso ascribes partners unto Allah, it is as if he had fallen from the sky and the birds had snatched him or the wind had blown him to a far off place. (Al Hajj:31)
2. Shirk is the root of evil and superstition
It is because of shirk that man can believe in the powers of jinn, spirits and particular human beings. Some believe that they can predict future events or cause an event to occur or not to occur. All these can give rise to various forms of evil or ignorant practices.
3. Shirk is tyranny and injustice
An injustice is to withhold someone's rights or treat someone in an unfair manner. In praising and worshipping deities that have no power whatsoever to control his life, man forgets Allah's (s.w.t.) sole right to be worshipped. He ignores his Creator, Who had given him his life and thus is ungrateful and unjust to Allah (s.w.t.).
? When Luqman said to his son while advising him "Oh my son! Do not ascribe partners to Allah. Indeed shirk is a great injustice." (Luqman:13)
4. Shirk is the cause of anxiety and fear
Because the mushrik believes in the powers of his various deities, he is always living in constant fear, whereas the only one to be feared is Allah (s.w.t.), as all other things are dependent upon Him.
? We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve because they ascribe partners unto Allah for which no warrant has been revealed. (Al Nisa:151)
5. Shirk denies rewards in the hereafter
For those who associate partners with Allah (s.w.t.), heaven has been made haram for them.
? Indeed they do blaspheme those who say that Allah is Jesus, the son of Mary, but Jesus said "O children of Israel! Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord". Whoever joins other gods with Allah, Allah will forbid him heaven and the fire will be his abode. (Al Maidah:72)





What Nullifies Your Islam?

Following are ten things that nullify a person’s Islam:
1. Shirk of worship
2. Shirk of Du’aa (wassilah)
3. One who does not call the unbelievers Kuffar (unbelievers) or doubts their unbelief or regards their faith as correct, is a Kafir (unbeliever).

One who sees the beliefs of the Kuffar as correct or regards the oppression and unbelief they are upon as good, is an unbeliever, by the consensus of the Muslims.
Allah has called them unbelievers in many places in the Qur’an. A person cannot be judged to be a Muslim until he regards the unbelievers as they are. If he abstains from this, while the issue is clear, or doubts their unbelief when it is clear, he is the same as them.

In a hadith narrated by Abu Malik, the Messenger of Allah ? said, “Whoever says ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’ and disbelieves in what is worshipped besides Allah, his blood and wealth become unlawful and his reckoning is with Allah.”
“Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: ‘Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred for ever, until you believe in Allah Alone…’” Also refer to Zukhruf:26-27/Tawbah:23/Mujadalah:22

This is a threat and a severe warning from Allah to one that follows their religion. The Prophet ? ordered the separation of the believers from unbelievers so as not to be of them. He said, “I am innocent from every Muslim residing amongst the unbelievers(in their land).’ They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Why?’ He said, ‘They should not see each other’s fire.”

The Prophet ? said, “Whoever mixes with an unbeliever and lives with him is the same as him.”

Where is the religion of Ibrahim? Where is love and hate for Allah? Most people are not concerned with any of this.


4. Shirk of hakimiyyah :One who believes that the guidance of anyone other than the Prophet ? is more complete than the guidance of the Prophet ? himself, or the judgement of other than the Prophet ? is better than the judgement of the Prophet ? himself. This person is an unbeliever.

An example of such a person is the one that prefers the judgement of Tawaghit (plural of taghut: general term used for anything that is pleased with being worshipped besides Allah. The Taghut can be something worshipped, someone followed i.e. voting for MPs or democratic parliaments wearing Islamic dress or someone obeyed i.e. a ruler who dismantle Allaah’s legislation, in disobedience to Allah and His Messenger).

a. One who believes that the guidance of anyone other than the Prophet ? is more complete than the guidance of the Prophet ? himself. This is a serious issue because it destines the one who believes in it to the Hellfire and it is the rejection of revelation and reason.

The Shariah of Muhammad ? abrogates all other legal codes. It is the easiest and the simplest Shariah, as the Prophet ? said, “The most loved religion by Allah is Al-Hanifiyah As-Samhah (monotheistic and simple).” How can the guidance of anyone else be more complete than the guidance of the Prophet ?? He said, “If Musa was alive and you followed him, leaving me, you would have gone astray.”

Allah has favoured this nation by perfecting their religion and completing His blessing through Muhammad (?), as He says:

“…This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…”

We should choose that which Allah has chosen for us (i.e. Islam). Anyone seeking a religion other than this is of the unbelievers, as He says:

“Truly, the religion with Allah is Islam…”

“And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.”

b. One who believes that the judgement of other than the Prophet ? is better than the judgement of the Prophet ?, such as the one who prefers the judgement of tawaghit over the judgement of the Prophet ?. This person is an unbeliever by consensus of the people of knowledge.

“Have you seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgement or ruling (in their disputes) to the Taghut while they have been ordered to reject them? But Shaytan wishes to lead them far astray.”
The above-mentioned verse can be applied on those who vote or adhere to parliaments or legislate or rule instead of Allaah’s shari’ah.

Every Muslim, male and female, should know that the judgement and the rule of Allah and His Messenger ? comes before any other one. Every issue occurring between people is to be referred to the judgement of Allah and His Messenger ?, as Allah mentions in the Qur’an:

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ?) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.”

Allah swore by Himself that they will not have faith until they fulfil three things:

1. They make the Messenger ? judge in all affairs
2. They find in themselves no resistance against his judgement
3. They submit completely and totally to his judgement.

