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    evangel's Avatar
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    The Jews of Medina

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    What made Mohammed go after the three clans of Jews in Medina?

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    At the moment I can not recall the whole story. However, if memory serves me correctly it had to do with an attempt to assasinate Muhammad and some treaty violations. If I recall the 3 groups were somewhat break away radicals from Judaism and the whole thing was not over Judaism. I'll try to find out more. Most likely what I have said is not the whole truth about those events.
    The Jews of Medina




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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Here is a bit more:

    PROPHET MUHAMMAD'S TREATY WITH JEWS (622 C.E.)





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    On Muslim History and Civilization




    Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) decided to leave Mecca because the Meccan chiefs had taken action to kill him at his home. It was the year 622 CE. As far the choice of migrating to Medina (known as Yathrib at that time), the decision was made easier by the second ‘Pledge of Aqaba’ made a year before on the occasion of the annual rites of pilgrimage. The pledge was made by seventy three men and two women of Khazraj and Aws communities of Medina. They had accepted Islam and wanted to invite the Prophet to migrate to Medina. Their motivation for this move, apart from recognizing him as the Prophet, the trustworthy, and the best in conduct in Mecca, was to bring peace and security between the Khazraj and Aws. They were often at war with each other and the Battle of Bu'ath had shattered their strength completely. They desperately needed a leader who could be trusted by both communities and bring peace in Medina. As part of the pledge, they were to protect the Prophet as they would protect their women and children if he were attacked by the Meccans.

    Among the people in Medina, there was a small community (three tribes) of Jews with Arab communities constituting the majority of the population. Because of wars going on for several generations, the resources of the Arabs were depleted and their influence in Medina was dwindling. The Jews were traders and many of them used to lend money at exorbitant interest. The continuing wars boosted their economy and personal wealth.

    The immediate result of the Prophet’s migration to Medina was peace and unity between the communities of Aws and Khazraj. The Prophet, motivated by the general welfare of citizens of Medina, decided to offer his services to the remaining communities including the Jews. He had already laid down the basis for relationship between the Emigrants from Mecca (known as Muhajirin) and Medinites (known as the Ansar, the helpers).

    The Treaty between Muslims, non-Muslim Arabs and Jews of Medina was put in writing and ratified by all parties. It has been preserved by the historians. The document referred Muhammad (pbuh) as the Prophet and Messenger of God but it was understood that the Jews did not have to recognize him as such for their own religious reasons. The major parts of the document were:


    “In the name of Allah (The One True God) the Compassionate, the Merciful. This is a document from Muhammad, the Prophet, governing the relation between the Believers from among the Quray****es (i.e., Emigrants from Mecca) and Yathribites (i.e., the residents of Medina) and those who followed them and joined them and strived with them. They form one and the same community as against the rest of men.
    “No Believer shall oppose the client of another Believer. Whosoever is rebellious, or seeks to spread injustice, enmity or sedition among the Believers, the hand of every man shall be against him, even if he be a son of one of them. A Believer shall not kill a Believer in retaliation of an unbeliever, nor shall he help an unbeliever against a Believer.

    “Whosoever among the Jews follows us shall have help and equality; they shall not be injured nor shall any enemy be aided against them.... No separate peace will be made when the Believers are fighting in the way of Allah.... The Believers shall avenge the blood of one another shed in the way of Allah ....Whosoever kills a Believer wrongfully shall be liable to retaliation; all the Believers shall be against him as one man and they are bound to take action against him.

    “The Jews shall contribute (to the cost of war) with the Believers so long as they are at war with a common enemy. The Jews of Banu Najjar, Banu al-Harith, Banu Sa'idah, Banu Jusham, Banu al-Aws, Banu Tha'labah, Jafnah, and Banu al-Shutaybah enjoy the same rights and priviledges as the Jews of Banu Aws.

    “The Jews shall maintain their own religion and the Muslims theirs. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. The close friends of Jews are as themselves. None of them shall go out on a military expedition except with the permission of Muhammad, but he shall not be prevented from taking revenge for a wound.

    “The Jews shall be responsible for their expenses and the Believers for theirs. Each, if attacked, shall come to the assistance of the other.

    “The valley of Yathrib (Medina) shall be sacred and inviolable for all that join this Treaty. Strangers, under protection, shall be treated on the same ground as their protectors; but no stranger shall be taken under protection except with consent of his tribe....No woman shall be taken under protection without the consent of her family.

    Whatever difference or dispute between the parties to this covenant remains unsolved shall be referred to Allah and to Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. Allah is the Guarantor of the piety and goodness that is embodied in this covenant. Neither the Quraysh nor their allies shall be given any protection.

    “The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib. If they are called to cease hostilities and to enter into peace, they shall be bound to do so in the interest of peace; and if they make a similar demand on Muslims it must be carried out except when the war is agianst their religion.

    “Allah approves the truth and goodwill of this covenant. This treaty shall not protect the unjust or the criminal. Whoever goes out to fight as well as whoever stays at home shall be safe and secure in this city unless he has perpetrated an injustice or commited a crime.... Allah is the protector of the good and God-fearing people.”

    The first written constitution of a State ever promulgated by a sovereign in human history emanated from the Prophet of Islam. It was enacted from the first year of Hijrah (622 CE). The treaty stipulated a city state in Medina, allowing wide autonomy to communities. Private justice was to be banished. The head of the State had the prerogative to decide who should participate in an expedition, the war and peace being indivisible. Social insurance was to be instituted.










