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    Refuting the Claim that Prophet Muhammad was a Pedophile

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    This will be a very informative read.

    Introduction

    Islamaphobes claim that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a pedophile, arguing that he married Aisha (peace be upon her) when she was too young. Islamic Law (Shari’ah), say these critics, condones pedophilia by allowing marriage to children. Most of these Islamaphobes come from Jewish and Christian backgrounds. Yet, the truth is that these Jews and Christians live in a great big glass house; in this book, we will throw stones at this house and completely shatter it.

    Islamic Law (Shari’ah) does in fact allow some nine year old girls to be married. But as we shall prove in this book, Jewish Law (Halacha) sets the minimum age of marriage at three years of age, whereas Christian Law asserts that the absolute minimum age of marriage is seven years old.

    First, we will cite the Jewish and Christian Law from a theological standpoint. Then, we will establish the historical proof that Jews and Christians routinely married their daughters off at an extremely young age—younger than Aisha (peace be upon her). After this, we will cite numerous examples of Christian prophets, saints, popes, kings, royals, and nobles who either themselves married girls of such a young age or who actively condoned it.

    After having dealt with the Jewish and Christian criticism, we will shift our focus to the rest of the world, proving that marriage at such a young age was something considered normal in all ancient civilizations. We will cite so many examples from so many cultures that it will leave the staunchest Islamaphobes at a loss for words. Finally, we will look at the Islamic Law, the Prophet’s marriage to Aisha (peace be upon her), and the medico legal aspects of pedophilia.

    The honest reader will become convinced, the stubborn opponent will be routed, and the truth-seeker will be guided to the path of Islam. God Willing.Ya Allah (O God), sharpen my pen and make my task easy.


    Introduction

    Islamaphobes claim that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was a pedophile, arguing that he married Aisha (peace be upon her) when she was too young. Islamic Law (Shari’ah), say these critics, condones pedophilia by allowing marriage to children. Most of these Islamaphobes come from Jewish and Christian backgrounds. Yet, the truth is that these Jews and Christians live in a great big glass house; in this book, we will throw stones at this house and completely shatter it.

    Islamic Law (Shari’ah) does in fact allow some nine year old girls to be married. But as we shall prove in this book, Jewish Law (Halacha) sets the minimum age of marriage at three years of age, whereas Christian Law asserts that the absolute minimum age of marriage is seven years old.

    First, we will cite the Jewish and Christian Law from a theological standpoint. Then, we will establish the historical proof that Jews and Christians routinely married their daughters off at an extremely young age—younger than Aisha (peace be upon her). After this, we will cite numerous examples of Christian prophets, saints, popes, kings, royals, and nobles who either themselves married girls of such a young age or who actively condoned it.

    After having dealt with the Jewish and Christian criticism, we will shift our focus to the rest of the world, proving that marriage at such a young age was something considered normal in all ancient civilizations. We will cite so many examples from so many cultures that it will leave the staunchest Islamaphobes at a loss for words. Finally, we will look at the Islamic Law, the Prophet’s marriage to Aisha (peace be upon her), and the medico legal aspects of pedophilia.

    The honest reader will become convinced, the stubborn opponent will be routed, and the truth-seeker will be guided to the path of Islam. God Willing.Ya Allah (O God), sharpen my pen and make my task easy.




    Age of Marriage Under Jewish Law

    The Jewish website, Jewfaq.org, says:

    The minimum age for marriage under Jewish law is 13 for boys, 12 for girls; however, the kiddushin [betrothal] can take place before that, and often did in medieval times. (JewFaq.org, http://www.jewfaq.org/marriage.htm)

    The age of twelve approximates the commencement of puberty. According to Jewish Law, marriage at this age is not just allowed, but rather it is actively encouraged and fathers are advised to quickly wed their pubescent daughters.
    We read:

    One passage that would echo long and loud for Ashkenazic Jews throughout the Middle Ages held that a man who marries off his sons and daughters near the period of puberty (samukh le-firkan) will receive the scriptural blessing:
    “you shall know that your tent is in peace” (Job 5:24), evidently understood to mean that if one’s children were married, they would not succumb to sexual temptation” (Biale, 19974995[)50-] (G.U.S.: A World Reference Atlas, http://www2.rz.huberlin.de/sexology/...DLEEASTOLD.HTM)

    So Jewish Law allows men to marry twelve year olds, whom today would be considered “child brides”. But the plot thickens! Even the age limit of twelve is not absolute. Rather, twelve years old is merely the age at which a girl can herself decide to get married. Before that, however, her father can have her married off, without her permission.


    We read from the website of the Special Rapporteur to the United Nations:

    According to Jewish religious law (halacha), which in Israel confers validity on the marriage of Jews conducted within its borders, it is possible to marry a young girl of any age, but the girl herself may decide to marry only when she
    has reached the age of 12 and a half. (U.N. representative, http://www.right-to-education.org/node/442)


    The authoritative Jewish website, AskMoses.com, says:

    What is the minimum age of marriage according to Jewish law? by Rabbi Naftali Silberberg...