How can any sane person be pleased with being judged with laws made by the creation? Laws, which are the excess of thought and the garbage of minds, over the judgement of Allah, which He revealed to His Messenger ? to bring people out of darkness into light? Laws that are unjust, oppressive and falsely steal the wealth of people.
“…And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the Kafirun (disbelievers).”

Ruling by what Allah has revealed and believing that the judgement of the Messenger ? is better than the judgement of anyone else are from the requisites of ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’. Whoever claims otherwise has not understood this testimony. Moreover, this person has contradicted it, because ‘compliance’ is one of its conditions.
5. Hypocritical Kufr: One who hates anything that the Prophet ? came with, regardless of whether he acts upon it, is an unbeliever.

This is by agreement of the scholars. Hating something that the Messenger ? came with, whether it is words or deeds, is a kind of hypocrisy in belief; such a hypocrite is in the lowest depths of the Fire. This may be amongst other things, the hatred of polygamy, of women not being on the same level as men, of the woman’s blood money being half of a man or the witness of two women being the same as the witness of one man. They detest the saying of the Prophet ?, “I have not seen anyone, more deficient in mind and religion, who affects the mind of a resolute man than one of you (women)…” Consequently, you find them outstretching their tongues over this great hadith, either misinterpreting it, or classifying it as weak with the argument that the intellect contradicts it, and so on.

They are Kuffar even if they act on the content of the text because they did not complete the conditions of ‘La ilaha ill-Allah’. One of its conditions is ‘love’ of what it implies and to be happy with it. Many people’s hearts have become constricted and unhappy; they detest what it implies. This is the action of the hypocrites, who act on many of the outward religious practices, for some reason, while inwardly despising them.

6. Kufr of mockery: One who mocks anything from the religion of the Messenger ?, or its reward or punishment, is an unbeliever.

“…Say: ‘Was it at Allah, and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (?) that you were mocking?’ Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed…”

Mocking anything the Messenger ? came with is disbelief, by consensus of the Muslims, even if actual mockery was not intended (like joking).

Many actions can take one into the state of unbelief, such as: one who mocks anything the Messenger ? came with, one who mocks religious knowledge and its people because they are religious, one who mocks the reward of Allah or His punishment, one who mocks people commanding good and forbidding evil because of their commanding and forbidding, one who mocks the Salah (prayer) whether obligatory or optional, one who mocks the people who perform Salah because of their Salah, one who mocks someone who grows his beard because of growing the beard and one who mocks someone that abandons usury because of abandoning it. Mocking anything the Messenger ? came with is from the characteristics of the hypocrites, as Allah says:

“Verily! (During the worldly life) those who committed crimes used to laugh at those who believed. And whenever they passed by them, used to wink one to another (in mockery); and when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting; and when they saw them, they said: ‘Verily! these have indeed gone astray!’ But they (disbelievers, sinners) had not been sent as watchers over them (the believers). But this Day (the Day of Resurrection), those who believe will laugh at the disbelievers. On thrones, looking (at all things). Are not the believers paid for what they used to do?”

People of knowledge have divided mocking anything the Messenger ? came with into two types:

1. Explicit mockery - Concerning which the Ayah was revealed.

2. Implicit mockery - This is a sea without a coast (has no ending), like winking with the eyes, sticking the tongue out, stretching the lips, gesturing with the hand when the Qur’an is recited or the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah ? is mentioned, or when commanding good and forbidding evil, as Allah says:

“…Say: ‘Was it at Allah and His Ayat and His Messenger (?) that you were you mocking?’ Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after your had believed…”

Following are few examples of insulting Allaah subahanahu wa ta’ala or His Prophet (saw):

- To believe that there will be other Prophets after Muhammad (saw)
- To reject that Muhammad (saw) is the best of the creation
- To believe that the Qu’aan is not preserved
- To insult an angel
- To believe that Allaah (swt) came on earth in a form of human being
- To describe Allaah with human qualities
- To describe a man with Godly qualities

Every Muslim must oppose those mocking the Religion of Allah and what the Messenger ? came with, even if they are their closest relatives. He should not sit with them, so as not to be of them. Whoever hears the Ayat of Allah being rejected and mocked by the people he is sitting with, while being pleased to sit with them, is the same as them, both in sin and in rejecting Islam. Refer to women:140



7. Shirk of magic, which includes Sarf (a kind of magic that makes the person hate what he likes) and Atf (a kind of magic that makes the person like what he hates). Whoever does magic or is pleased with it is a Kafir.

“…But neither of these two (Angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said: ‘We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)…’”

The majority of the scholars, including Imams Abu Hanifah, Malik and Ahmad, are of the view that the magician is a Kafir because of the previous Ayah.
The conclusion on this issue is that if the magic involves reverence to other than Allah, such as stars and Jinn and so on, then this is kufr without any doubt. From this kind is the magic of Harut and Marut which is mentioned in the Ayah from Surah Al-Baqarah.

If the magic does not amount to kufr, like using the special properties of ointments (i.e. using trickery instead of real magic) this is haram and severely forbidden, but the person does not become a kafir.

In both cases, the magician has to be killed because he spreads corruption on the earth, and can separate a man and his wife. His stay on the face of the earth is a great danger and great corruption for individuals and societies. Killing him is an end to his corruption and relief for the people and the land. The Sahabah unanimously agreed that the magician should be killed.

