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Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective
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    Array Ansar Al-'Adl's Avatar
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    Lightbulb Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective (OP)


    http://islamtoday.com/showme2.cfm?ca...sub_cat_id=792
    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective| Prepared by the Research Committee of IslamToday.net under the supervision of Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî|


    Many Muslims wonder about the theory of biological evolution – the theory that living species on Earth today are descended from others in the past, and that the present diversity of living species we see is a result of descent with modification over the course of numerous generations.

    Muslims also wonder about one of the main processes that evolutionary theory proposes to explain how evolution takes place – the process of natural selection. This is the idea that the individuals within a populations of living organism vary in their individual traits – they are not exactly alike – and that the organisms which are most successful at leaving descendants will pass on their unique traits to the next generation at the expense of the traits possessed by less successful organisms in the population, thereby contributing to a long-term gradual change in the suite of traits found within the population.

    We as Muslims must ask:

    Does the theory of evolution – and likewise the theory of natural selection as a mechanism of evolution – conform to Islamic teachings or conflict with them?

    Is a Muslim allowed to believe in evolution as a scientific theory as long as he or she accepts that Allah is behind it?

    Can a Muslim believe in human evolution? If not, how can we explain the fossils of upright, bipedal, tool-using apes with large brains that have been discovered?

    To start with, we wish to emphasize that our concern here is not with examining the scientific merits of the theory of evolution. What we want to know is what Islamic teachings have to say about the idea. Whether evolution is true or false scientifically is another matter altogether.

    When we look at the sources of Islam – the Qur’ân and Sunnah – we see that, with respect to human beings living on the Earth today, they are all descendants of Adam and Eve.

    Allah also says: “O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is the one who is the most God-fearing.” [Sûrah al-Hujûrât:13]

    The Prophet (peace be upon him) identified the "male" mentioned in this verse as being Adam. He said: “Human beings are the children of Adam and Adam was created from Earth. Allah says: ‘O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is the one who is the most God-fearing’.” [Sunan al-Tirmidhî (3270)]

    We also see that Allah created Adam directly without the agency of parents.

    Allah says: “The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: ‘Be’ and he was.” [Sûrah Âl `Imrân: 59]

    We also know that Eve was created from Adam without the agency of parents.

    In the Qur’ân, Allah states clearly: “O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women.” [Sûrah al-Nisâ’: 1]

    Therefore, the Qur’ân tells us that Adam and his wife were the father and mother of all human beings living on the Earth today. We know about this by way of direct revelation from Allah.

    The direct creation of Adam (peace be upon him) can neither be confirmed nor denied by science in any way. This is because the creation of Adam (peace be upon him) was a unique and singular historical event. It is a matter of the Unseen and something that science does not have the power to confirm or deny. As a matter of the Unseen, we believe it because Allah informs us about it. We say the same for the miracles mentioned in the Qur’ân. Miraculous events, by their very nature, do not conform to scientific laws and their occurrence can neither be confirmed nor denied by science.

    What about other living things, besides the human beings living on the Earth today? What about plants, animals, fungi, and the like?

    When we turn our attention to this question, we find that the Qur’ân and Sunnah do not tell us much about the flora and fauna that was present on the Earth before or at the time of Adam and Eve’s arrived upon it. The sacred texts also do not tell us how long ago Adam and Eve arrived upon the Earth. Therefore, these are things we cannot ascertain from the sacred texts.

    The only thing that the Qur’ân and Sunnah require us to believe about the living things on Earth today is that Allah created them in whatever manner He decided to do create them.

    Allah says: “Allah is the Creator of all things and over all things He has authority.” [Sûrah al-Zumar: 62]

    Indeed, Allah states specifically that He created all life forms: “And We made from water all living things.” [Sûrah al-Anbiyâ’: 30]

    We know that “Allah does what He pleases.” Allah can create His creatures in any manner that He chooses.

    Therefore, with respect to other living things, the Qur’ân and Sunnah neither confirm nor deny the theory of biological evolution or the process referred to as natural selection. The question of evolution remains purely a matter of scientific enquiry. The theory of evolution must stand or fall on its own scientific merits – and that means the physical evidence that either confirms the theory or conflicts with it.

    The role of science is only to observe and describe the patterns that Allah places in His creation. If scientific observation shows a pattern in the evolution of species over time that can be described as natural selection, this is not in itself unbelief. It is only unbelief for a person to think that this evolution took place on its own, and not as a creation of Allah. A Muslim who accepts evolution or natural selection as a valid scientific theory must know that the theory is merely an explanation of one of the many observed patterns in Allah’s creation.

    As for the fossil remains of bipedal apes and the tools and artifacts associated with those remains, their existence poses no problem for Islamic teachings. There is nothing in the Qur’ân and Sunnah that either affirms or denies that upright, brainy, tool using apes ever existed or evolved from other apelike ancestors. Such animals may very well have existed on Earth before Adam’s arrival upon it. All we can draw from the Qur’ân and Sunnah is that even if those animals once existed, they were not the forefathers of Adam (peace be upon him).

    And Allah knows best.
    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
    "Surely I was sent to perfect the qualities of righteous character" [Musnad Ahmad, Muwatta Mâlik]


    Visit Ansâr Al-'Adl's personal page HERE.
    Excellent resources on Islam listed HERE.

