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Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained
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    Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained (OP)


    Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained



    On Tawheed




    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship me. I seek not any provision from them, nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allah is the All-provider, Owner of Power - Most Strong" (Qur'an 51:56)

    Allah (swt ), informs us that it is He (swt ) Who created the jinn and mankind, and that the wisdom behind that creation was that they worship Him (swt ), Alone and reject the worship of any other, and that He (swt ) did not create them for any benefit for Himself, but in order that they should worship Him (swt ); and He (swt ) has undertaken to provide sustenance for them, and He (swt ) is the Most Truthful in keeping His (swt ) Promises and Able to fulfill them, for He (swt ) is Strong.

    Benefits Derived from This Verse

    1. That the wisdom behind Allah's creation of the jinn and mankind is that they worship Him Alone.

    2. Confirmation of the presence of the jinn.

    3. Allah's complete independence from His creation.

    4. That the source of all sustenance is Allah, but the slave is commanded to do all in his power to attain his needs.

    5. Confirmation of two of Allah's names: Ar-Razzaaq (the All-provider), Al-Mateen (Owner of Power).

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these Qur'anic verses show the wisdom behind the creation of the jinn and mankind is worship of Allah (swt ), Alone and the rejection of all objects of worship besides Him.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And verily, We have sent among every community a Messenger [proclaiming]: "Worship Allah [Alone] and avoid the Taaghoot .1 Then of them were some whom Allah guided, and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied [the truth]" (Qur'an 16:36)

    Allah (swt ), informs us in these Qur'anic verses that He has sent to every community of mankind a Messenger (saas ), who conveyed to them the Message and ordered them to believe in only One God � Allah (swt ) and to reject all those false gods besides Him (swt ). And the people who heard from these Messengers (saas ) are divided into two groups: The first, those whom Allah (swt ) guided to goodness and who responded positively to the guidance of the Messenger (saas ) and abstained from all that was forbidden to them; the second group were forbidden from success and rejected the truth, and therefore they were losers, both in this world and the Hereafter. And whoever travels throughout the earth, seeking to learn from it, will see the evidence of Allah's Retribution upon some of those who stubbornly rejected the Guidance of Allah (swt ) and His Messengers (saas ), such as `Aad, Thamood 2 and Fir'aoun.3

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Evidence that mankind has not been neglected and left without guidance.

    2. The universality of the Message to all nations, and the fact that the Message brought by each new Messenger abrogated that of the previous Messenger.

    3. That the mission of the Messengers was to call the people to the worship of Allah and to reject all false deities.

    4. That the Guidance of Success is through Allah, Alone.

    5. That the fact that Allah has ordained something for a person does not necessitate His liking for it.

    6. The desirability of travelling througout the earth, with the intention of taking heed of the example of the communities of old, whom Allah has destroyed because of their disbelief.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these Qur'anic verses prove that worship of Allah (swt ) is of no benefit if the worship of others besides Him is not rejected.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And your Rabb has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect [uff!], nor shout at them, but address them in terms of honour. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: "My Rabb! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was a child."" (Qur'an 17:23-24)

    Allah (swt ), commands all those obligated to obey Him to worship Him, Alone and to observe filial piety and devotion; and He affirms the right of parents upon their offspring immediately after mentioning His right upon His slaves. Then He describes some of the types of filial piety, especially when they become frail and elderly, such as not displaying annoyance with them and not raising one's voice or scolding them, speaking to them in tones of gentleness and kindness and supplicating Allah (swt ) on their behalf - both while they are alive and after their death.

    Benefits Derived from These Verses

    1. The obligation of worshipping Allah (swt ) Alone.

    2. The obligation upon every Muslim of filial piety and devotion towards both his parents.

    3. The communal responsibility of the whole Muslim society to ensure the rights of parents upon their offspring.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these Qur'anic verses prove the obligation of worshipping Allah (swt ), Alone, without partners.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbour who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer and those [slaves] whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not love those who are proud and boastful" (Qur'an 4:36)