The evidence for the punishment of magicians

For the majority of the scholars who say that the magician should be sentenced by a judge, their proof is what Jundub related. The Messenger of Allah ? said: “The punishment for the magician is to be struck with the sword.”

8. Supporting and helping the unbelievers over the Muslims.

“…And if any amongst you takes them as Awliya, then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun.” Refer also to 2:166-167 33:66 58:22 3:28

Supporting the unbelievers and helping them is a great tribulation which sadly many of our Muslims suffer from. This is a time where ignorance is widespread, knowledge is little and the means of evil are abundant; where whims have taken over and become deep rooted.
Classical scholars consider below cases as wala’ (giving allegience to the kuffars):
- To help them with one’s tongue or one’s hand
- To follow their system (Mutaba’a)
- To love them and make close friendship with them
Those who adhere to their system(Mutaba’a) by believing or implementing the whole or a part of the kafir system (even one single) or approving it at the expense of the Qur’aan is a major disbelief because, in this respect, Allaah the Almighty said, “ Have you seen those who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which has been sent down tbefore you, and they wish to be ruled or (judged) by taghoot (man made system, tribalism,etc.).



9. One who believes that some people are permitted to go outside the legal code of Muhammad(saw) or those who make halaal haram and vice versa, as Khidr was permitted to go out of the legal code of Musa. This person is a Kafir.

Such a person is a Kafir because his action implies the disbelief of the Ayah:

“And verily, this is My Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path…”

Ibn Mas’ud narrated: “The Messenger of Allah ? drew a line for us and then said, ‘This is Allah’s Path.’ Then he drew lines to the left and right of the first line and said, ‘These are separate paths and each path has a Shaytan calling to it’. Then he recited, ‘And verily, this is My Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths for they will separate you away from His Path.’”

Whoever desires to leave the Shariah of Muhammad ?, or thinks he does not need it, has discarded the ties of Islam from his neck. There is no doubt that the Book of Allah orders us to follow the Messenger ? and not to stray from his obedience; straying is a compelling cause for the Fire. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah ? said, “‘All of my Ummah will enter the Jannah, except who refuses.’ They said, ‘Who refuses O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘Whoever obeys me will enter Jannah, and whoever disobeys me has refused.’”

It is established that the Prophet ? said about his virtue over other Prophets, “Prophets used to be sent specifically to their own people. I have been sent to all people.”

Kufr is nothing but obstinacy and rejecting what the Messenger ? came with for the saying of someone else. If rejecting what the Messenger ? came with is Kufr then what about leaving the Shariah completely?
An example:
A man was sent by the Prophet (saw) to kill another man who deliberately cohabited with his father’s wife. Ibn Katheer stated that the man in question was killed as a kafir because his wealth was handed over to Baitulmal. 4:22 /Ibn Katheer V1-479


10. Turning away from the religion of Allah, not learning or acting on it.

“And who does more wrong than he who is reminded of the Ayat of his Lord, then he turns aside therefrom? Verily, We shall exact retribution from the Mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners etc.).”

Turning away nullifies Islam; that is to turn away from learning the foundations of the religion that makes one a Muslim, even if one is ignorant of the details of the religion.

The Kufr of turning away is to turn away with ones hearing and heart from the Messenger ?, neither believing in him nor disbelieving him, neither loving nor hating him and never listening to what he came with.

This explanation of ‘turning away’ includes many of the grave worshippers who turn away with their hearing and hearts from what the Messenger ? came with. They do not listen to advice or the guidance of anyone. The likes of such are Kuffar, for their turning away.

It cannot be argued that they are ignorant and therefore they do not become Kuffar, because the ignorant complies with the truth if his mistake is shown to him and he retracts from his error. However many still persist in their worship of graves and they do not listen to the Words of Allah or His Messenger ?; they obstruct the guidance of advisors. One who condemns their fallacies is prone to harm. The evidence has been established against them and they have no excuse, except obstinacy.

In all of these ten matters there is no difference between the serious and not serious, or frightened (for wealth and position) except the one forced.

The evidence for being excused if forced is:

“Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith - but such as open their breast to disbelief - on them is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a great torment.”

All of the points mentioned are of great importance and a source of danger. The Muslim must be aware of them and fear for himself. We seek refuge with Allah from what incurs His anger and painful punishment.

There is no difference of opinion that Tawhid has to be with the heart, tongue and action; if any of this is lacking the person is not a Muslim.

If one knows Tawhid but does not act on it he is an obstinate Kafir like Firawn, Iblis and the likes thereof. They say, ‘We understand and witness that this is the truth but we are unable to act on it, as it is not allowed with the people of our land except what agrees with them’, or other excuses.

“They have purchased with the Ayat of Allah a little gain...”

If one acts on Tawhid outwardly, but does not understand or believe in it with his heart, he is a hypocrite and is worse than an unbeliever.

“Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire...”

This is a lengthy issue; there are those who know the truth but do not act on it in fear of losing some worldly thing or to appease someone. There are also those who act on it outwardly but not inwardly. If you ask him what he believes with his heart, he does not know.

You should understand the following two Ayat from the Book of Allah:

1. “Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed…”

It is established that some people who fought the Romans with the Messenger ? became unbelievers because of a word they said in jest and play. It becomes clear that one who speaks Kufr or acts on it in fear of losing wealth and position or to appease someone, is greater than one who says a word in jest.

2. “Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith - but such as open their breast to disbelief - on them is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a great torment.”