    The name Yathrib was changed to Medinat-un-Nabawi, meaning the 'City of the Prophet' soon after he migrated there. The use of only the first word in that name (i.e., Medinah

    The link source:

    http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/treaty22.html


    I'm searching now for how this treaty was violated and how the 3 clans rebelled.
    Last edited by Woodrow; 08-13-2006 at 06:49 AM.
    The Jews of Medina




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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    The Three Jewish Tribes of Madinah (Jealousy, Treachery, Tragedy)

    The fate of the three Jewish tribes of Madinah is closely linked with the three major battles, which decided the fate of the Muslim community. The tragedy can be seen in what could have been rather than what actually transpired.
    Muhammad (S) had clear expectations for the Jews and Christians of Arabia from the very beginning. He knew that the "people of the book", as the Qur'an calls them, were familiar with the concepts of monotheism and righteousness, that they had clear Messianic expectations. He expected them to recognize him as a Messenger of Allah. The clarity, sanity, and truthfulness of the Qur'anic message, he thought, would turn them toward Islam. Some "people of the book" did accept the message.

    And when they (the Christians) hear what hath been sent down to the Apostle, thou wilt see their eyes overflow with tears because of the truth which they recognize. They say, "Our Lord! We believe. Write us down therefore with those who bear witness." (Qur'an 5: 83)

    However most not only rejected the Qur'an's message but also showed hostility. This was especially true of the Jews of Madinah. They felt that any new Prophet should come from amongst them, the "chosen people". Muhammad's (S) leadership threatened their political power in Madinah, and so they regarded him as an enemy.
    As mentioned earlier, one of Muhammad's (S) first acts on arrival at Madinah was to gather all the major tribes together, including the Jewish tribes to sign a Covenant. One of its major articles was the agreement to defend jointly against a common enemy. The tribe of Banu Qaynuqa' was the first to violate the treaty with the Muslims. The reason for this appears unclear, but it seems that the victory at Badr increased Muslim prestige, which they viewed as a direct threat to Jewish influence and prestige in Madinah. For the Qaynuqa ', who had the reputation of being the most fearless and proud tribe in the area, the increase in Muslim prestige resulted in a clear diminution of their standing in the community. In a society that functioned on social pride this was a serious matter and they became increasingly disagreeable and hostile towards the Muslims. In this tense atmosphere, there were many incidents of provocation. A Muslim woman was molested, for example, and in the ensuing fight a Jew and a Muslim were killed. As several articles of the Covenant had been breached repeatedly by the tribe of Banu Qaynuqa' the Muslims decided to besiege their fortress. After about two weeks of siege, the Qaynuqa' capitulated and were exiled.
    Petty jealousy and hostility also motivated the clash with the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. After the battle of Uhud the Muslim position appeared much weaker. The Jewish tribes had excused themselves from the battle of Uhud, on the grounds of Sabbath, and had once again violated the Covenant. The Quraysh who expected the Banu Qurayzah to come to their help, may have instigated this. Abdullah bin Ubayy, a local chieftain with ambitions of being the leader of Madinah, had clandestinely promised to help them causing them to be even more arrogant and intransigent in their behavior. Following the battle, they even attempted to assassinate Muhammad (S). They were also besieged in their fortress and soon capitulated.

    "He it is who caused the unbelievers among the People of the Book to quit their homes, to join those who had gone into exile earlier. Ye (believers) never thought they would quit their homes, And even they (the People of the Book) on their part thought that their fortresses would protect them against Allah. But Allah's force (the believers) came upon them from whence they scarcely expected it." (Qur'an 59: 2)

    The Banu Nadir was permitted to take as many of their belongings as they could on their beasts of burden. Some of them ripped out the doors and windows of their homes and loaded them onto their camels. Many of them destroyed what was left of their homes so that it might not be usable to the Muslims. The Qur'an draws attention to this irony:

    "And caused such upheaval in their hearts that they let their houses be demolished by their own hands." (Qur'an 59: 2)

    Referring to the hypocrites who had promised to help the Banu Nadir but did not, the Qur'an elaborates as follows:

    If they are expelled, they (the hypocrites among them) will not go forth with them, And if they are attacked, they (the hypocrites) will not help them; And even if these (make a show) of helping them, they will do so only to turn their backs so they will in fact receive no help at all
    They (the People of the Book) will not fight you in a body except from fortified towns or from behind walls. They are themselves opposed to each other, and thou (O Prophet) thinkest they are united (among themselves). But at heart, they are not united. This is because they are not a sensible people.
    They are just like those who had preceded them and tasted the results of their doings; So there awaiteth therein a grievous chastisement. (Qur'an 59:12, 14 and 15)

    The most tragic encounter with the Jews in Madinah was with the third and the last remaining Jewish tribe, the Banu Qurayzah. The expulsion of the Banu Nadir initially had a sobering effect and the Qurayzah revalidated the covenant with the Muslims. However, soon they were conspiring with both the pagans of Makkah and the Jewish tribes that had been expelled. When the Qurayshi armies attacked in what was later called the "battle of the trench" (Khandaq), the Qurayzah connived with them. If the invading army had been successful in breaching the trench, the Qurayzah would have attacked the Muslims from behind, resulting in total annihilation of the Muslim community. This was clearly a serious act of treason.
    The Muslims had been extremely patient with the Jews. Their retaliation was proportionate, limited and just. With each breach of the treaty the penalty was increased. Even though the other two tribes had been expelled, the Banu Qurayzah had been given the benefit of the doubt. Nevertheless they reneged on the treaty, again with potentially extremely dangerous consequences to the Muslims. After the battle of the trench was won, the fortress in which the Banu Qurayzah lived was besieged and they surrendered after a short while. As was Muhammad's (S) custom, they were judged by the rules of their own scripture, the Tawrah (Torah) and traditions (Talmud), and were asked to select an individual (Sa'd bin Mu'adh), from their allies, the tribe of Aws, who they could trust as their judge.

    "And He brought down out of their fortresses such of the People of the Book (the Jews) as had aided (the confederates) and cast despair into their hearts. Of these, ye slew some and some ye made captives. And as heritage He gave you their land and their dwellings and their wealth, And further a territory on which you had never set foot. And Allah hath power over all things!" (Qur'an 33: 26 -27.)