    Sincerity is the foundation upon which true religion is built and Allah (swt ) has commenced this Surah by commanding sincerity in worship and rejection of all false deities and He has followed this up by mentioning the obligation of filial piety because they (our parents) are the means by which we are brought into the world; and He (swt ) has not neglected the rights of the kinfolk for they are the most deserving of his (the Muslim's) benevolence and kindness. And in order that the rest of his brothers and sisters in Islam be not downhearted, Allah (swt ) has enjoined upon him kindness to the orphans and poor, whether close relatives or not. Then Allah (swt ) has made clear the rights of those close to him in this life, mentioning first the neighbour who has Islamic rights and familial rights over the Muslim, then the nearby resident who has rights of a neighbour only - and he is the zimmi .4 Then Allah (swt ) mentions the rights of the close relatives such as the wife, the travelling companion etc. And Islam has encouraged the Muslim to travel in the land with the intention of doing business and of taking heed of the punishment meted out to former peoples, and because of this Allah (swt ) has obliged the Muslim to help the traveller who is in need of it - whether it be material or otherwise. He (swt ), also affirms the obligation of fairness and justice in dealing with other Muslims; but Islam has not forgotten the slaves: In fact, Allah (swt ) requires us to give them all their rights, to treat them with gentleness and mercy and to recognize their human rights. And because these deeds are righteous deeds, they bring about a fear of Allah (swt ), and prevent the Muslim from becoming proud and self-absorbed because these two attributes would cause the reward of the deeds to be lost.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The obligation of worshipping Allah (swt ), Alone.

    2. The obligation of filial piety and obedience - so long as it does not entail disobedience to Allah (swt ) and His Prophet (saas ) nor harm the one so ordered, for Allah's Messenger said: "Do not harm others nor reciprocate (when harm is done to you)." 5

    3. The legal obligation of maintaining close family ties according to the closeness of the relationship.

    4. The duty of treating well the orphans in one's care, bringing them up and investing their wealth.

    5. The virtue of kindness to the poor and needy - and the varieties of kindness are numerous.

    6. The obligation of giving the neighbour his rights.

    7. The exhortation to help all one's companions who request assistance, whether travelling companions, or resident.

    8. The duty to help the lost wayfarer.

    9. The obligation of kindness to the slaves.

    10. The forbiddance of pride and vanity.

    11. Affirmation of Allah's attribute of Love.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these verses prove the obligation of sincerity and purity of worship for Allah (swt ) Alone, and the rejection of all other objects of worship.

    Note:- The neighbour falls into three categories:

    1. The first has three rights: (i) The right of a Muslim upon his brother, (ii) The right of kinship, (iii) the right of a neighbouring resident.

    2. The second has two rights: (i) The right of a Muslim upon his brother, (ii) The right of a neighbouring resident.

    3. The right of a neighbouring resident only - and he is the zimmi.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Say [oh, Muhammad!]: "Come, I will recite what your Rabb has prohibited for you: Join not anything in worship with him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty - We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sin [adultery, fornication etc.], whether committed openly or in secret, and kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden except for a just cause [in accordance with Islamic Law]. This has He commanded you that you may understand" (Qur'an 6:151)

    Allah (swt ), orders His Prophet Muhammad (saas ) to call the people to come forth and listen to the Commands of Allah (swt ), concerning what has been prohibited for them; and because it is the idolator who most often opposes all good deeds, Allah (swt ) has begun by warning them to abstain from associating partners with Him, then He (swt ) has mentioned many of the evil deeds which they are wanted to commit and forbade them from doing so. He (swt ), orders them to be kind and dutiful to their parents and forbids them from killing their offspring, for such acts are evil and result in the cutting of the family tree - and He has mentioned poverty here because the fear of poverty was the most common reason for the killing of children in the days of ignorance. And the extra-judicial killing of any person is a great sin, whatever the reason. And because fear of poverty was the most common reason for the killing of one's young, Allah (swt ) has undertaken the responsibility of sustaining them and their children; then He (swt ), has prohibited all acts of disobedience - both open and secret. And because unlawful killing causes many problems in society, such as breakdown of law and order, social unrest, revenge killing, vigilantism, etc., Allah (swt ) has laid great stress upon the prohibition of unlawful killing, by His saying: " This has He commanded" - that His slaves may understand and act in accordance with it.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That Shirk 6 is the greatest of sins and that no other deed will be accepted by Allah (swt ) if there is any association of partners involved in it; and because of its importance, Allah (swt ) has mentioned it first.

    2. The obligation of filial piety.

    3. The prohibition of killing one's children - and this includes abortion if carried out after forty days from the start of the pregnancy. 7

    4. That Allah (swt ) has undertaken the responsibility of providing for all mankind.

    5. Attempting to prevent pregnancy due to fear of poverty is an act from the days of ignorance.

    6. The forbiddance of committing shameful sins, such as adultery and fornication and all that leads up to them (flirting, dating, kissing, caressing etc.)