Allah did not excuse them, except for the one who is forced while his heart is settled with Iman. Anyone else is an unbeliever after his faith, whether he does it out of fear, hope, appeasement, patriotism for his country, people, clan, wealth or does it jokingly or for any other purpose.


Nifaq (hypocrisy) is of two types:

1. Hypocrisy in belief. This type of hypocrite is in the lowest depths of the Fire. This is of six kinds:
1. Disbelieving the Messenger
2. Disbelieving some of what the Messenger came with
3. Disliking the Messenger
4. Disliking some of what the Messenger came with
5. Rejoicing at the defeat of the Messenger’s religion
6. Displeasure at the victory of the Messenger’s religion.

2. Hypocrisy in action. This is of five kinds as mentioned in the following two hadith:

“The sign of a hypocrite are three: if he speaks, he lies; if he promises, he does not fulfil it; if he is trusted, he is mistrustful.” In another narration, “If he argues, he is abusive and if he makes a covenant, he is treacherous.”

The meaning of Taghut and the main heads of Taghut

Know that the first duty that Allah has obligated on the son of Adam is faith in Allah and disbelief in the Taghut.

“And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): ‘Worship Allah (alone) and avoid (or keep away from) Taghut…’”

The manner of disbelief in the Taghut is that one believes the falseness of worshipping other than Allah and one leaves this worship, hates it and regards the worshippers upon it as unbelievers and has enmity against them.

The meaning of faith in Allah is that one believes He is the One to be worshipped alone without anyone else and makes all acts of worship sincerely and purely for Allah. One must love the people of sincerity and have loyalty for them. One must hate the people of Shirk and have enmity against them. This is the religion of Ibrahim and the one who turns away from it debases himself. This is the example that Allah mentioned in the Ayah:

“Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: ‘Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred for ever, until you believe in Allah Alone…’”

Taghut is the general term for anything that is pleased with being worshipped besides Allah. The Taghut can be something worshipped or someone followed, or obeyed in disobedience to Allah and His Messenger ?. The Tawaghit are many; the five main ones are:

1. Shaytan - Who calls to worship of other than Allah - as Allah says:

“Did I not ordain for you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan? Verily, he is a plain enemy to you.”

2. The oppressive ruler - who changes the laws of Allah - as Allah says:

“Have you seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Taghut while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaytan wishes to lead them far astray.”

3. One who does not rule by what Allah has revealed - as Allah says:

“…Whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the Kafirun.”

4. The one who claims to have knowledge of the unseen - as Allah says:

“And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.”

5. One who is pleased with being worshipped besides Allah - as Allah says:

“And if any of them should say: ‘Verily, I am an ilah (a god) besides Him (Allah), such a one We should recompense with Hell. Thus we recompense the Zalimun.”

Know that a person does not have faith in Allah until he disbelieves in the Taghut.

“…Verily, the Right Path (Rushd) has become distinct from the wrong path (Ghayy). Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” Rushd is the religion of Muhammad ? and Ghayy is the religion of Abu Jahl. The strongest hold is the ‘Shahadah’ of ‘La ilaha ill-Allah.’ It comprises of negation and affirmation. Negating all acts of worship for other than Allah and affirming all acts of worship for Allah alone, without any partners.

Oh Allaah guide us to the truth by your leave, in that which they have
Differed for verily you guide whom you will to a straight path.Praise be to Allaah and peace and blessings be upon Allaah’s Messenger,his family and his followers.Ameen














The types of people in the Muslim Ummah today

The ‘Aqeedah is what you must believe in decisively and have no doubt about, with knowledge, awareness and sincerity. You cannot understand Tawheed without to understand what is kufr and what is shirk. Likewise, in order to know what is right you must know what is wrong. They are prerequisite to each other and cannot be separated.

It is reported in As-Sunnan ad-Daarimeen in the chapter ‘Umar bin al-Khattab:
‘The knot of Islaam will un-tie one after one if anybody grows up to be Muslims without to know what is jaahiliyyah.’

This is why the non-Muslims who reverts back Islaam usually appreciates the deen more as he knows the jaahiliyyah. The one who doesn’t know what shirk is and what the Qur’an condemns and exposes, he will fall down deep into it.

The majority of those who believe in Allah are in fact Mushrik as Allah says in the Qur’aan that the ‘believers’ will not know that they are Mushrik (12: 106). The messenger Muhammad (saw) also said: ‘the shirk of my Ummah will spread the way the ants spread in any place.’

Ibn Qayyim, a student of Ibn Taymiyyah said in his book Zaad ul ma’aad, kitaab ul eemaan: The shirk will continue to spread until in covers those who are far away and those who are near but the ghurabaa’ (the strangers who are promised paradise) will keep on rejecting it. But they are always a minority; hence nobody listens to them and will bother about them.

To declare that Allah is the creator or the provider is not enough to become Muslim. You must give up before take up i.e. give up all kufr, shirk, culture and jaahiliyyah and then take us Islaam, Eemaan and Tawheed.

The four great Imams all had the same Aqeedah of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah. They believed in Allah’s names and attributes, in Al-Qadr, Eemaan, in seeing and meeting almighty Allah (swt) etc. They all affirmed Allah’s names and attributes and never negated them under the lie of ‘purifying Allah.’ Many people today attribute false sayings and statements to them, such as to say Imaam Abu Haneefah believed eemaan was stagnant! These blatant lies and fabrications should be ignored as none of them are true.