  2. #361
    Ali_Cena's Avatar
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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

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    Greetings Azy,

    First I would like to say if you read my post, and look at the website, you would have found that at the bottom, there is quoted “As always, if you feel I missed anything important here, or you have an argument which you think cut's the mustard, feel free to bring it up at my forum". So this should really be posted in this feedback section. Never mind, we could discuss this here.
    Quote Originally Posted by Azy View Post
    Interesting. God created millions of animals and plants in the right sequence making it look like each evolved from a previously existing form, but they didn't, it was just a set up?
    You could say so, but you are assuming evolution is not present, and that everything is “created”, well no in Islam evolution is neither discarded nor promoted. So it would appear evolution has taken place, which in fact might have. But also to solve “missing links” you would say that creation was present at that point. Take for example the Cambrian explosion.
    Another point is that, what you are saying is more of history and not really science, as that your opinion that “it looks like each evolved from a previously existing form”.
    Quote Originally Posted by Azy View Post
    but they didn't, it was just a set up?
    It isn’t a they, and only Allah SWT (God) knows.
    Quote Originally Posted by Azy View Post
    That would be great if there was any way you could show it was true.
    It would be, but I doubt it.
    Quote Originally Posted by Azy View Post
    You're confused. Practically every fossil ever found is an intermediate. If you choose an organism which develops from one form to another in many stages, which stages are the 'species' and which the 'intermediates'? It's just a matter of how you name things.
    Firstly it isn’t Qatada that is confused, you should direct that to supposedly Abdul Fattah, but I don’t think you would dare... Secondly I am not quite sure if you know what you are talking about, I think you are confused, could you reword your last part again, in a more understandable way; in a way that doesn’t confuse you and me.
    Quote Originally Posted by Azy View Post
    As for the 'jumps', what they basically mean is that due to different conditions or events, organisms evolved very quickly at some times in history and slowly at others.
    Proof for your hypothesis?
    Quote Originally Posted by Azy View Post
    Concerning the falsifiability of abiogenesis and common descent:
    Presumably you think that another mechanism produced the outcome that scientists ascribe to these hypotheses. If you were to show that another mechanism was at work then they would have been shown to be false, therefore they are falsifiable.
    You know what I didn’t understand what you said at all man, not being rude but fix up your wordings please.
    Peace, sorry if I sounded rude or something, but don’t take it the wrong way

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  4. #362
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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    So this should really be posted in this feedback section. Never mind, we could discuss this here.
    If it's all the same to you I'd rather not submit my personal details to your private forum when there's a perfectly usable one here.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    You could say so, but you are assuming evolution is not present, and that everything is “created”
    I'm not assuming anything, it was a question.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    It isn’t a they, and only Allah SWT (God) knows.
    'They' referred to the animals and plants.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    Firstly it isn’t Qatada that is confused, you should direct that to supposedly Abdul Fattah, but I don’t think you would dare...
    Steve and I have had a few lengthy discussions and I would welcome him back to this one. If those were not Qatada's words I'm sorry, but it was not made clear that he was quoting.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    Secondly I am not quite sure if you know what you are talking about, I think you are confused, could you reword your last part again, in a more understandable way; in a way that doesn’t confuse you and me.
    What I mean is :- when you have a long period of time where an organism is changing gradually, how do you decide which are separate species and which are intermediates.
    To put it another way, when you look at a rainbow, where does red end and orange begin?
    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    Proof for your hypothesis?
    Not my hypothesis. I was simply pointing out that when people speak of 'evolutionary jumps', they are generally not speaking about a leap from one distinct species to another without intermediates, but changes which happen very quickly on an evolutionary timescale.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ali_Cena View Post
    You know what I didn’t understand what you said at all man
    Well man, from seemyparadigm, just above where you cut and pasted your other post:-

    Abiogenesis Hypothesis which is incomplete, not testable, not falsifiable and not provable.
    Micro evolution Theory; well established, testable, falsifiable and provable.
    Macro evolution Theory; still some lose ends but testable, falsifiable and provable.
    Common descent Speculation; completely half baked, not testable, not falsifiable and not provable.

    Abiogenesis and common descent are falsifiable, trivially so. If you showed that there was another reason life came to be, abiogenesis would be proved false. If you showed that an alternative to common descent was true, it would be proved false. Innit.

  5. #363
    Chuck's Avatar
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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    Why you people go over same thing again and again?
    Last edited by Chuck; 03-27-2009 at 11:47 PM. Reason: typo correction
    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masâkîn (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salât, and gives the Zakât, and keep their word whenever they make a promise, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of persecution, hardship, and war. Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqûn (the pious).


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    جوري's Avatar
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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    Quote Originally Posted by Chuck View Post
    Why you people go over something again and again?
    It is a primitive defense mechanism left still with some.. which the wise and sentient evolution mishandled in its drive forth



    all the best

    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    Text without context is pretext
    If your opponent is of choleric temperament, seek to irritate him


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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    I made a typo. Anyway, don't these people get tired by rehashing same arguments again and again. This all as been discussed in this thread earlier.
    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masâkîn (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salât, and gives the Zakât, and keep their word whenever they make a promise, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of persecution, hardship, and war. Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqûn (the pious).


  9. #366
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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    Quote Originally Posted by Gossamer skye View Post
    It is a primitive defense mechanism left still with some.. which the wise and sentient evolution mishandled in its drive forth



    all the best

    That pic is hilarious
    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masâkîn (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salât, and gives the Zakât, and keep their word whenever they make a promise, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of persecution, hardship, and war. Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqûn (the pious).


  10. #367
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    Re: Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective

    Quote Originally Posted by Chuck View Post
    I made a typo. Anyway, don't these people get tired by rehashing same arguments again and again. This all as been discussed in this thread earlier.
    I agree

    There are more than a few evolution discussion threads. They all seem to evolve to the same point.
    I guess this is an example of evolution and this is the point of reaching maximum thread evolution and the intolerant admin steps in and says:

    :
    Biological Evolution – An Islamic Perspective




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