    Source link:

    http://www.ispi-usa.org/muhammad/muhammad11.html
    The Jews of Medina




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    Zulkiflim's Avatar
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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Salaam,

    Good answer..

    But evangel i hope you can read the auto bio graphy of the Prophet so that you can know the various parties involved.

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Quote Originally Posted by evangel View Post
    What made Mohammed go after the three clans of Jews in Medina?
    Hi,
    He didn't just 'go after' the three tribes. When Prophet Muhammad pbuh first came to Madinah (the hijrah) and established the Islamic state he made a covenant and peace agreement with the 3 tribes. They were all to live in peace and defend the city together.
    Dr. M. Hamidullah explains the following points:
    When the Prophet Mohammed settled down in Medina, he found there complete anarchy, the region having never known before either a State or a king to unite the tribes torn by internecine feuds. In just a few weeks, he succeeded in rallying all the inhabitants of the region into order. He constituted a city state, in which Muslims, Jews, pagan Arabs and also probably a small number of Christians, all entered into a statal organism by means of a social contract. The constitutional law of this first 'Muslim' State - which was the confederacy as a sequence of the multiplicity of the population groups - has come down to us in toto, and we read therein not only in clause 25: "to Muslims their religion, and to Jews their religion," or, "that there would be benevolence and justice," but even the unexpected passage in the same clause 25: "the Jews . . . are a community (in alliance) with - according Ibn Hisham and in the version of Abu-'Ubaid, a community (forming part) of - the believers (i.e., Muslims)." The very fact that, at the time of the constitution of this city-state, the autonomous Jewish villages acceded of their free will to the confederal State, and recognized Muhammad as their supreme political head, implies in our opinion that the non-Muslim subjects possessed the right of votes in the election of the head of the Muslim State, at least in so far as the political life of the country was concerned. (Hamidullah, Introduction to Islam, paragraphs 414-416)
    During the life of Prophet Muhammad, there was a Jewish synagogue in Madinah and an educational institute known as Bait Al-Midras. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) preserved and protected both of them.

    After the Battle of Badr (2nd year after hijrah) when the Muslims triumphed over the Makkan polytheists, the Jews of Banu Qaynuqa began to display open hostility with the Muslims. When the Prophet Muhammad pbuh went to them an requested them to honor their pact they replied by saying, "Those people with whom you fought were inexperienced and ignorant of the ways of warfare, which allowed you to score an easy victory. If you fight us we would teach you a lesson." They then fortified themselves in their quarters and the Muslims surrounded them and laid siege. None of the other Jewish tribes assisted the tribe of Banu Qaynuqa because they recognized the clear violation of the treaty on the part of the latter. The Banu Qaynuqa tribes realized they couldn't hold up and they surrendered. Instead of taking prisoners and slaves as other contemporary leaders would have done to their vanquished enemies, the Prophet Muhammad pbuh allowed them to take their belongings and leave Madinah.

    After the Battle of Uhud (3rd year after hijrah), when the Muslims had a less favorable outcome in their battle with the Makkans, the Jews of Banu Nadeer attempted to take advantage of the Muslim's weakness and assasinate the Prophet Muhammad pbuh when he visited them. The Prophet pbuh escaped and issued a 10-day ultimatum for the tribe of Banu Nadeer to leave Madinah. However, the Prophet Muhammad pbuh even allowed them to retain all their property and appoint agents to look after their farms. The Banu Nadeer however consulted with Abdullah Ibn Ubayy Ibn Salul, the leader of the hypocrites in Madinah. The latter told them that he had 2000 fighters who would assist them against Prophet Muhammad and he also assured them the Ghatafan would come to their aid. The tribe of Banu Nadeer, feeling confident that they could destroy the Muslims, rejected the Prophet's ultimatum and prepared for war. The Muslims laid siege to their quarters during which time they recieved none of the promised support from Abdullah Ibn Ubayy or his allies. After 26 days they surrendered and asked to leave under the original conditions. This was no longer reasonable since they themselves had rejected the Propet's offer. Thus they were to leave with whatever belonging they could take with them, and their land was turned over to the Muslims. And yet, the Prophet still did not enslave them, take them prisoner or spill any blood in this conflict. He was always keen to find a peaceful situation.

    In the 5th year after hijrah, an alliance was made between the arab tribes of Ghatafan, the Quraysh of Makkah, the Jews of Khaybar (which included the exiled tribe of Banu Nadeer), the arabs of Sulaym, Asad, Ashja' and Fazarah. Together, this coalition raised a massive army of 10 000 soldiers to march against and annihilate the Muslims once and for all. The Muslims could not face such an immense force and consequently they dug a trenche around the northern part of the city to defend themselves. The coalition forces laid siege to the Muslims in the battle known as Al-Khandaq. The Muslims had only protected the norther part of the city as their allies, the last Jewish tribe called Banu Qurayzah, lay to their south beyond the orchards. However, the coalition forces were able to persuade the Banu Qurayzah to break their treaty with the Muslims and attack them from behind. The Banu Qurayzah had the ability to attack the undefended Muslim city - occupied now only by women and children - from the south.

    When rumours spread that Banu Qurayzah had broken their peace treaty with the Prophet Muhamamd pbuh and had joined the coalition of forces surrounding the Muslim city of Madinah, the Prophet pbuh was distressed and sent to them four of his companions as a delegation to request them to honor their treaty. Sa'd ibn Mu'âdh [chief of the 'Aws tribe], Sa'd ibn 'Ubâdah [chief of the khazraj tribe], Abdullah ibn Rawâhah and Khawât ibn Jubayr were the four members of the delegation.