Before we classify the types of Muslims that are present in our Ummah today, a few things have to be understood first...

At-Talaazum

The kaafir is the one who shows and conceals kufr i.e. in his inner (heart) and apparent (actions) is kufr (non-Islaam). They have something called At-Talaazum - moulding between the inner and the outer. What they say is what they conceal, therefore the kaafir commits kufr and in his heart is kufr.

1. Inner – Al-Baatin (what is in the heart, intentions etc.)
2. Outer – Az-Zaahir (actions – whether verbal or physical in tongue and limbs)

The inner and outer of every person must be the same unless he is a hypocrite i.e. he shows and acts upon what he doesn’t believe in. Hence the Munaafiq (hypocrite) has no Talaazum in kufr or eemaan. In his inner is kufr but he shows eemaan, and this can be seen among many so called Muslims today who have the signs of hypocrisy in their apparent actions and sayings.

The hypocrite declares that he believes in Allaah, the messenger, Islaam etc. but in his heart it does not (has no Talaazum), as Allaah clearly says in the Qur’aan: “And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: ‘We believe in Allâh and the Last Day’ while in fact they believe not.” (EMQ Al-Baqarah, 2: 8)

Therefore, it must be understood that Eemaan is qawl (sayings), ‘amal (actions) and niyyah (intention), as appose to the incorrect predominant understanding of eemaan i.e. belief or faith in one’s heart. And this eemaan has Talaazum, moulding the inner (intentions) with outer (sayings and actions).

Az-Zandaqah

Az-Zandaqah is to promote kufr and shirk in the name of Islaam. The Zindeeq is more dangerous than the kaafir as he promotes his kufr, bid’a and shirk by using the divine text as evidence i.e. to say pornography is allowed as Allaah says in the Qur’aan...etc. These Zanaadiqah are the worst of all creatures, far worse than the disbelievers. They usually have all the qualifications of the people of hell-fire i.e. they are zindeeq (heretic), munaafiq (hypocrite), murtad (apostate), faasiq (sinner) and zaalim (oppressor) all in one!

Zandaqah can be seen in many Muslims today who commit evil, sin and wholesale apostasy all under the name of Islaam. Rather than to say ‘voting for man-made law is apostasy’ they say ‘voting is fard!’ These Zanaadiqah are worse than your average apostates; they are zindeeq murtad (heretic apostate). In fact, all fuqahaa agree that a zindeeq will be killed with no repentance whatsoever! Whereas your average apostate has the opportunity to repent and take back what he or she said or did.

To simplify things, the inner and outer of an apostate, zindeeq and murjih, hypocrite and Muslim are illustrated below:

The inner (what is in the heart i.e. intentions) Type of person The outer (what is apparent in the sayings and actions)
Usually believes in Islaam and the final messenger (saw) Murtad (apostate) But his actions are either kufr or shirk akbar
Islaam or kufr? This is difficult to tell as he is such a hypocrite, but usually kufr Zindeeq (heretic) Kufr actions but presented as Islamic
Believes in Islaam and final messenger (saw) Murji-ah (those who separate eemaan from actions) Some kufr and some Islamic actions
Kufr, shirk, bid’a etc. Munaafiq (hypocrite) Islaam and eemaan
Believes in Islaam and the final messenger (saw) Muslim (Muwahhid) Islaam and eemaan





10 main types of people in the Muslim Ummah today

From studying our reality today we can clearly see that there are many different ‘types’ of Muslims, some who are (Muslim) and some who claim to be Muslims. We have decided to categories this division of the Ummah into 10 main sections in order for the Ummah of Muhammad (saw) to be aware of the deviants and keep distance from them. Among these 10 there are those who commit much corruption, kufr and nifaaq (hypocrisy).

1. Az-Zalamiyoon – those who do not care (people who say ‘I don’t care’)

These people are living in darkness and have no concern about the affairs of the Muslim Ummah. They are politically and socially unaware of what is around them and often live on their own or isolate themselves from society. They do not care about the affairs of Muslims in Iraq, Palestine, Chechnya, the Mujaahideen, the Ulama; their only concern is ‘me, myself and I’.

Muslims are not allowed to say: ‘I don’t care’ rather we must care about the affairs of the Muslim Ummah and the Mujaahideen, about society and the establishment of the Islamic state. The messenger of Allaah (saw) said: ‘No one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.’ Therefore a Muslim MUST CARE about his Muslim brothers and sisters, not just in his local community but also across the world.

Examples: some Tableeghis, talafis etc.

There are many Zalamiyoon within the Ummah today. They care not about the apostate rulers and say ‘it does not concern me; Allaah will account my actions not the actions of others.’ These people are completely void of any knowledge and do not fit the description of a believer.

2. Az-Zanaadiqah – people who spread kufr, shirk and bid’a in the name of Islaam

As mentioned and explained above, these Zanaadiqah are the most evil or all evil. Examples of those who are Zindeeq are:

Salmaan Rushdie
This man is a murtad zindeeq as he was attacking Islaam and using so called evidence from the Qur’aan and Sunnah.

The Qadiyaanis
The Qadiyaanis are kaafir zindeeq (not murtad) as they are non-Muslims who claim to be Muslims. They believe Muhammad (saw) is a messenger but not final. They call their own places of worship and shrines ‘masjid (mosque)’. They are kaafir as they do not testify the messenger Muhammad (saw) to be the last a final messenger and promote all their bid’a, shirk and kufr in the name of Islaam.