    7. The prohibition of killing any person has been forbidden by Allah (swt ), except by judicial means.

    8. Allah (swt ) has not defined here what is meant by judical means, but the Prophet (saas ) has mentioned something about it in an authentic Hadith, concerning adultery after chastity, disbelief after belief and the taking of a life for a life.8

    The Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse warns against Shirk in any shape or form.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ) `May Allah be pleased him', that he said: "I was riding behind the Prophet (saas ) on a donkey when he said to me: "Oh, Mu`aaz! Do you know what is the right of Allah (swt ) upon His slaves and what is the right of the slaves upon Allah (swt )?" I said: "Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ) know best." He (saas ) said: "The right of Allah (swt ) upon His slaves is that they worship Him and do not associate anything with Him; and the right of the slaves upon Allah (swt ) is that those who do not associate anything with Him will not be punished." I said: "Oh, Messenger of Allah (saas )! Shall I not inform the people (of this)?" He (saas ) said: "Do not inform them, in case they rely upon it." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ) informs us that one day he was riding behind the Prophet (saas ) on a donkey, and he (saas ) wished to favour him with the answers to certain important questions: In order to do this, he (saas ) chose to ask Mu`aaz some rhetorical questions to arouse his curiosity. Mu`aaz did not venture an opinion on a matter of which he had no knowledge, and so he replied that Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ) know best. So the Prophet (saas ) explained to him two important Truths: The obligation which Allah (swt ) has placed upon His slaves, and the Bounty and Grace which He has made incumbent upon Himself. And because Mu`aaz cared so much about the welfare and happiness of the Muslims, he asked the Prophet's permission to inform them of this good news, but the Prophet (saas ) refused his request for he feared that the Muslims might depend upon this promise and stop competing with each other in the performance of good deeds which wipe out their bad deeds and elevate them in status. However, eventually, Mu`aaz informed them of this, fearful of concealing anything of the Guidance from them although the reason for the Prophet's warning his people against depending upon these words is clear.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The legitimacy of riding behind another, if it does not overtax the riding beast.

    2. The humility of the Prophet (saas ) in sharing his donkey with another.

    3. That the sweat of the donkey is not impure.

    4. The virtue of Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ).

    5. That asking rhetorical questions is an Islamic way of teaching.

    6. The forbiddance of a person venturing to discuss matters about which he has no knowledge.

    7. That the first obligation of the slave towards Allah (swt ) is to worship Him Alone.

    8. That the one who dies believing and practising Tawheed is saved from the torment of the Hell-fire - so long as he does not commit any of the major sins which would cause him to be punished in the Fire.

    9. Although it is mentioned in an authentic Hadith that the Prophet (saas ) said: "Whoever concealed knowledge, Allah (swt ) will make him wear a bridle of fire on the Day of Resurrection,"9 there is no contradiction here, because the forbiddance of concealing knowledge in the above Hadith is general, while the first Hadith contains an exception to that forbiddance in special circumstances: For it permits one to conceal knowledge if there is a fear that revealing it will cause disorder or strife in the Muslim community.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that the right of Allah (swt ) upon His slaves is that they worship Him, and do not associate any partners with Him.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

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    What Has Been Said About Exaggeration
    in Raising up the Graves of the Righteous
    and How They Tend to Become Idols Worshiped Besides Allah (swt )


    Imam Malik has reported in his book, Al-Muwatta`, that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Oh, Allah! Do not let my grave become an idol that is worshiped: Allah's Wrath is immense against those peoples who turned the graves of their Prophets into mosques."

    The narrator informs us in this Hadith, that the Prophet (saas ) adjured his Rabb that He protect his grave from being taken as an object of worship besides Allah (swt ); then he made clear that Allah's Wrath is upon all of His slaves who take the graves of the Prophets as places of worship - then what may be said of those who take the graves' inhabitants as objects of worship?

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Glorifying graves worship is an act of Shirk however close to Allah (swt ) was the grave's inhabitant.

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Anger.