    The Banu Qurayzah treated the delegation rudely, disavowed all past treaties with the Prophet, and began to exchange insults with Sa'd ibn 'Ubâdah. Sa'd ibn Mu'âdh interrupted saying that the matter was far too serious than to enter into a petty exchange of insults. He pleaded with the Banu Qurayzah but to no avail; they began to abuse him using the most vulgar and obscene language. Sa'd ibn Mu'âdh said, "You would have been well advised to use better language." With that, they left and conveyed their sad report secretly to the Prophet pbuh to avoid causing more fear to spread in amongst the Muslims who already had an army of 10 000 camped on their doorstep and were now open to attack from the Banu Qurayzah behind them.

    The Banu Qurayzah sent some of their fighters in to the undefended city to attack the Muslims. A Muslim woman, Safiyyah bint Abdul-Muttalib, saw one of the Qurayzah warriors creeing about the quarters of the Muslim women. She managed to kill him and the others fled thinking that the Muslims had left men to guard the rear as well. (Ibn Sayyid al-Nâs, 'Uyûn Al-Athar, pp. 89).

    After the coalition forces had disbanded, given up the siege and left, the Muslims surrounded the quarters of the Banu Qurayzah and laid siege to them. Those amongst the Banu Qurayzah who had opposed their tribe's violation of the treaty were allowed to leave freely but the remaining warriors were killed. The Muslims had seen how leniency failed with the previous tribes who had gathered up their forces to launch another attack on the Muslims. The Banu Qurayzah had also witnessed this and despite all that they still chose to violate their treaty with the Muslims.

    I hope this helps.

    Regards
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    The Jews of Medina

    The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
    "Surely I was sent to perfect the qualities of righteous character" [Musnad Ahmad, Muwatta Mâlik]


    Visit Ansâr Al-'Adl's personal page HERE.
    Excellent resources on Islam listed HERE.

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    You think you could give us a much more unbiased site?
    The Jews of Medina


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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    what biased? care 2 elaborate?
    The Jews of Medina

    [Islam means peace. The peace cannot be confined to the Muslims. It must mean peace for the whole world.

    -Mahatma Ghandi-

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    I think he means these are all Muslim sites as the sources.

    Maybe we could see the views of someone who has knowledge on this subject, who has a religious affiliation with neither of them.

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    I believe Lavikor made a valid request. I do not know of any other sources. Perhaps somebody knows of one.
    The Jews of Medina




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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    All what has been posted are facts.

    Lavikor201, unfortunately you would claim bias because the traitors were "Jewish."

    I challenge you to disprove any fact presented.

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    I am sure something can be found on the ever unbiased "wikipedia" to the contrary ... things always appear "biased" if they have a historical account in favor of Muslims.... which is not in concert with the anti-Islamic sentiment that is common today....
    The Jews of Medina

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Quote Originally Posted by lavikor201 View Post
    You think you could give us a much more unbiased site?
    I didn't paste my answer from a site; I typed that up myself earlier today in response to evangel's question. The information is based on the original historical documentation of that time. Refer to Ibn Hisham's Sirah An-Nabawiyyah and Ibn Sayyid An-Nas's 'Uyun Al-Athar. Even if you go to anti-islamic sites/books that discuss the issue, they don't quote different historians or historical records, they still quote the Muslim historical records because they are the historical records of that time.
    The Jews of Medina

    The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
    "Surely I was sent to perfect the qualities of righteous character" [Musnad Ahmad, Muwatta Mâlik]


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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Muslims are just as qualified and if we talk of percentages... I am sure of the 1.5 billion Muslims at least 15 million are comparable to their Jewish counter parts... 15 million being the number of Jews in existence today..... this is of course off the top of my head....... I do admire the tenacity and rise to power though.....
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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Alright thank you then.

    Sources regarding the Banu Qurayza are sparse: the only known mentions of this tribe are in Muslim sources, and date from no earlier than 150 years after the event.

    So I am not sure how accurate your sources are.
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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Quote Originally Posted by lavikor201 View Post
    Alright thank you then.

    Sources regarding the Banu Qurayza are sparse: the only known mentions of this tribe are in Muslim sources, and date from no earlier than 150 years after the event.

    So I am not sure how accurate your sources are.
    all sources are going to be biased. Bias does not have to be a negative term. The fact that something is biased is not an indication that it is false. In fact the more valdiation there is about a statement, the more reason there will be bias to believe it is true and the statement becames biased in favor of the validations.

    we are all biased towards what we believe to be true. we would not have much faith in our believes without that bias.

    Bias, is wrong when it becomes a shut door and no other views are allowed to be considered.
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    The Jews of Medina




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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Quote Originally Posted by lavikor201 View Post
    Sources regarding the Banu Qurayza are sparse: the only known mentions of this tribe are in Muslim sources, and date from no earlier than 150 years after the event.
    I'm afraid that is not true at all. The Banu Qurayzah are mentioned in the sources amongst the very first generation of Muslims who lived through the incident, and they are recorded in every source right up to the renowned and unanimously accepted Ahâdîth collection known as Sahîh Bukhârî, whose contents have been rigorously authenticated by the scholars of hadith. For a detailed refutation of these common hadîth misconceptions, please refer to:
    Ahadeeth Myths

    Regards
    The Jews of Medina

    The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
    "Surely I was sent to perfect the qualities of righteous character" [Musnad Ahmad, Muwatta Mâlik]


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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    I've heard some rumours saying that there are many jews in medina became Muslims.... is it true?
    The Jews of Medina

    Assalamualaykum... I am back!!

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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Quote Originally Posted by north_malaysian View Post
    I've heard some rumours saying that there are many jews in medina became Muslims.... is it true?
    If you were a Jew in Medina you were either brutally executed or sold into slavery with all of your property being given to a Muslim.