Nation of Islaam
These too are kaafir zindeeq as they sell their kufr as Islaam. They justify their blatant racism with the deen and have their own book which they call the Qur’aan.

Most Muslims commit zandaqah (even the Salafi Talafis), knowingly or unknowingly. They sell haraam as halaal and justify their rationality and desires with verses from the Qur’aan and ahadeeth.

Examples: Qadiyaanis, Nation of Islaam, some talafis, government organisations and scholars.

3. Ahlil Ahwaa-e wal bida’ee wat tasawwuf – people of hawa (desire), bid’a (innovation) and Sufism (superstition)

These people follow their beloved Taaghout - rational desires and innovation. They are people who elevate their parents, peers and Anbiyah etc. by more than what is allowed. They have dived deep into their temptations, dunya, philosophy, bid’a and choose to worship their ration than Allaah (swt).

Allah (swt) says in the Qur’aan: “Have you seen him who has taken as his ilâh (the one you worship) his own desire? Would you then be a Wakîl (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over him?” (EMQ Al-Furqaan, 25: 43)

And: “… and do not follow the vain desires of people who went astray in times gone by, and who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the Right Path." (EMQ Al-Maaidah, 5: 77)

Like Shaitaan, they are people who do not want to submit to Allaah exclusively and wish to bring people to their own misguided and doomed path to Hell-fire.

Examples: People who leave Islamic organisations, Young Muslims, fake Jihaadis, some ‘new’ Muslims etc.

4. Ahlul Fisq wal Mujoun - people of corruption and evil doers

The ahlul Fisq wal Mujoun are dominant everywhere in a kufr society. They even declare themselves as ‘not practicing’. They go to night clubs, cinemas, clubs, theatres, universities and colleges and free-mix with foreign men and women. They listen to music, have girl-friends and boy-friends, drink, smoke drugs and cigarettes etc.

Examples: People in university campuses and colleges, young Muslims

5. As-Salafiyyat ut-Talafiyyah – the fake, dispraised and rotten Salafis

The fake salafis study the Qur’aan, ahadeeth and fitrah (natural disposition). They follow the usool (foundations) of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah, claiming to be the protectors of the deen and Ahl ul-Haq, but in condition; they will not enter any struggle against kufr, shirk or taaghout.

If their own practicing of the deen leads them to struggle against kufr, shirk and taawaagheet, they would completely leave it and follow a different deviant Tareeqah. However, they are happy and content with just speaking about Allaah’s names and attributes all day. They are hard-core Khawaarij when it comes to the Mujaahideen (they call the Mujaahideen kaafir, a’oodhubillah), murji-ah when it comes to the apostate rulers, and zindeeq in other areas.

The Jaamiyyah and Madkhaliyyah within the talafis follow the governmental scholars of Saudi Arabia and work as free lance informers and government spies. They also fall under the category of Zanaadiqah, Ahlul Irjaa-a (separate eemaan from actions) and Az-Zalamiyoon when it comes to the apostate rulers of Muslim countries.

6. The practicing Muslims from the seculars

They are Ahlul ‘Ibaadah wal Iltizaam (people of worship and practicing Islaam). They are generally practicing and watch out for halaal food, salat, perform Hajj, fast in Ramadaan and are commit to follow hukm Shar’ee in general. However, they are silent and do not speak out of fear of being arrested or labelled terrorist, though they support the Mujaahideen ‘secretly’ and the sincere Muslim activists financially.

They have no walaa’ and baraa’ in the sense they say not all kuffar are bad people and semi-detach themselves from the global Muslim Ummah. They are in between the haq and the baatil. They are probably the best out of the 10 deviant types of Muslims today.

7. Ahl ul-Irjaa-a – people who separate eemaan from actions

These people are mostly from the ‘Ashaa-irah and Matureedis, though most of Muslims fall under this category. They separate eemaan from actions based upon weak narrations attributed to the messenger of Allaah (saw) and Abu Haneefah. They do not call the rulers of Muslim countries apostates as they say what they are doing is kufr, but we cannot call them kaafir.

They actively spread the murji-ah ideas within the Muslim Ummah. They are people who compromise with kufr and are semi hypocrites in the sense that they do not declare what they believe in or what has authentic evidence. They say ‘it is your own opinion’, ‘be realistic and accept reality’ and ‘we need to integrate (and become kaafir)’.

Examples: Ikhwan ul-Muslimeen, Young Muslim organisations, talafis and most Muslims

8. Those who believe in reaction

These people are power seekers and kill or envy anybody that gets in their way. If someone disagrees with them they call them kafir of people of fitnah. They actively work with the kuffar Socialists and take the Jews and their best example.

Examples: Young Muslim organisations, MAB, ISB

9. At-Tajammu’aat ul ‘Ilmaniyyah - The Nationalistic and patriotic

Most Muslims fall under this category too, especially from Palestine and the Asian sub-continent. They love their nation and claim it was created for Islaam when it was created for kufr. Nationalism is a disease and the main cause of disunity (besides lack of Tawheed). It is a form of Taaghout and Muslims must give it up before they take up eemaan and Islaam.

Examples: Nationalistic groups, PLO, Jamaati Islaam, most Muslims

10. ‘Ilmaanis - The secularists

The secularists do not practice the deen. They are generally law abiding apostates who separate Islaam from life’s affairs. They do no want the Shari’ah to be implemented, though some falsely claim they do, as they believe Islaam must reconcile and adapt to the 21st century or modern times.