    3. Prohibition of building places of worship over graves.

    4. The forbiddance of praying near graves even if there is no building erected over the grave.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that the graves will be taken as idols by some of this Ummah; this is why the Prophet (saas ) asked Allah (swt ) to protect his grave from being taken as an object of worship.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that taking the graves as places of worship will lead to worship of their inhabitants, and this is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    In addition, Ibn Jareer reports, on the authority of Sufyaan, from Mansoor, from Mujahid (that he said): "" Have you seen Al-Laat and Al-'uzzaa and another, Manaat, the third [deity]?" 1 - He (Al-Laat) used to prepare saweeq for the pilgrims, and when he died, the people began to sit at his grave."

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter and the Subject of Tawheed

    That it shows that Al-Laat was originally the name of a righteous man who used to prepare saweeq for the pilgrims; then, after he died, the people began to exaggerate their praises of him, sitting at his grave and taking it as an object of worship besides Allah (swt ). For this reason, every grave whose inhabitant is praised in an exaggerated manner by the people is likely to become an object of worship, even though they may not refer to it as such.

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "Cursed those women who visit the graves and those who take them as places of worship and hang lights around them." (Narrated by Abu Dawood, At-Tirmizi and Ibn Maajah)

    The Prophet (saas ) cursed in this Hadith three groups: (i) Women who visit graves, because of the inherent weakness in them which may lead them to mourn excessively the departed; (ii) those who take the graves as places of worship, because this leads to the glorification of the graves' inhabitants and worship of them; (iii) those who adorn the graves with lights, because this is a waste of wealth without purpose and it leads to the glorification of the graves' inhabitants, very similar to the glorification of idols by those who make them. And the Hadith is a warning and an admonition to every person who would build places of worship over the graves of the righteous and the leaders and praise them excessively, and experience a state of humility which they do not feel when they go to the mosque - and this is among the greatest of sins; indeed it is one of the major sins, which should be eradicated, as the Prophet (saas ) has made clear in this Hadith, for he did not curse except those who committed major sins.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The general permissibilty of cursing the corrupt.

    2. The prohibition of women visiting graves.

    3. The forbiddance of taking graves as places of worship and adorning them with lights.

    4. The wisdom of Islamic Law lies in its forbidding everything which may lead to Shirk.

    5. The prohibition of using up wealth without purpose.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith prohibits excessive praise and glorification of the graves and their inhabitants, by building mosques or other places of worship over them and decorating them with lights because this leads to them being taken as idols and worshiped.

    Important Note

    (a) The purpose of prohibiting both the building of places of worship over graves and of adorning them with lights is in that these practices may lead to worship of the graves' inhabitants, not because graves are unclean.

    (b) There is no conflict between this Hadith and the saying of the Prophet (saas ):

    "I had forbidden you to visit the graves, but (now I say visit them."2

    Because the former is an exception for women from the general license granted by the latter.



    Footnotes

    1. Qur'an An-Najm 53:19-20.
    2. Narrated by Malik, Muslim and Abu Dawood.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said Concerning the Prophet's Protectiveness of Tawheed and His Blocking of Every Path Leading to Shirk

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Verily, there has come to you a Messenger from amongst your-selves: It grieves him that you should perish: He is ardently anxious over you. To the Believers He is Most Kind and Merciful" (Qur'an 9:128)

    In this verse, Allah (swt ) has bestowed a great blessing upon mankind, in particular, the Arabs, because He sent to them a Messenger from amongst themselves who spoke their language, whose lineage, nobility and trustworthiness were well-known to them; and Allah (swt ) has described him as possessing certain Divinely-given qualities which make it incumbent upon all of us to follow him and believe in him, for he is troubled and grieved by whatever troubles and grieves his Ummah, and he ardently seeks that which is beneficial to them and earnestly desires that they be guided aright and he is full of compassion for them.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Evidence of the great blessing which Allah has bestowed upon mankind, in particular, the Arabs by His sending a Prophet to them from their own community, through whom Allah saved them from the abyss of shirk and humiliation.

    2. Evidence of the Prophet's ardent care for his Ummah.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves the care taken by the Prophet (saas ) over his Ummah, especially his protection of their tawheed and his great efforts to prevent them from falling into whatever might lead to shirk, including his prohibition of glorifying graves, by building structures over them, in particular, his own grave - may Allah's Peace and Blessings be upon him.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "Do not make your homes into graves, nor make my grave into a place of celebration. Send your prayers and blessings upon me, for they will be conveyed to me wherever you may be." (Narrated by Abu Dawood with a good sanad, and all of its narrators are trustworthy)

    Abu Hurairah (ra ) tells us in this Hadith, that the Prophet (saas ) forbade us from abandoning our homes and making them into graves where acts of worship are not performed and Allah's Name is not mentioned. And he forbade us from taking his grave as a place of celebration where people come to visit on a specific date, for a specific occasion. Then the Messenger of Allah (saas ) ordered us to send prayers and blessings upon him and informed us that the prayers and blessings of any Muslim, whoever he may be and wherever he may be, will be conveyed to him.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The forbiddance of abandoning worship in the home.