    The only ones that weren't were the few traitors to Judaism who converted.
    The Jews of Medina


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    Re: The Jews of Medina

    Quote Originally Posted by north_malaysian View Post
    I've heard some rumours saying that there are many jews in medina became Muslims.... is it true?
    I found the following on the web as to the fate of the Jews of Medina....
    anything else is hot air from ones who enjoy satisfaction out of simplistic concussions, especially when it plays into their plot

    The Jewish scholars of Arabia, and the Jews in general, before the Prophet became famous as the 'new prophet' were waiting for that savior of humanity which was clearly mentioned in their scriptures. Being people of the book which the pagan Arabs were not, they were certain the prophet would arise from amongst themselves. In that regard, they thought of themselves as being superior to the other Arabs.

    But to their dismay instead of one of their own people, the Prophet claimed prophethood and started growing popular everyday. So much so that he came to Medina as the leader of the local Medinite tribes of Aus and Khazraj. The Aus and Khazraj (forgetting their feuds) rallied around him and accepted him as their prophet along with his followers. In order to unite the Ansar and the Muhajirin (Emigrants) the Prophet established a brotherhood between them, which linked them together in sorrow and in happiness. Yathrib (old name of Medina) changed its ancient name, and was styled Medinat un-Nabi or the " City of the Prophet ". All this happened with the Jews of Medina watching this new prophet steal away what they thought should have been their honour and glory.

    The ill feeling of animosity grew with every success the Prophet had with the people of Medina, more so because of the Muslim victory of Badr which in a way legitimized and made famous his prophethood throughout Arabia.

    The famous pact of Medina and its terms

    On the arrival of the Prophet at Medina they had joined with the Muslims in a half-hearted welcome to the Prophet. The Prophet upon his arrival joined the heterogeneous and conflicting elements of the city and its suburbs through a Charter by which the rights and obligations of the Muslims and of the Muslims and Jews were clearly defined. The Jews because of the irresistible character of the brotherly movement had gladly accepted the pact.

    This pact was officially made between the tribes living in Medina. The Jews of Bani-Kainuka Ban-Kuraizha and Bani-Nadir gladly accepted all the terms. This famous pact proceeds as follows:

    "The state of peace and war shall be common to all Muslims ; no one among them shall have the right of concluding peace with, or declaring war against, the enemies of his co-religionists. The Jews who attach themselves to our commonwealth shall be protected from all insults and vexations ; they shall have an equal right with our own people to our assistance and good offices : the Jews of the various branches of 'Auf, Najjar, Harith, Jashm, Th'alaba, Aus, and all others domiciled in Yathrib (Medina), shall form with the Muslims one composite nation; they shall practise their religion as freely as the Muslims ; the clients and allies of the Jews shall enjoy the same security and freedom ; the guilty shall be pursued and punished ; the Jews shall join the Muslims in defending Yathrib against all enemies ; the interior of Yathrib shall be a sacred place for all who accept this Charter ; the clients and allies of the Muslims and the Jews shall be respected as the patrons ....."

    This pact was concluded with the terms:

    " All future disputes between those who accept this Charter shall be referred, under God, to the Prophet. "

    Hostility of the Jews

    No kindness or generosity, however, on the part of the Prophet would satisfy the Jews ; nothing could conciliate the bitter feelings with which they were animated. Enraged by the Prophet's tremendous success they soon broke off (secretly) , and ranged themselves on the side of the enemies of the 'new' Faith. They reviled the Prophet ; they twisted their tongues and mis-pronounced the Quranic words and the daily prayers and formulae of Islam, rendering them meaningless, absurd, or blasphemous; and the Jewish poets and poetesses, of whom there existed many at the time, outraged all common decency and the recognised code of Arab honour and chivalry by lampooning in obscene verse the Muslim women. But there were minor offences. Not satisfied with insulting the Muslim women and reviling the Prophet, they sent out emissaries to the enemies of the State, the protection of which they had formally accepted.

    Success is always one of the greatest criterions of truth. Even in the Early days of Christianity, the good Pharisee said, " Let them alone; if these men be false, they will come to naught, or else you yourselves shall perish. "

    The fact that Islam survived against all odds in Its early years is indeed a miracle and a proof of its truth. Hostility was shown to Muslims from the whole of Arabia, as has always been the custom of humanity when dealing with a new faith. The Muslims small in number were supported by none but themselves during their early years in Medina. The Meccans were plotting against them and had the support of many other tribes of Arabia all of whom were determined to wipe this new faith off the face of the Earth. The animosity and hatred of the Meccans and other tribes of Arabia in general resulted in numerous battles between themselves and the Muslims. Each and every single day was a new trial for the Muslims.. At times the anxiousness of the Muslims rose to such an extent that it was mentioned in the Quran. One example is the battle of Ahzab when the Jews of Bani Kureizha being the inhabitants of Medina having a few fortresses in the rear joined the Meccans and thousands of other tribesman when they surrounded Medina. The Muslims were put to a tremendous trial which is mentioned in the Quran:

    "When they assailed you from above you and from below you, and when your eyes became distracted, and your hearts came up into your throats, and ye thought divers thoughts of God, then were the Faithful tried, and with strong quaking did they quake ; and when the disaffected and diseased of heart said, "God and His Apostle have made us but a cheating promise." (Quran, Surah Al-Ahzab)

    So-called assassinations

    Our atheist friends fail to understand the nature of these so-called assassinations carried out under the supervision of the Prophet. For our Christian friends there is no need for an explanation as rightly pointed out by Syed Ameer Ali:

    Our Christian historians forget that the " wise " Solon himself, for the safety of his small city, made it obligatory on the Athenians to become executioners of the law, by pursuing the factious, or taking one of two sides in a public riot. They also forget that even the laws of Christian England allow any person to pursue and kill "an outlaw".