    In ancient (and not so ancient) times however, marriage was often-times celebrated at a rather young age. Although we do not follow this dictum, technically speaking, a girl may be betrothed the moment she is born, and married at the age of three. [Shulchan Aruch, Even HaEzer 37:1.] A boy may betroth and marry at the age of thirteen. [Shulchan Aruch, Even HaEzer 43:1] (AskMoses.com, http://www.askmoses.com/article.html?h=573&o=2488)

    The Talmud recommends that a daughter be given in marriage at around the age of twelve (i.e. the commencement of puberty), but Jewish fathers were historically allowed to marry their daughters off even before that age.

    Surprisingly, the wife could be as young as three years old. According to Jewish Law, such marriages were officially sealed by the man having sex with the baby. We read:

    In the ancient world, Jewish law seemed to require an act of intercourse for a betrothal to be recognised. The Mishnah said: «A girl three years old and one day may be betrothed by intercourse […]» (Mishnah, Nid. V. 4). Maimonides (A. D. 1180) states: «If she is three years and one day old she may be betrothed by an act of intercourse, with the consent of her father. If she is less than that, and her father has her betrothed by an act of intercourse, she is not betrothed»([197218][78]). Edwardes (1967a168)[79]: «The early-marriage tradition of Israel found acceptance in Christendom, whose precocious children bedded and wedded at or even before puberty...At the time of St. Paul, girls were married at puberty or a little before. (G.U.S.: A World Reference Atlas, http://www2.rz.huberlin.de/sexology/...DLEEASTOLD.HTM)


    Although twelve was set as the recommended age, Jewish fathers were marrying their daughters off well before that. We read:

    Although the Talmud recommended that a daughter be given in marriage when na›rah, between the ages of twelve and twelve and a half, a father could marry her off well before that time…16th century Jewish history reveals a prevalence of girl «child» marriage, many of whom were between 12 and 14 years of age (Lamdan, 1996)[86]

    The early marriage age may be attributed to several factors: an attempt to prevent the temptation of sexual relations before marriage; the effort to arrange the best possible match both socially and economically; the insecurity of diaspora Jews during the age of expulsions from Spain and Ottoman expansion, moving them to establish ties that would assure the children›s financial future; and the desire to raise a new generation of Jews as quickly as possible to assure the continuity of their people. (G.U.S.: A World Reference Atlas, http://www2.rz.huberlin.de/sexology/
    GESUND/ARCHIV/GUS/MIDDLEEASTOLD.HTM)

    Age for Marriage

    According to many Jewish scholars, a girl should be married off as soon as she hits puberty and no later. The Jewish Encyclopedia says:

    The first positive commandment of the Bible, according to rabbinic interpretation (Maimonides, «Minyan ha-Miẓwot,» 212), is that concerning the propagation of the human species (Gen. i. 28). It is thus considered the duty of every Israelite to marry as early in life as possible…Some urge that children should marry as soon as they reach the age of puberty. (Jewish Encyclopedia, http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/vi...er=M&artid=216)


    In the journal entitled Women in Judaism, we find that Jews were still marrying at the age of puberty up until World War I:

    A Daughter’s Coming of Age

    In earlier days, girls got married at the age of nine…[following the] custom of marrying daughters at age eight to ten…if the maiden does not get married until the age of fifteen she has no hope of marriage, because she would be considered an old maid…At the end of the nineteenth century, despite these regulations, families still married their daughters at the age of twelve and thirteen…On the eve of World War I, the situation changed somewhat for the better when the legal age for marriage was raised to fifteen. (Women in Judaism: A Multidisciplinary Journal, http://www.utoronto.ca/wjudaism/jour...2/sehayek.html)

    Jewish girls “got married at the age of nine”, a practice which continued up until “the eve of World War I”. Why then are the Jews criticizing Prophet Muhammad (peace e upon him) for marrying Aisha (peace be upon her) at the age of nine? Is this not hypocrisy? Is this not a case of living in a glass house and throwing stones? Why is it that Christian adversaries condemn Muslims but say nothing at all to their Jewish counterparts?

    To conclude, we close with the words of Mark E. Pietrzyk:

    According to the Talmud, the recommended age for marriage is sometime after twelve for females, and thirteen for males. Marriage below these ages was generally frowned upon. However, a father was allowed to betroth his daughter to another man at an earlier age, and sexual intercourse was regarded as a valid means of sealing a betrothal. The age limit for betrothal through sexual intercourse was shockingly low. According to the Talmud, “A girl of the age of three years and one day may be betrothed by intercourse.” (Mark E. Pietrzyk, http://www.internationalorder.org/scandal_response.html)


    Age of Marriage under Christian Law

    We have shown how the Jewish Encyclopedia says that under Jewish Law girls can marry at the age of twelve or even younger than that; let us now see what the Catholic Encyclopedia says of Christian laws with regards to marriage.