They are people who rise against haq and stand for shirk, kufr, nifaaq, transgression, apostasy, zandaqah, munkar, bid’a and baatil etc. They are generally apostates as they there is no such thing as secularism in Islaam and secularism is a deen in itself.

Examples: MCB, CAIR (in the US), Young Muslims, MAB, ISB, ‘British Muslims’ and ‘American Maarslims (with an American accent)’ etc.

Conclusion

It is vital for us as Muslims to be aware and disassociate ourselves from these deviant sects. However, we must remember that they are still ahl ul-Qibla (Muslims) unless they have no preventions of Takfeer. To make sure we always follow the straight path, we must take the understanding of the Sahaabah as our Islamic standard for any matters related to the deen of Islaam. It is only the Shari’ah i.e. the Khilaafah (Islamic state) that can re-unite this Ummah and take it out from its darkness into the light of eemaan.
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Ansar Al-'Adl
06-08-2005, 11:13 PM
:sl:
Shaykh Yasir Qadhi writes about the scholars influenced by the Ash'arees:
Another manner by which [the Ash'arees] seek to confuse the people is by quoting famous and well-known scholars throughout Islamic history who were Ash-arees or influenced to a certain degree by the beliefs of the Ash'arees. So, for example, they quote the likes of Al-Baaqilaanee (d. 403 AH), Al-Qurtubi (d. 671 AH), An-Nawawi (d. 676 AH), Ibn Hajr Al-Asqalaani (d. 852 AH), As-Suyuti (d. 911 AH), Ibn Hajr Al-Haythamee (d. 974 AH) and many more respected and loved scholars, and claim, "If all of these scholars are misguided Ash'arees, then who are the Ahlus-Sunnah?!"

This may be refuted in a number of ways.

Firstly, it is very clearly noticed that all the scholars mentioned lived after the first three generations of the hijrah, and these are the generations that the Prophet saws himself stated would be the best of all generations! The Ash'arees cannot quote even one reputable scholar from the time of the actual salaf that was on their beliefs, for the simple reason that there were none. The Ash'aree beliefs were founded and propagated during the fourth centruy of the hijrah, and became increasingly popular after that. We are commanded by the Prophet saws to take from the first three generations of Islam, and we consider them as part of our religion of Islam. As for the generations and scholars that come after this time, then we look at them individually, and what is good from them we take, and what is incorrect we do not take.

Secondly, we do not agree that all of these scholars were pure Ash'arees. The likes of Al-Baaqilaani and Ibn Hajr Al-Asqalaani were influenced by the Ash'arees, but at the same time agreed with Ahlus-Sunnah on some points (in fact, As-Suyuti even criticises the belief that istawaa means 'to conquer' (istawlaa) in his al-Itqaan). Therefore it is not accurate to describe them as being pure Ash'arees.

Thirdly, these scholars were great scholars in their own fields, but we excuse their mistakes in aqeedah, and say that, due to the environment that they were in, they were not exposed to the proper aqeedah and therefore followed the aeedah of their scholars and teachers, which happened to be the Ahs'aree aqeedah. We consider them as our scholars, and love and respect them, but we do not take from them in those matters in which they disagreed with the salaf, for the salaf are more beloved to us than those who came after them.

Fourthly, these names that you quote may be responded to by quoting other names; names of famous scholars that were on the correct aqeedah during the time of these scholars. In other words, not all the scholars of later generations were Ash'arees, for the scholars of the correct aqeedah have always existed and will always exist. The likes of Ibn 'Abd al-Barr (d. 463 AH), Al-Baghawi (d. 510 AH), Ibn Qudaamah (d. 610 AH), Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH), Adh-Dhahabi (d. 748 AH), Ibn Al-Qayyim (d. 758 AH), Ibn Kathir (d. 774 AH) and other scholars before them, during their time, and after them, may be quoted. The point is that all these scholars of later generations are not the criterion; the Ash'arees may quote famous names, and the Ahlus-Sunnah may quote famous names. Rather, the true criterion are the actual scholars of the Salaf, and those that follow their aqeedah, and not any other generation besides them! May Allah guide us and the Ash'arees to the correct path! (Uloom Al-Qur'an, p. 53)

:w:
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Umm Yoosuf
12-11-2007, 11:25 PM
al-Maqrizi (d. 845) on how Ash'arism spread - The reality of the Ash’ari school
Taqi al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Ali al-Maqrizi (d. 845)

An excerpt from al-Khitat al-Maqriziyya 4/184-5

The reality of the school of al-Ash’ari – may Allah be merciful with him – is that he followed a way between the negation of attributes, that being the Mu’tazili school, and the affirmation thereof, that being the school of anthropomorphists, and further debated his beliefs and supported his school with proofs. Thereafter, a group of theologians inclined towards and relied upon his school; from them, al-Qadhi Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Tayyib al-Baqillani al-Maliki, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Furak, al-Shaykh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Mihran al-Isfaraini, al-Shaykh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. ‘Ali b. Yusuf al-Shirazi, al-Shaykh Abu Hamid Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ghazzali, Abu al-Fath Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Karim b. Ahmad al-Shahrastani, al-Imam Fakhr al-Din Muhammad b. ‘Umar b. al-Husayn al-Razi and others, the mention of whom would take a long time. They championed his school, debated and disputed according to it, and supported the school with proofs in an uncountable number of works. Due to their efforts, the school of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari spread in Iraq roughly from year 380 AH, and from there it moved to Syria.