    The problem however mostly concerns our atheist friends. But to understand fully what 'really' happened with these people and why were they "so unjustly assassinated" let us take a look at the conditions and a few examples.

    Among the not so technologically advanced nations of those times poets occupied the position and exercised the influence of the press in modern times. Of course there is nothing wrong with 'freedom of the press' but death sentence for a traitor is a just punishment agreed upon by even the most modern laws. The Jews were under obligations to the pact they had made with the Muslims. All the inhabitants of Medina had pledged to be united under a single commonwealth. Any individual found guilty of 'collaborating with the enemy' as we call it in modern times was a traitor and was to be pursued and punished according to the pact.

    The Muslim Scholars and the knowledgeable Muslims are not bewildered of the modernists' view point that death sentence for any crime whatsoever is contrary to humanism. If someone kills another in times of peace or war, he should be killed in return. An eye for an eye. If another seeks to damage you breaking his word (or pact in the case of the Jews) then should he also be dealt with the most efficient means. Many Israeli commentators have made remarks on CNN and BBC how if 'someone pulls out a knife at us we have the policy of pulling out a gun'. It's common sense they say. That is probably the reason why for one Israeli we have two dozen Palestinians murdered every time. Of course the fact that the Palestinians have lost their homes and their lands to the hegemonic designs of Israelis, a fact fully accepted by the whole world community has no significance in the eyes of the Israeli Government..... "Islam is a religion of common sense" remarked Bernard Shaw. But what were the conditions that lead to such measures, let us see.....

    Treachery and fate of Abu Uzza

    An example of the influence which poets and rhapsodists exercised among unprogressed nations is afforded by one of the episodes connected with war of Ohod. Whist preparing for this eventful campaign, the Koreish requested a poet of the name of Abu Uzza to go round the tribest of the desert, and excited them by his songs and poetry against the Muslim, and persuade them to join the confederacy, formed under the auspices of the Meccans, for the destruction of Mohammed and his followers. This man had been taken prisoner by the Muslims in the battle of Badr, but was released by the Prophet, without ransom, on pledging himself never again to take up arms against the Medinites. In spite of this, he was tempted to break his word, and went round the tribes, rousing them to arms by his poetry; and it is said he was eminently successful in his work. After Ohod he was again taken prisoner and executed by the Muslims ; Ibn Hisham p. 591.

    Jewish poets provoked hatred of Muslims in spite of being under an official pact

    The Jewish poets by their superior culture naturally exercised a vast influence among the Medinites; and this influence was chiefly directed towards sowing sedition among the Muslims, and widening the breach between them and the opposing faction. The defeat of the idolaters at Badr was felt as keenly by the Jews as by the Meccans.

    Fate of Ka'ab, the son of Ashraf

    Immediately after this battle a distinguished member of their race, called Ka'b, the son of Ashraf, belonging to the tribe of Nazir, publicly deploring the ill-success of the idolaters, proceed towards Mecca. Finding the people their plunged in grief, he spared no exertion to revive their courage. By his satires against the Prophet and his disciples, by his elegies on the Meccans who had fallen at Badr, he succeeded in exciting the Korish to that frenzy of vengeance which found vent on the plains of Ohod. Having attained this object, he returned to his home near Medina in the canton of Nazir, where he continued to attack Mohammed and the Musulmans in ironical and obscene verses, not sparing even the women of the Believers whom he addressed in terms of the grossest character. His acts were openly directed against the commonwealth of which he was a member. (The Jews and Medinites were under a pact of helping each other if attacked by a foreign power) He belonged to a tribe which had entered into the Compact with the Muslims, and pledged itself for the internal as well as the external safety of the State. Another Jew of the Nazir, Abu Rafe Sallam, son of Abul Hukaik, was equally wild and bitter against the Musulmans. He inhabited, with a fraction of his tribe, the territories of Khaibar, four or five days journey to the north-west of Medina. Detesting Mohammed and the Musulmans, he made use of every endeavourer to excite the neighbouring Arab tribes, such as the Sulaim and the Ghatafan, against them. It was impossible for the Musulman commonwealth to tolerate this open treachery on the part of those to whom every consideration had been shown, wit the object of securing their neutrality, if not their support. The very existence of Muslim community was at state; and every principle of safety required that these traitorous designs should be quietly frustrated. The sentence of outlawry was executed upon them by the Medinites themselves - in one case by a member of the tribe of Aus, in the other by a Khazrijite.

    Controversialists have stigmatised these executions as "assassinations". And because a Muslim was sent secretly to kill each of the criminals, in their prejudice against the Prophet, they shut their eyes to the justice of the sentence, and the necessity of a swift and secret execution. There existed then no police court, no judicial tribunal, nor even a court-martial, to take cognisance of individual crimes. In the absence of a State executioner any individual might become the executioner of the law. These men had broken their formal pact ; it was impossible to arrest them in public, or execute the sentence in the open before their clans, without causing unnecessary blood-shed, and giving rise to the feud of blood, and everlasting vendetta. the exigencies of the State required that whatever should be done should be done swiftly and noiselessly upon those whom public opinion had arraigned and condemned.

    What happened to Bani-Kanika, Qureizha and Bani-Nadir? (The Authentic Version)

    I call this version Authentic and Historical because it is accepted by all historians. The term 'historians' refers to actual learned people who wrote and witnessed history or students who have undergone years of study of not only the different accounts but also of the people who presented these accounts. They do not include the religious or anti-religious controversialists. The fate of the above mentioned three tribes of Median is agreed upon by non-Muslims and Muslim historians except for a few minor variations which will be pointed out. I urge anyone seriously looking for the true versions to verify these accounts through books of renowned modern non-Muslim scholars and then take from the 'majority' view. This version here has been scrutinised by Orientalists and is in agreement with their view point.