    The Catholic Encyclopedia says:

    The marriageable age is fourteen full years in males and twelve full years in females, under penalty of nullity (unless natural puberty supplies the want of years [i.e. if puberty occurs before the age of twelve])… The canonical age holds in England, Spain, Portugal, Greece(Ionian Isles excepted, where it is sixteen and fourteen), and as regards Catholics even in Austria. While in some parts of the United Statesthe canonical marriage age of fourteen and twelve still prevails, in others it has been enlarged by statutes. (Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01206c.htm)



    Elsewhere, the Catholic Encyclopedia says:

    By the common law, the age at which minors were capable of marrying, known as the age of consent, was fixed at fourteen years for males and twelve years for females. Marriages under the age of seven years for both were void, but
    between seven and the age of consent [14 for males, 12 for females] the parties could contract an imperfect marriage, which was voidable but not necessarily void. (Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09691b.htm)


    Although twelve was the general guideline, Christian fathers were allowed to marry their daughters off even before that. We read:

    Medieval Christianity continued to maintain the age of twelve as a minimal age for females to enter into marriage. However, even this low age limit was not absolute. Using natural law logic, Catholic authorities argued that the decisive
    factor which determined a child›s readiness for marriage and sexual relations was the onset of puberty, and not necessarily age as such. According to one Catholic scholar, “If it could be satisfactorily proved that puberty . . . was
    actually attained by the boy before the completion of his fourteenth year, or by the girl before the completion of her twelfth year, then . . . the party could enter upon a valid marriage.” [1] (Mark E. Pietrzyk, http://www.internationalorder.org/scandal_response.html)

    1 O›Dea, 13-; Rush, 303-

    Similar to Jewish Law, Christian Law differentiated between the minimum age of marriage and the absolute minimum age of marriage. Twelve years old was the minimum age of marriage, called the age of consent; in other words, a girl had to be twelve years old before should could arrange her own marriage. But the absolute minimum age of marriage was in fact seven years of age, during which time her father could arrange her marriage without her permission. In the Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, we read:


    Age of Consent: A Historical Overview


    Age of Consent throughout history has usually coincided with the age of puberty although at sometimes it has been as early as seven…The Roman tradition served as the base for Christian Europe as well as the Christian Church itself which generally, essentially based upon biological development, set it at 12 or 14 but continued to set the absolute minimum at seven. In the past century there has been a tendency to raise the age of consent but the reasons for the change have not always been clear and the issue has been further complicated by the reluctance of many contemporary historians to
    recognize what the actual age of consent in the past has been. This failure has distorted the importance of biology on age of consent in the past. (Age of Consent: A Historical Overview, http://www.haworthpress. com/store/ArticleAbstract.asp?sid=XH16E3FKBF7Q9P3MKLPC82LUJN KC41U5&ID=87429)


    Saint Thomas Aquinas, considered by Catholics to be the greatest theologian of all time, wrote in The Summa Theologica:


    If the parties are betrothed by another person [i.e. the father] before they reach the age of puberty, either of them or both can demur; wherefore in that case the betrothal does not take effect, so that neither does any affinity result therefrom. Hence a betrothal made between certain persons by some other takes effect, in so far as those between whom the betrothal is arranged do not demur when they reach the proper age, whence they are understood
    to consent to what others have done. (The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, http://www.newadvent.org/
    summa/5043.htm)

    In other words, pre-pubertal marriages arranged by the father are recognized by the Church. Once the girl reaches puberty, she has the option of nullifying the marriage.

    However, there is a big catch to this: if the man has sex with the pre-pubertal girl, then she can no longer nullify the marriage. Catholic popes argued that even if marriage took place before twelve years of age and before puberty,
    then such a marriage would still be binding by the law. We read:

    "Sexual intercourse which took place before marital age limits or puberty was not necessarily illicit or sinful. On the contrary, some popes ruled that intercourse below the age of twelve/fourteen had the effect of sealing a marriage contract, as long as such intercourse took place after the age of discretion, which was seven. [2 Rush, 3234] Once intercourse had taken place, the marriage could not be annulled". (Mark E. Pietrzyk, http://www.internationalorder.org/scandal_response.html)


    This is a very important point, and shatters the glass house that the Christians live in.

    The popes—who, due to the backing of the Holy Ghost, are considered infallible when they issue such religious edicts—ruled that a girl could be married off after the age of seven, before the age of consent. In other words, she could be married against her will.

    If the husband had sex with her (even against her will), then this sealed the marriage and the girl could not annul the marriage.

    In the twelfth century, Pope Alexander III ruled:

    If a girl of tender age is betrothed and delivered to her husband, and afterwards desires to marry a different man, her petition is not to be granted if her husband swears that he has had carnal knowledge of her even at the early age of eleven or twelve. [3] 3 Quoted in John Fulton, The Laws of Marriage (New York: E. and J.B. Young, 1883), 112.

    The Christian scholars ruled that even if a seven year old girl had sex before reaching the age of puberty, the fact that she had sex proves that she was mature enough to be married. In other words, the minimum criteria to marry a girl is that a man can have sex with her. When a man wants to marry a young girl, all he has to do is marry her and then have sex with her. In a very circular logic, the sex he had with her will validate his marriage and prevent an annulment. Christian Law therefore dictates that it does not matter how young a girl is, or whether or not she has attained the age of puberty; all that truly matters is that her husband can penetrate her and have sex. Once he does this, nobody can oppose or annul the marriage.


    C. Yandell writes in “Carpe Corpus: Time and Gender in Early Modern France”:

    In canon law, puberty normally determines marriageable age, although the minimum age for marriage is seven years, «the age of reason», when a child is deemed capable of consent. The lawyer Estienne Pasquier notes that the Digest compiled by Justinian specifies fourteen years for men, twelve for women, but, he adds, if one is capable of carnal cohabitation before this age, marriage is permitted.
    (Carpe Corpus: Time and Gender in Early Modern France, by Cathy Yandell p.37, http://books.google.com/books?id=YXs...KGHQigfa&sig=0
    Pv95S0Z7pBtjVz9GZHbuWc53ho#PPP1,M1)

    We read further:




    Thus even for very young partners, the act of intercourse bound the two of them together for life. As one Catholic scholar has written, “carnal relations between the parties seemed to indicate sufficient maturity and made up for the defect of years.” [4] Sexual intercourse below the age of discretion (seven) was not a crime, but merely “invalid,” and thus, inconsequential, as under Jewish law. [5]

    4 O›Dea, 8.
    5 For an example, see Charles Edward Smith, Papal Enforcement of Some Medieval Marriage
    Laws (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1940), 14244-.