    2. The prohibition of praying towards graves.

    3. The prohibition of visiting the grave of the Prophet (saas ) on a special occasion or for that matter, of visiting any grave in this manner.

    4. The obligation to send prayers and blessings upon the Prophet (saas ).

    5. That prayers and blessings upon the Prophet (saas ) reach him wherever the supplicator may be.


    That the dead can benefit from the prayers and blessings of the living Believers.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that it is prohibited in Islam to take graves as places of celebration, and that this demonstrates the Prophet's protectiveness towards his Ummah from the danger of every path that might lead to shirk.

    Important Note

    Some people have claimed that the Prophet's forbiddance of making his grave into a place of celebration necessitates that we should zealously cling to and visit his grave: As if he (saas ) had said: "Don't make my grave an annual place of celebration, but visit it all the time." However, this explanation is totally false and without substance, for the following reasons: (i) That this explanation is unclear and is therefore in contradiction with the established Sharee'ah,1 which is always clear. (ii) Had the Prophet (saas ) intended what they claim, his family and Companions would have implemented it and ordered others to do likewise. (iii) It has not been reported that the Companions ordered anyone to do this or that they did so themselves - and they were the most knowledgeable about the meaning of the Prophet's sayings.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of `Ali Ibn Al-Husain that he saw a man approaching a small niche before the grave of the Prophet (saas ) and he went into the niche and began to supplicate. So he (`Ali) prevented the man from doing so, saying: "Shall I not tell you a Hadith (of the Prophet (saas ) which I heard from my father, who in turn, heard it from my grandfather [i.e. `Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra )], who reported from Allah's Messenger (saas ) that he said:

    "Do not take my grave as a place of celebration, nor your homes as graves; send prayers and blessings upon me, for your salutations will reach me, wherever you may be." (Narrated by Al-Maqdasi, in Al-Mukhtarah)

    `Ali Ibn Al-Husain informs us in this narration, that he saw a man supplicating Allah (swt ) at the grave of the Prophet (saas ) and that he prevented him from doing so, using as evidence, a Hadith which contains a forbiddance of taking his grave as a place of celebratory visits and of abandoing worship of Allah (swt ) in the home and then he ordered us to send prayers and blessings upon him, saying that they would be conveyed to him wherever the Muslim who sent them may be.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The obligation to reject wickedness.

    2. The prohibition of intentionally making supplication at the Prophet's grave or any other grave.

    3. The prohibition of abandoning worship and remembrance of Allah (swt ) in the home.

    4. The forbiddance of praying at the graves.

    5. Evidence that the prayers and salutations which a Muslim sends upon the Prophet (saas ) will be conveyed to him whether the Muslim is near or far from his grave.

    6. That the dead Believer can benefit from the supplications of the living Believer.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that it is forbidden to take the grave of the Prophet (saas ) as a place of celebration in order to worship there and this shows the Prophet's protection of the purity of tawheed and his desire to close off every avenue that might lead to shirk.

    Important Note

    Setting out on a journey with the express intent of visiting the grave of the Prophet (saas ) is prohibited, because of his words:

    "Do not saddle up your riding beasts, except to three mosques: "The Sacred Mosque (in Makkah), this my mosque and Al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem)."2 In light of this, it is clear that whoever undertook a journey in order to pray in the Prophet's Mosque, is not guilty of any sin, while whoever did so in order to worship at the grave has disobeyed the Prophet."


    Footnotes

    1. Sharee'ah: Islamic Law.
    2. Narrated by Bukhari, Muslim and others.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said Concerning Those of This Ummah, Who Worship Idols

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " Do you not see those who were given a portion of the Book? They believe in Al-Jibt 1 and At-Taaghoot and say to the unbelievers that they are better guided than the Believers!" (Qur'an 4:51)

    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, directs the attention of His Messenger, Muhammad (saas ) and that of all the Muslims, to the evil deeds of some of the Jews, who believed in the worship of idols and preferred that to the Believers' worship of their Rabb, even though the Jews knew from their Revealed Books that the Religion of Islam was better than the worship of idols and that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) spoke the truth from his Rabb. But their hatred and jealousy blinded them and prevented them from speaking the truth and instead, caused them to praise and flatter the unbelievers; but Allah (swt ) will complete His Light and Guidance, even though the disbelievers may detest that.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Confirmation that the Jews had distorted the teachings of their Scriptures.