    The fate of Bani-Kainuka

    We must keep in mind that before the affair of Bani-Kainuka took place the hostility of the Jews of Medina had reached its pinnacle. The Muslims had just defeated and humiliated the Meccans although being out numbered three to one in the battle of Badr. This tremendous success fired the hatred the Jews felt for the Muslims. They now openly showed their hostility of the Muslims and would not waste any opportunity to support anyone planning against them. Although they had not openly taken up arms against them they were so hostile towards the Muslims that it was just a matter of time when a major feud would erupt between them. The incident which took place at that point left the Prophet with only two choices, either to let the Bani-Kainuka stay and eventually fight them in a major battle in Medina or banish them. We shall see now what happened...

    Whilst the other Jewish tribes were chiefly agricultural, the Banu-Kainuka hardly possessed a single field or date plantation. There were for the most part artisans employed in handicraft of all kinds. Seditious and unruly, always ready for a broil the Banu-Kainuka especially were also noted for the extreme laxity of their morals. One day a young girl from the country came to their bazaar or market (Suk) to sell milk. The Jewish youths insulted her grossly. A Muslim passer-by took the part of the girl, and in the fraw which ensued the author of the outrage was killed; whereupon the entire body of the Jews present rose and slaughtered the Muslim. A wild scene then followed. The Muslims, enraged at the murder of their compatriot, flew to arms, blood flowed fast, and many were killed on both sides. At the first news of the riots, Mohammed (pbuh) hastened to the spot, and, by his presence, succeeded in restraining the fury of his followers. He at once perceived what the end would be of these seditions and disorders ( practiced by the Jews for so long) if allowed to take their course. Medina would be turned into an amphitheatre, in which members of hostile factions might murder one another with impunity. It was necessary to at once put a stop to this or fight the Jews openly. The Prophet (pbuh) therefore ordered the Bani-Kainuka to vacate Medina. The reply of the Jews was couched in the most offensive terms which also depicted the jealously they had in their hearts of the Muslims' victory at Badr:

    "O, Mohammed, do not be elated with the victory over your people (the Koreish). Thou hast had an affair with men ignorant of the art of war. If though art desirous of having any dealings with us, we shall show thee that we are men."

    *All historians agree to this reply with the exception of Gibbon who for unknown reasons has narrated an excessively meek reply.

    They then shut themselves up in their fortress, and set Mohammed's authority at defiance. A siege was accordingly laid to their stronghold. After fifteen days they surrendered. It must be kept in mind that they surrendered 'after' an open war was declared between the Muslims and the Jews and having surrendered they were at the mercy of the Muslims to do with them as they pleased. There were still simply banished which had initially been demanded of them.

    The fate of Bani-Nazir

    The expulsion of Bani-Kainuka made the already bitter taste in the mouth of the Jews even more bitter. This bitter feeling of animosity reached such an extent that plans were made to execute the Prophet (pbuh) just as he had ordered the killing of their two traitors (mentioned earlier). They therefore waited for an opportunity for Mohammed (pbuh) to come into their midst. The background of what happened is as follows:

    The Muslims suffered considerable losses in the Battle of Ohod. The moral effect this disastrous battle was at once visible in the forays which the neighboring nomads prepared to make on the Medinite territories. Most of them, however, were repressed by the energetic action of Mohammed, though some of the hostile tribes succeeded in enticing in enticing Muslim missionaries into their midst, under the pretence of embracing Islam, and then massacred them. On one such occasion seventy Muslims were treacherously murdered near a brook called Bir-Ma'uana, within the territories of two tribes, the Bani-Amir and the Bani-Sulaim, chiefly through the instrumentality of the latter. One of the two survivors of the slaughter escaped towards Medina. Meeting on the way two unarmed Arabs belonging to the Bani-Amir who were traveling under a safe-conduct of the Prophet (pbuh) ,and mistaking them for enemies, he killed them. When the Prophet(pbuh) heard of this he was deeply grieved. A wrong had been committed by one of his followers, though under a mistake, and the relatives of the men that were killed were entitled to redress. Accordingly orders were issued for collecting the diyat(blood money) from Muslims and the people who ad accepted the Charter. The Jewish tribes of Bani un-Zair , the Kuraizha, and others were bound equally with the Muslims to contribute towards this payment.

    *W. Muir and Sprenger have garbled this part of the affair. W. Muir does not find any authority for MC. de Perceval's saying, that the Jews were bound by treaty to contribute towards the Diyat. However if he had referred to Tabari he would have seen the relevant statements.

    Murderous plan failed

    The Prophet himself, accompanied by a few disciples, proceeded to the Bani un_Nazir, and asked from them their contribution. The Banu-Nazir were already waiting for a favorable opportunity to rud themselves of the Prophet and therefore looked upon his arrival as providential. . They seemingly agreed to the demand, and requested him to wait a while. Whilst sitting with his back to the wall of a house, he observed sinister movements amongst the inhabitants, which led him to divine their intention of murdering him. He immediately left the place immediately and thus saved himself and his disciples.

    The Bani - Nazir could not be trusted again. On his arrival Mohammed sent them a message of the same import as that which was sent to Kainuka. Relying on the support of the Munafikun, Abdullah Bin Ubbay and his supporters, the Bani Nazir returned a defiant answer. Disappointed, however, in the promised assistance of Abdullah, and of their brethren, the Bani-Kureizha, after a siege of fifteen days they sued for terms. Again, no additional penalty was inflicted on them after surrendering and only the previous offer was renewed and they agreed to evacuate their territories.

    The fate of Bani-Kuraizha

    Mr Sina has criticized the sentence carried out on the Bani-Kureizha the most. We shall however take a look at what really happened and then see what historians had to say about the event.