    Parents arranged marriages for their pre-pubescent children during the Middle Ages for a variety of dynastic, economic, and cultural reasons. [6] Such marriages were usually consummated at the age of twelve. Although physicians warned of the dangers of impregnating very young girls and implored husbands to wait until the wife reached the age of at least fourteen, such warnings usually went unheeded, and the Catholic Church continued to bless marital bonds with twelve-year-old girls. [7]

    Although technically the consent of the child was necessary for a marriage to take place, the child was usually not in a position to challenge his or her parents and resist an unwanted union. This led to a number of abuses which went unchallenged by the Church. In 1526, the Dutch scholar Erasmus complained,

    “It is no uncommon case, especially in France, for a girl of scarce ten years to be married and a mother next year. . . . It seems portentous, and yet we sometimes see it, especially in Britainand Italy, that a tender child is married to a septuagenarian [i.e. a man in his seventies]. . . . Yet Church laws do not rescind such nuptials” [8]

    In later centuries, some Christian commentators would denounce sexual relations with young girls as being equivalent to rape. In the sixteenth century, canonist Egidio Bossi argued for this interpretation on the grounds that a child could hardly be considered as being in a position to give consent. However, he recommended that the age of consent be fixed at only six or seven years of age. [9]

    6 V.H.H. Green, Medieval Civilization in Western Europe(London: Edward Arnold Ltd.,1971), 18485-

    7 William J. Fielding, Strange Customs of Courtship and Marriage (New York: The New Home Library, 1942), 16668-.

    8 Quoted in G.G. Coulton, Medieval Panorama (New York: MacMillan, 1944), 639.

    9 “Rape and Marriage in the Medieval Canon Law,” in James A. Brundage, ed., Sex, Law and Marriage in the Middle Ages (Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate, 1993), 67.



    At the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century, there was some discussion among the Church leadership about possibly raising the age for marriage. Cardinal Charles De Guise of Lorraine, France, advocated raising the age of marriage for women to twenty and for men to twenty-five. The bishop of Cordia, Spain, argued for the ages of twenty for women and twenty-two for men. However, the majority of those on the Council were opposed to raising the age for marriage on the grounds that adolescents would be tempted to commit fornication unless they were permitted to marry. The conservatives prevailed: the age limit remained at twelve for females and fourteen for males.
    [10]
    (Mark E. Pietrzyk, http://www.internationalorder.org/scandal_response.html)


    In a paper published at a symposium on Byzantine Studies, we read:

    Baptism, usually at birth, was the fundamental rite of incorporation into the body of Christ and the Church…Betrothal, sometimes as early as the age of five, marked another stage in the child’s social incorporation. (Byzantine Studies: 2006 Spring Symposium, http://www.doaks.org/byz_2006_ symposium_abstracts.html)

    Aisha (peace be upon her) was around the age of puberty when she married. Christians criticize the Prophet’s marriage to her on the grounds that she was too young. Yet, Christian Law not only allowed girls to marry at the age of puberty, but rather it was encouraged by the Church to marry at this young age. In an article entitled “The Practice and Theory of Marriage in Roman North Africa”, we read:

    "Other canons require that lectors, upon reaching puberty, should either marry or take vows of celibacy".
    (The Practice and Theory of Marriage in Roman North Africa,
    http://people.vanderbilt.edu/~james....huntermar.html)

    10 O›Dea, 46-


    In the article entitled “Marriage: Laws and Customs”, we read:

    Legal Age for Marriage

    Roman law gave the minimum age for marriage as that of puberty which was 14 for boys and 12 for girls; these remained the legal age for marriage until the late 19th Century in Britain…There is however evidence that child marriages were reasonably common in North West England in the 16th century…(Marriage: Laws and Customs, http://www.isle-of- man.com/manxnotebook/famhist/genealgy/marr.htm)



    In an article entitled “Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe”, we read:

    Ordinary people who chose not to devote their lives to ascetic observances were often advised that their best defense against the ever present urge to copulate was to marry early. For this reason, St. Chrysostom warned parents
    to see to it that their children married soon after they reached the age ofpuberty.(Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe, http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/book-sum/medevl1.html)

    When girls neared the approximate age of puberty, they were considered marriage material. These pre-pubescent and pubescent girls were routinely married off to men who were the same age as their grandfathers. We read:

    Christian canon law followed Roman law in setting the minimum age of marriage at twelve for females and fourteen for males. The logic behind these marital age limits was that these were the approximate ages of puberty for both genders, indicating readiness for procreation. In ancient Rome, among both pagans and Christians, marriage at an early age was frequent. Betrothals often occurred even before puberty, although the consummation of marriage through intercourse usually did not take place until after the girl’s first menstruation. Very often, the age of discrepancy of marriage partners was great. According to one historian, “the matching of a man with a woman young enough to be his daughter or even granddaughter was generally accepted.” [11]
    (Mark E. Pietrzyk, http://www.internationalorder.org/scandal_response.html)

    11 Treggiari, 102; John C. O›Dea, The Matrimonial Impediment of Nonage (Washington, DC:
    Catholic University of America Press, 1944), 1.