Then al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf b. Ayyub ascended to power in Egypt, who along with the judge, Sadr al-Din ‘Abd al-Malik b. ‘Isa b. Darbas al-Marani were both the followers of this school, for they had nurtured upon it ever since they were in the service of al-Sultan al-Malik al-‘Adil Nur al-Din Mahmud b. Zanki in Damascus. Salah al-Din in his childhood had memorised a manual on creed, composed for him by Qutb al-Din Abu al-Ma’ali Mas’ud b. Muhammad b. Mas’ud al-Nisaburi, the manual which he, in turn, made his children memorise. For this reason they placed Ash’arism above everything else and held on to it very firmly, and furthermore, they obliged the masses to adhere to this school. And so it continued in this vein through out all the Ayyubite dynasties, and thereafter right through the reign of their freed-slaves, the Turkish governors.

This also coincided with one of the trips of Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad b. Tumart from North Africa to Iraq where he learnt the Ash’ari doctrine from Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali. Upon his return to North Africa, he began to teach and educate the Masamida (one of the principal Berber ethnic groups) and composed for them a manual on theology, which the commoners quickly embraced. He then passed away and was succeeded by ‘Abd al-Mu’min b. ‘Ali al-Qaysi, who was titled ‘Amir al-Mu’minin’, and who also conquered the North African dynasties, and thereafter his descendants for years. They became known as ‘al-Muwahhidun’, and then on, al-Muwahhid dynasty deemed permissible to shed the blood of anyone who opposes the doctrine of Ibn Tumart, since he was to them the distinguished leader, the infallible Mahdi. How much blood they shed due to this reason, is only known by Allah the Creator – May He be glorified and exalted! – as it is known in historical works.

Thus, this was the reason behind the fame of the Ash’ari school and its spread in various Islamic lands, such that the rest of the schools were forgotten and gone; to such an extent that there remains no school today that opposes the Ash’ari school, with the exception of the school of the Hanbalis – the followers of Imam Abu ‘Abdullah Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal – may Allah be pleased with him. For they are upon what the Salaf were upon, that is to avoid allegorical interpretation of texts pertaining to attributes.

Such was the case up until 700 years after Hijra, when there rose to fame, in Damascus and the outskirts, Taqi al-Din Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Halim b. ‘Abd al-Salam b. Taymiyya al-Harrani. He undertook to champion the school of the Salaf and did his utmost to refute the Ash’ari school and openly censured them, the Rafida and the Sufis.

Thereafter, the people were divided into two groups over him. A group that followed him, relied upon his views, acted in accordance with his opinions, held him as Shaykh al-Islam and the most prominent preservers of the Islamic nation. The other group declared him to be a heretic, a deviant, rebuked him for affirming attributes, and censured him over his juristic opinions, of them are those where he had a predecessor, and of them are those where they claimed he opposed the consensus and had no predecessor. He and his adversaries, both had mishaps, and their reckoning is with Allah, the one from whom nothing is hidden in the earth and the heavens. He still has, up until today, many followers in Syria, and a few in Egypt.

Who was al-Maqrizi?
(excerpt from Encyclopaedia of Islam)

al-MAQRIZI, Taqi al-Din abu 'l-'abbas ahmad b. 'ali b. 'abd al-Qadir (766-845/1364-1442), Egyptian historian.

His father (d. 779/1378 at the age of fifty), married a daughter of the wealthy philologist and jurist Ibn al-Sa'igh (d. 776/1375). He was born in Cairo, apparently in 765/1363-4. The nisba Maqrizi refers to a quarter in Ba'labakk where his paternal family came from. His paternal grandfather, 'abd al-Qadir b. Muhammad (ca. 677-733/1278-1332, see Ibn Hajar, Durar, ii, 391 f.) was a Hanbali, his maternal grandfather, who influenced his early upbringing, a Hanafi. His father was a Shafi'i, and he himself opted for Shafi'ism in early manhood; he also developed (non-juridical) Dhahiri tendencies (cf. I. Goldziher, Die Dhahiriten, Leipzig 1884, 196-2H2). He received the thorough education of a youth born into a well-to-do scholarly family, studying with famous scholars and eventually being able to boast of “600 Shaykhs.” Like his father, but with greater success initially, he exercised a variety of administrative and scholarly functions, such as those of writer of tawqi's, deputy judge, muhtasib (for terms lasting only a few months each in 801, 802, and 807), preacher in the Mosque of 'amr and the Madrasa of al-Hasan, imam and chief administrator of the Mosque of al-Hakim, and professor of hadith in the Mu'ayyadiyya. In Damascus, where he spent about ten years beginning in 810/1408, he held teaching positions at the aShrafiyya and Iqbaliyya, and was chief financial administrator of the Qalanisiyya and the great Nuri Hospital, although this last position was reserved by law for the Shafi'i judge of Damascus. He had actually been offered that judgeship by al-Nasir b. Barquq, but had refused. While in Syria, he appears to have decided to give up an unsatisfactory public career and devote himself full-time to historical scholarship (instead of part-time as he had done before). He did so after his return to Egypt. He spent a number of years in Mecca and died in Cairo in early February 1442. The last of his children had died already in 826/1423 ( Suluk , iv, 2, 651). a nephew, Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Muhammad (801-67/1399-1462), survived him (al-Sakhawi, 4aw', ix, 15H).
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