    The Invasion of Medina by a strong Army of Ten Thousand well-appointed men:

    While all the abovementioned affairs were being dealt with the enemies of Medinites i.e. the Meccans and other Arabian tribes were by no means idle. Far and wide they had sent their emissaries to stir up the tribes against the Muslims. The Jews were the most active in these efforts. Some of the Bani-Nazir had remained behind with their brethren settled near Khaibar, and there, fired with the hope of vengeance, had set themselves to the work of forming another league for the destruction of the Muslims. Their efforts were successful beyond their utmost hopes. A formidable coalition was soon formed ; and an army, consisting of then thousand well-appointed men, marched upon Medina, under the command of the relentless Abu Sufian (Leader of Mecca).

    Meeting no opposition on their way, they soon encamped within a few miles of Medina, on its most vulnerable side, towards Ohod. To oppose his host the Muslims could only muster a body of three thousand men. Forced thus by their inferiority in numbers, as well as by the factious opposition of the Munafikun (hypocritical allies) within the city, to remain on the defensive, they dug a deep trench round the unprotected quarters of medina, and, leaving their women and children for safety in their fortified houses, they encamped outside the city, with the moat in front of them.

    Call to Bani-Kuraizha to fulfill the pact and their traitorous answer

    In the meantime the Muslims relied for safety of the other side, if not upon the active assistance ( which also they were bound to give according to the pact ), at least upon the neutrality of the Bani- Kuraizha, who possessed several fortresses at a short distance, towards the south-east, and were bound by the Compact to assisted the Muslims against every assailant. These Jews however were persuaded by the idolaters to violate their pledged faith, and to join the Koreish. As soon as the news of their defection reached Mohammed, he deputed Saad Ibn Muad and Saad Ibn Ubada, to entreat them to return to their duty. The reply was defiant and sullen:

    "Who is Mohammed, and who is the Apostle of God that we should obey him? There is no bond or compact between us and him!".

    As these Jews were well acquainted with the locality, and could materially assist the besiegers by showing them the weak points of the city, the consternation among the Muslims became great, whilst the disaffected body within the walls increased the elements of danger.

    The Meccans eventually Flee

    The Meccans and the Jews failing in all their attempts to draw the Muslims into the open field, or to surprise the city under the direction of the Jewish guides, determined upon a regular assault. The siege had already lasted twenty days. the restless tribes of the desert, who had made common cause with the Koreish and their Jewish allies, and who had expected an easy prey, were becoming weary of this protracted campaign. Great efforts were made at this critical moment by the leaders of the beleaguering host to cross the trench and fall upon the small Muslim force. Every attempt was, however, repulsed by untiring vigilance on part of the Prophet. The elements now seemed to combine against the besieging army; their horses were perishing fast, and provisions were becoming scanty. Disunion was rife in their midst, and the far-seeing Prophet with matchless prudence, fomented it into actual division. Suddenly this vast coalition, which had seemed to menace the Muslims with inevitable destruction, vanished into thin air. In the darkness of night, amidst a sort of wind and rain, their tents overthrown, their lights put out, Abu Sufian and the majority of this formidable army fled, the rest took refuge with the Bani- Kureizha.

    The Siege of Bani-Kureizha

    Now came the affair of the Bani- Kureizha. The victory in the opinion of the Muslims was hardly achieved as long as the Bani-Kureizha remained so near, and in such dangerous proximity to Medina. They had proved themselves traitors in spite of their sworn alliance, and had at one time almost surprised medina from their side, an even which, if successful, would have involved the general massacre of the Muslims. The Jews were therefore besieged and compelled to surrender in discretion.

    The condition for Surrender put forward by Bani-Kureizha

    The Jews made only one condition, that their punishment should be left to the judgment of the Ausite (Of the tribe of Aus) chief, Sa'd Ibn Muaz. This man, a fierce soldier who had been wounded in the attack, and indeed died from his wounds the next day, infuriated by their treacherous conduct, gave the sentence that the "fighting men" should be put to death, and that the women and children should become the slaves of the Muslims ; and this sentence was carried into execution.

    "It was a harsh, bloody sentence, " says Lane-Poole, "worthy of the Episcopal generals of the army against the Albigenses, or of the deeds of the Augustan age of Puritanism ; but it must be remembered that the crime of these men was high treason against the State during a time of siege ; and those who have read how Wellington's march could be traced by bodies of deserters and pillagers hanging from the trees , need not be surprised at the summary execution of a traitorous clan."

    These traitorous Jews brought their fate upon themselves. If they had been put to death, even without the judgment of Sa'd, it would have been in consonance with the principles which then prevailed. But they themselves had chosen Sa'd as the sole arbiter and judge of their fate ; they knew that his judgment was not at all contrary to the received notions and accordingly never murdered. They knew that if they had succeeded they would have massacred their enemies without compunction.

    People judge the massacres of King David according to the "lights of his time". Even the fearful slaughters committed by the Christians in primitive times are judge according to the certain "lights". Why should not the defensive wars of the early Muslims be looked at from the same standpoint? But whatever the point of view, an unprejudiced mind will perceive that no blame can possibly attach to the Prophet in the execution of the Bani-Kureizha.

    How many were executed?

    The majority of historians agree the number of men executed could not have been more than 200 or 250.

    Conclusion

    Human nature is so constituted that, however criminal the acts of an individual may be, the moment he is treated with severity which to our mind seems harsh or cruel, a natural revulsion of feeling occurs, and the sentiment of justice gives place to pity within our hearts. However much we may regret the fate of the Jews should have been, thought at their own special request, left in the hands of an infuriated soldier, however much we may regret that sentence of this man should have been so carried into effect- we must not , in the sentiment of pity, overlook the stern question of justice and culpability. We must bear in mind the crimes of which they were guilty- their treachery, their open hostility, their defection from an alliance to which they were bound by every sacred tie.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The Jews of Medina

    Text without context is pretext
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