    Historical Age of Marriage in Western Countries

    Age of Marriage During Biblical Times

    It is ironic that Christian missionaries attack Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) for his marrying Aisha (peace be upon her) at such a young age, but we find that this was the normal age of marriage during Biblical times. Theology.edu, a website maintained by a reputable Christian ministry, clearly mentions in an article entitled “Ancient Israelite Marriage Customs” that the age of marriage was around the age of puberty:

    The wife was to be taken from within the larger family circle (usually at the outset of puberty or around the age of 13) in order to maintain the purity of the family line. (Jim West, ThD; http://www.theology.edu/marriage.htm)

    In the book entitled Life in Biblical Israel, a Christian priest writes:

    It is safe to assume the bride was considerably younger than the groom, and childbearing would have begun shortly after puberty.

    (Life in Biblical Israel, p.58,http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=...+biblical+isra el&pg=PP1&ots=k_Uryl4rgv&sig=gbiH8WI_FNKI7tA9nMra9 m3LcLo&prev=ht tp://www.google.com.pk/search?hl=en&q=Life+in+Biblical+Israel+&btnG=Goo gle+Search&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail#PPR2,M1)


    In the book Ancient Jewish Epitaphs, we read:

    For Jewish women—as for women in antiquity generally—marriage was often entered into early. We do not have many inscriptions recording the age at which women were married, but the few who record it mention ages ranging from 12...

    (Ancient Jewish Epitaphs, p.103104-, http://books.google.com/booksid=F549...VYI4Ok6&sig=Jm uMAO3YgRnYQFVLOcsHCuQDFd8#PPA103,M1)


    Age of Marriage in Rome
    According to About.com:


    In Ancient Rome…young girls were often married off when they were between the ages of twelve and fourteen.
    (About.com, http://marriage.about.com/cs/teenmar...enmarriage.htm)


    In the book entitled The Age of Marriage in Ancient Rome, we read:

    Traditionally in pre-modern societies, AAFM [age at first marriage] for girls corresponded with the visible onset of puberty. In these early societies, high mortality rates demanded an offsetting high-birth rate. As a result, younger marriages were required to facilitate population growth.(The Age of Marriage in Ancient Rome, http://osdir.com/ml/education.public.../msg00028.html)




    In a scholarly article about the Roman Empire, we read that marriage would oftentimes precede the onset of puberty:

    Durry (1955a/b/c, 1956)[48] had argued that Roman girls were married before puberty, that puberty was not important in fixing the age of marriage, and that such early marriages were consummated before puberty…

    Taking into consideration epigraphic and literary material, Hopkins concludes that «[w]hether pre-pubertal or not, girl›s age at marriage was by our standards very young and marriages were generally immediately consummated» …

    At least one author believed that a girl «should be married and deflowered as soon as she reaches puberty (i.e., the socially determined age of puberty)… «

    Psychohistorians[66] cite Rouselle (198833) in arguing that Roman misconceptions about the hymen «could only be the result of girls being deflowered before puberty», being lawfully married before puberty.

    (Janssen, D.F.; Oct 2002. G.U.S.. Volume I: World Reference Atlas. Interim Report. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, http://www2.huberlin.de/sexology/GES...M#_Toc26337172)


    In the article “The Age of Roman Girls at Marriage”, we read:

    In fact menarche (onset of menses) was not always a pre-condition of marriage; nevertheless marriages were usually consummated immediately… they (prepubertal marriages) were not exceptional and were condoned.

    (The Age of Roman Girls at Marriage,) http://www.jstor.org/pss/2173291?sea...Don&Search=yes



    The age of seven was in vogue:

    Around AD 530, and at least as far back as the reign of Augustus, the legal minimum age of marriage for girls was 12 and for boys 14 (Hopkins,p313n22)…At least for the aristocracy, early ages are frequently mentioned. Betrothal could take place within a poorly defined period before this age; at least it must be assumed that a minimum legal age of seven was in vogue (p313n23)[49]… Plutarche (historian, philosopher), and Soranus (doctor,
    practising at Rome), both Greeks, implied that early marriage (12 or before)
    and defloration would occur…

    (Janssen, D.F.; Oct 2002. G.U.S.. Volume I: World Reference Atlas. Interim Report. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, http://www2.huberlin.de/sexology/GES....HTM#_Toc26337


    The great Roman leader Augustus fixed the minimum age of marriage at ten years old:

    Roman children of the aristocracy married youngest (Hopkins, 1965:316ff; 1983[57]94; Weaver, 1986156)[58]. Roman marriage arrangements usually began with a betrothal, which was possible before age ten[59], at least in the case of the aristocracy, or when political gains were in vogue (Balsdon, p87,275n18)[60]. Augustus (AD 9) had fixed the minimum age at ten (Rawson,198621)[61]…(Janssen, D.F.; Oct 2002. G.U.S.. Volume I: World Reference Atlas. InterimReport. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, http://www2.huberlin.de/sexology/GES...M#_Toc26337172)


    Age of Marriage in Greece

    In the Ancient Greek civilization, the time to marry was at the onset of puberty: Flacelière (59) also mentioned that girls could marry as soon as puberty hit.(Daily Life in Greeceat the Time of Pericles,

    http://www.richeast.org/htwm/Greeks/.../marriage.html


    WomenInTheAncientWorld.com says:


    Athenian men married out of a sense of civic duty and put off the fateful day until the age of 30 or more, at which time they married girls of half their age whose youth made them more easily controlled.