    2. That false flattery in matters of religion and concealing the truth are amongst the characteristics of the Jews.

    3. The existence of Shirk amongst the People of the Book.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves the existence of shirk amongst the People of the Book and it has been authentically reported from the Prophet (saas ) that the Muslims will imitate the People of the Book, and this includes in committing Shirk.


    Important Note

    The reason for the revelation of this verse has been narrated by Imam Ahmad, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra ), who said: "When K'ab Ibn Al-Ashraf approached Makkah, Quraish said: "Do you not see this orphan, who is cut off from his family? He claims that he is better than us, while we are the patrons of the pilgrims and the Custodians (of the Sacred Mosque)," at which K'ab replied: "You are better (than he)." Then this verse was revealed:

    " Verily, he who despises you will be cut off [from hope of mercy and forgiveness in the Hereafter]" (Qur'an 108:1)

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " Say: "Shall I inform you of something much worse than this [as judged] by the treatment it received from Allah? Those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and some into swine, those who worshipped At-Taaghoot - they are worse in rank and far astray from the even Path" (Qur'an 5:60)

    Allah (swt ) says, addressing the Prophet (saas ): Say, oh, Muhammad, to these disbelievers from amongst the People of the Book: "Shall I tell you about those who will receive the worst punishment on the Day of Resurrection? They are those of you whom Allah (swt ) has banished from His Mercy and His wrath is upon them and He (swt ) has turned them into apes and swine, and they worship idols." Because of these evil attributes, Allah (swt ) has informed us that they are the worst of people and the farthest astray.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The permissibilty of cursing the disbelievers in general.

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Anger.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's having transformed some of the People of the Book into pigs and apes.

    4. The presence of Shirk amongst the People of the Book.

    5. That disobedience to Allah's Will can result in chastisement in this world as it does in the Hereafter.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the existence of Shirk among the People of the Book by their worship of At-Taghoot; and it has been authentically reported that this Ummah will imitate the Jews and Christians and this includes committing Shirk.

    Important Note

    Allah (swt ) transformed some of the Jews into apes because the ape outwardly resembles the human being, although they are separate and distinct from them. Likewise, the Jews used to commit transgressions which, in some ways, outwardly appeared to be good deeds, while in fact they were false.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " And thus did We make their case known to the people that they might know that the Promise of Allah is true, and that there can be no doubt about the Hour [of Judgement]. When they disputed among themselves about their affair, [some] said: "Construct a building over them." Their Rabb knows best about them: Those who prevailed over their affair said: "Verily, we will build a place of worship over them."" (Qur'an 18:21)

    Allah (swt ), Most High, informs us in this verse that He (swt ) drew the attention of the people to the situation of the People of the Cave; and the wisdom behind that was to prove to them that man can be resurrected after death. Then He (swt ), Most High, informs us about the dialogue which took place between their people: That some of them believed that they should build structures over the People of the Cave although that which was incumbent upon them was for Allah (swt ) to decide while others preferred that they should build a place of worship over them.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Confirmation of the story of the People of the Cave.

    2. Confirmation of the truth of resurrection after death.

    3. That making places of worship over graves was the practice of former peoples.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that the People of the Book used to build structures over graves, and the Prophet (saas ) cursed them because of this as their actions led to the worship of the graves' inhabitants; and it has been authentically reported that some of the people of this Ummah will imitate them, building mosques over graves and worshipping their inhabitants.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Surely, you will follow the ways of those before you, just as the flight of one arrow resembles another, so much so, that even if they entered the hole of a lizard, you would enter it." They said: "(Do you mean) the Jews and Christians?" He (saas ) replied: "(If not them,) then whom?" (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri (ra ) tells us in this Hadith that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) informed the Companions that this Ummah will imitate the previous nations in their customs, their politics and even their religion; indeed in all matters, as the flight of one arrow resembles another. Then he further impressed upon us this fact, saying that even were those previous nations to enter the hole of a lizard, the people of this Ummah would try to follow them. Then when the Companions asked him as to the identity of those people, were they the Jews and Christians? he (saas ) replied in the affirmative.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence of a Prophetic miracle, since the Messenger of Allah (saas ) predicted correctly that the Muslims would one day imitate the Jews and Christians.