    WomanInTheAncientWorld.com
    http://www.womenintheancientworld.co...nt%20egypt.htm



    Age of Marriage in Christian Europe

    In an article about Medieval times, MolloyCollege’s website says:

    Women were marriageable right after puberty, marriage arrangements were made while they were in infancy; they were wed at the age of twelve or fourteen to men in their twenties or thirties. Puberty was linked to virginity, a highly sought after quality.

    (MolloyCollege, http://students.molloy.edu/sophia/med_ren/med_text.htm)



    Bennet’s book Singlewomen in the European Past:

    As Anthony Molho persuasively illustrates, the cultural imperative to marry young women soon after they reached sexual maturity even prompted many Florentine fathers to falsify their daughters› ages to give them more time to negotiate a favorable marriage.

    (Singlewomen in the European Past, p.44, http://books.google.com/books?id=l6Y...g=rug6ZIFREdsm FAKkjPIboKsd2KI)


    The History at Minnesotawebsite indicates that the average age of marriage just 500 years ago was only 12.7
    (http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/NAHUAEN3/outline.htm)

    This is an average, meaning that many girls were getting married much younger than that. Why then are the Christians up in arms about Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) who married Aisha (peace be upon her) more than1,400 years ago?



    Revered Christian Figures

    Christian Saints

    We have already clearly established that Jewish and Christian Law allowed for girls to be married off at such a young age. We have also shown that such marriages were not only allowed, but encouraged; they were in fact the norm. Yet perhaps a Christian polemicist would argue that the matter is not about what the masses did but what the leaders did; after all, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the leader of the Muslims, not just any follower.

    To refute this point, we first point to the Christian popes who sanctioned such early marriages and actively encouraged them. But to further weaken their spurious argument, we will cite the example of numerous Christian saints who married young girls. Therefore, if the Christians attack Prophet Muhammad, then let them first throw stones at their own revered heroes. Let us begin:

    1. Saint Augustine: Saint Augustine, who is credited with having formulated Christian theology, betrothed himself to a ten year old girl, and this was when he was thirty-one years of age. He waited two years for her body to mature, after which she moved into Saint Augustine’s at the age of twelve. How is it then that the Christians attack Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) for marrying Aisha (peace be upon her) when she was nine or ten, when their venerated Saint Augustine himself betrothed a ten year old girl?


    We read:

    One such example of betrothal between a mature male and young girl is that of St. Augustine (354439- A.D.). At the age of thirty-one, Augustine betrothed himself to a ten-year-old girl.
    (Mark E. Pietrzyk, http://www.internationalorder.org/scandal_response.html)



    Saint Agnes:

    Another very famous Christian figure in history, Saint Agnes—who is known as the patron saint of chastity—fielded marriage proposals when she was younger than twelve years old. Yet suddenly the Christians turn their noses up when we Muslims say that Aisha (peace be upon her) fielded marriage proposals at a similar age.



    Domestic-Church.com says:

    Saint Agnes› name means chaste or pure in Greek and lamb or victim in Latin. She has always been regarded by the Church as a special patroness of purity. Agnes was martyred early in the persecution of Diocletian, who began his
    persecution of Christians in March of 303. She was only twelve or thirteen years old at the time of her death (accounts differ). Even at that young age, her wealth and beauty had attracted the attention of the young noblemen of Rome, who competed with each other for her hand in marriage.
    (Domestic-Church.com,http://www.domesticchurch.com/CONTEN...TS/STAGNES.HTM)



    3. Saint Hedwig of Andechs: Saint Hedwig is revered by the Christians as the patron saint of orphans. She was married off at the age of twelve to Henry I of Silesia.

    4. Saint Rita of Cascia: She is considered by Christians to be the patron saint of hopeless causes, and was betrothed at the age of twelve to a man named Paola Mancini.

    5. Saint Mary of Jesus Crucified: She was betrothed at the age of thirteen.

    6. Saint Elizabeth of Portugal, patron of the Third Order of St. Francis, was married off at the age of twelve.



    7. Saint Joseph, the supposed foster father of Jesus, was in his nineties when he married the twelve year old Mary. Some claim that Joseph was in his thirties—and not his nineties—but the fact remains that he was a grown man
    who married a twelve year old. And there are many other examples from amongst the venerated Christian
    saints…



    Christian Kings, Royals, and Nobles

    The Christian royals were marrying girls as young as nine, according to an article written by Professor Lynda Garland of the University of New England:

    Child brides, whether Byzantines or foreign princesses, were the norm rather than the exception, especially from the late twelfth century. Irene Ducaena, wife of Alexius I Comnenus, was twelve at her marriage, and empress before
    she was fifteen; the Byzantine princess Theodora, Manuel›s niece, was in her thirteenth year when she married Baldwin III of Jerusalem; and Margaret-Maria of Hungary married Isaac II Angelus at the age of nine.
    (Professor Lynda Garland of University of New England, http://www.romanemperors.org/aggiefran.htm)

    It should be noted that these Christian kings, royals, and nobles married with the blessing and sanction of the Church. As such, the countless examples that we will provide serve as a strong proof against the Christians and their insincere criticisms of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). In this article, we will only provide a few of the many examples, as follows:




    1. King Richard II, at the age of thirty, married a French princess named Isabella who was only seven years old at the time.

    2. Duchess of Milan, Bianca of Savoy, was married off at the age of thirteen

    3. Theodora Comnena was married off at the age of thirteen to King Baldwin III, who was more than double her age.

    4. King Adronikos I Komnenos, the valiant Christian leader of the Byzantine Empire, married the twelve year old Agnes of France when he was sixty-four years old.

    5. King Denis of Portugal married the twelve year old Saint Elizabeth of Portugal.

    6. Girolamo Riario, Lord of Imola and Forli, married the nine year old Caterina Sforza.

    7. Jeanne III of Navarre was wed at the age of thirteen.

    8. Giovanni Sforza married the thirteen year old Lucrezia Borgia.

    9. King Haakon VI of Norway married the ten year old Queen Margaret.

    10. Count Agness of Essex was betrothed at the age of only three years old and married off at the age of twelve to a man who was almost fifty years of age.

    11. Prince Edward of Wales married the French king’s daughter, Isabella, who was only seven years old.

    12. Romanos II married Bertha (renamed Eudokia), the daughter of the King of Italy, when she was only four years old!

    13. Stephen Milutin, the Kral of Serbia, married Simonis, the daughter of Emperor Andronikos II, when she was only five years old. At the time of the marriage, Stephen Milutin was fifty years old.

    14. Edward I married the nine year old Eleanor of Castile.

    15. Richard of Shrewsbury, King Edward IV’s son, married the five year old Anne Mowbray of Norfolk.

    16. Mary Stewart married Henry VIII when she was only six.

    And there are many other examples…




    Perhaps a Christian polemicist would argue that these Christian royals were individuals and do not represent Christianity. Yet, this argument is weakened when we take into account that no royal marriage was validated without the consent and approval of the Christian Church! Papal consent was a prerequisite of the time. To illustrate this, we can look at the example of the marriage of Prince Edward to the young Isabella:

    Given that twelve was the canonical age for marriage, and that in 1298 the Pope had stipulated that she should marry Prince Edward as soon as she reached that age, these dates are viable. In the same document of June 1298, the Pope describes Isabella as being ‹under seven years›, which places her birth at any time from 1291 onwards. Furthermore, the Treaty of Montreuil (June 1299) provided for Isabella›s betrothal and marriage to take place when she reached the respective canonical ages of seven and twelve. So she must

    have reached seven before May 1303, and twelve before January 1308. (Isabella, http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/...es/choice/extr act_isabella.jsp)

    It is safe to say that if Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) had been Christian, then the Church itself would have sanctioned his marriage to Aisha (peace be upon her)! But because the Prophet (peace be upon him) is Muslim, the Church instead has levied allegations of “pedophilia” against him! This is the two-faced nature of the Crusader bigots.




    Jewish and Christian Prophets

    1. Abraham: When the ignorant Christians condemn Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) for marrying a young girl fifty years younger than him, they are actually attacking the Prophets in their Bible as well. Do they not recall the story of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) who, according to the Bible, slept with Hagar (peace be upon her) who was sixty or seventy younger than him?

    If the Christians have an issue with Prophet Muhammad being in his fifties, do they not say anything when Prophet Abraham was in his eighties? We read:

    Sarai his wife took her Egyptian maidservant Hagar and gave her to her husband to be his wife. He (Abram) slept with Hagar, and she conceived…So Hagar bore Abram a son, and Abram gave the name Ishmael to the son she had borne. Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore him Ishmael. (Genesis, Chapter 16, verses 1–4, 15–16, NIV)

    2. David: We read in the Bible that King David lay beside a young virgin, by which was meant a girl who had just attained the age of puberty. We read:

    When King David was old and well advanced in years, he could not keep warm even when they put covers over him. So his servants said to him, ‘Let us look for a young virgin to attend the king and take care of him. She can lie beside him so that our lord the king may keep warm.’ Then they searched throughout Israel for a beautiful girl and found Abishag, a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. (1 Kings, Chapter 1, verses 1–4, NIV)


    3. Isaac: According to the Judeo-Christian tradition, Prophet Isaac (peace be upon him) was forty years old when he married Rebecca (Rivka) who was only three years old at the time! And it should be remembered that Prophet Isaac is considered by the Jews to be one of the most important of Prophets, and Rebecca is one of the four matriarchs of the Jews. What is interesting to note is that just like there are some defeatist Muslims who deny that Aisha was nine years old when she was married, there are also some defeatist Jews who deny that Rebecca was three years old when she was married. We refer the reader to the following defeatist website made by contemporary Jews who seek to deny what their classical scholars say on the matter: http://www.jewishlegends.com/displayExp.php?rumor=122



    In this article, the Jewish writers admit that they are taught in Jewish schools that Rebecca was three years old when she was married:




    We all came home from school saying that Rivka was three years old when she got married, and most of us had a hard time believing it. Our teachers explained that people in those days matured faster, so 3 years old then was not what 3 years old is now. What they did not tell us (probably because they did not know), is that there is another opinion that says that she was 14. (JewishLegends.com, http://www.jewishlegends.com/displayExp.php?rumor=122)

    How oddly similar is this claim made by these Jewish defeatists (“another opinion that says she was 14”) to the claim made by some Muslim defeatists who claim that “another opinion says that Aisha was nineteen years of age.” Jewish apologists further the following argument: Rivka, shortly before her marriage (Berei**** 24:16), is called NA’ARAH,
    which refers to a girl of at least 12 years of age! (JewishLegends.com, http://www.jewishlegends.com/displayExp.
    php?rumor=122)

    Muslim apologists use a strikingly similar argument. We cite the example of Understanding-Islam.com, a Muslim website that takes unorthodox opinions: All those who know the Arabic language, are aware that the word «bikr» in the Arabic language is not used for an immature nine-year old girl. The correct word for a young playful girl, as stated earlier is «Jariyah». «Bikr» on the other hand, is used for an unmarried lady, and obviously a nine year old is not a «lady». (Understanding-Islam, http://understandingislam.com/relate...estion&qid=375)

    Both sites (Jewish and Muslim) engage in some simplistic mathematical arguments in order to find discrepancies in dating. In fact, both groups use similar methodology to question the historicity of these early marriages. What is not similar, however, is the amount of ink wasted attacking Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) on the one hand and on the other hand

    the silence on Prophet Isaac’s marriage to the three year old Rebecca. The Zionists lead the charge in the attacks against Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), so should we now expose their hypocrisy? If they argue that their
    classical scholars were wrong for saying that the forty year old Prophet Isaac married a three year old, then logic and fairness dictate that the Muslims are also absolved because they too have defeatists who simply deny that Aisha
    was nine at the time of marriage!





    4. Jesus: And if the Christians wish to stick a spear in our hearts by attacking Prophet Muhammad, then what of Prophet Jesus’s mother Mary (peace be upon her) who was only twelve years old when she was betrothed to the ninety year old Saint Joseph?

    The Catholic Encyclopedia says: The priests announced through Judea that they wished to find in the tribe of Juda a respectable man to espouse Mary, then twelve to fourteen years of age. Joseph, who was at the time ninety years old, went up to Jerusalem among the candidates.
    (Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08504a.htm)

    According to the “Oxford Dictionary Bible” commentary, Mary was twelve years old when she became pregnant. As for the age of Saint Joseph, the traditional opinion was that he was a ninety year old widower at the time. It has only been very recently that suddenly the defeatists have sought to deny this, claiming that Joseph was “only” in his thirties. Whether or not Joseph was in his thirties or nineties is largely inconsequential, since the fact is that he was a grown man who married a twelve year old girl. In any case, the Christian East still accepts the idea that Saint Joseph was in his eighties and that Mary was twelve. An Eastern Orthodox website says:



    An Elderly Joseph

    The New Testament Apocrypha speak of Joseph as an elderly man, a widower with adult children, who was quite reluctant to be included among those from among whom a protector for Mary would be chosen. Although the Apocrypha were not included in the canon of Scripture their importance is great and much in evidence in the liturgical texts of some of the great Feasts.

    However the Gospels too give evidence for an elderly Joseph. For example he is no longer mentioned after Jesus› trip to the temple as an adolescent. Note also that as Jesus was dying upon the Cross He asked John to look after His mother.

    That would have been unnecessary - and even insulting to Joseph had he been alive. But as an elderly man he would have reposed well before Jesus› crucifixion at the age of 3233-. Mary, however, would only have been in her middle age…

    The Christian East›s picture of Joseph as a courageous, faithful, God-centred elderly widower rings true. It also tells us that «old people» are quite capable of being chosen for and embarking upon extraordinary adventures in which they obtain remarkable success by God›s mercy and provision.

    This picture may not be very attractive - particularly in a youth-fixated culture such as ours in which «old» has become a pejoritive expression. One can understand the appeal of the youthful Joseph. But truth may have an attraction all its own.(Ukrainian-Orthodoxy, http://www.unicorne.org/orthodoxy/ar...s_a/joseph.htm)

    Therefore, if the Christian West seeks to **** the Muslims for our belief in an elderly Prophet who married a young virgin, then let them cast the first stone against their own brothers in the East first. In any case, even if we accept the claim that Saint Joseph was in his thirties when he was betrothed to Mary (peace be upon her), does this change the fact that Mary was twelve years old?

    The priest of Saint Mary’s Catholic Church said: “Mary’s husband is believed to be around 36. Mary was only 13 when she married Joseph. When she first was arranged with Joseph, she was between 7 to 9 years old.” So even the Western Christians believe that a grown man well into his thirties married a young girl and impregnated her.

    If the Christians of today are shocked at Aisha’s age, then should they not be equally shocked by the age of Mary? But we find that they are hypocritical in their attitude towards the Muslims, and we know this is only because the people hate to accept the Truth, and we recognize that all the Prophets were maligned and criticized by the disbelieving people. God will deal with them just like God dealt with all those who maligned the Prophets.


    And there is much more, you can download the full book here http://www.rasoulallah.net/v2/docume...g=en&doc=13158

    does the hypocrisy not amaze you
    Refuting the Claim that Prophet Muhammad was a Pedophile

    “Who said that guidance requires there to be someone accompanying you"

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    Re: Refuting the Claim that Prophet Muhammad was a Pedophile

    I read it all but disagree with you completely

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