    2. That making things clear by using powerful similes is an Islamic method of teaching.

    3. The forbiddance of imitating the People of the Book.

    4. The permissibility of asking questions of the people of knowledge.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that this Ummah will do as the People of the Book do; and amongst their actions is the worship of idols.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is narrated by Muslim, on the authority of Thawban (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Verily, Allah (swt ) folded the earth for me, so much so that I saw its East and its West: The kingdom of my Ummah will reach as far as the earth was folded for me. The two treasures, both the red and the white were given to me. I prayed to my Rabb that He may not destroy my Ummah by a widespread drought and not give sovereignty over them to an enemy who annihilates them in large numbers except from among themselves. And then verily, my Rabb said: "Oh, Muhammad (saas )! When I issue a decree, it is not withdrawn: I have promised your Ummah that I will not destroy it by a widespread drought and I shall not give sovereignty of them to an enemy who exterminates them in large numbers, even if they are stormed from all sides of the earth except from among themselves. Only a portion of them will destroy another portion and a portion will take another portion prisoner." This was also narrated by Al-Barqaani, who added: "I fear for my Ummah those leaders who will send them astray: When the sword is used among my people, it will not be withdrawn from them until the Day of Resurrection and the Hour will not come until a tribe from among my Ummah attach themselves to the polytheists and numbers of my people worship idols; and there will be among my Ummah thirty liars, all of them claiming that he is a prophet, though I am the Seal of the Prophets - none will come after me. But some of my Ummah will continue to hold to the truth and they will be victorious and they will not be harmed by those who oppose them until Allah's Command comes."

    The Prophet (saas ) tells us in this Hadith that Allah (swt ) gathered together for him all of the earth, and he saw all that lay between the east and west. And he saw that the kingdom of his people would stretch across all of the earth then he asked his Rabb, Almighty, All-powerful not to destroy his Ummah through drought or famine nor allow any enemy from without to rule over them and who would slaughter them in large numbers. And his Rabb granted his request, but that they would quarrel amongst themselves, fight each other, kill each other and take each other prisoner. Then he (saas ) made clear that the most dangerous thing that he fears for his Ummah is those leaders who will misguide the people, for they will follow them and will be ruled by them, though they have no knowledge; thus they will be astray themselves and will send others astray; and should the killing begin, it will not end until the Day of Resurrection; and a number of his Ummah will worship idols, and that there will appear among them thirty liars who will claim prophethood, but the Messenger of Allah (saas ) has informed us that he is the Seal of the Prophets and that none will come after him. And finally, in order that we despair not he (saas ) informs us that a number of his Ummah will hold fast to the true Religion, that they will be aided by Allah (swt ) and they will not be harmed by those who abandon them or those who plot against them until the Command of Allah (swt ) comes.2

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence of a miracle of the Prophet (saas ) in predicting the future - some of which has come to pass and some of which has yet to happen.

    2. The permissibility of taking war booty for the Muslims.

    3. The Prophet's care for the fate of his Ummah.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

    5. That the cause of destruction of this Ummah will be quarrelling and warring amongst themselves.

    6. Evidence that the danger to this community will come from misguided leaders who will send their people astray.

    7. The presence of Shirk in this Ummah.

    8. The rejection of all those who claim to be Prophets after Allah's Messenger, Muhammad (saas ).

    9. That Muhammad (saas ) is the Seal of the Prophets.

    10. The continuation of the Truth among some of this Ummah until comes the Command of Allah (swt ).

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that some of this Ummah will worship idols.


    Footnotes

    1. Al-Jibt: A false idol.
    2. This would appear to be a reference to the wind which Allah (swt) will send and which will take away the souls of all the believers so that when the Trump is sounded, there will be none alive except the unbelievers - and Allah (swt) knows best.

  6. #24
    MinAhlilHadeeth's Avatar
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said Concerning Sorcery

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " They followed what the devils gave out against the power of Sulaiman: Sulaiman did not blaspheme, but the devils did blaspheme, teaching the people sorcery and such things as came down at Babylon to Haroot and Maroot. But neither of these taught anyone [such things] without saying: "We are but a trial; so do not blaspheme." They learnt from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them and they knew that the buyers [of magic] would have no share in the Hereafter. And miserable was the price for which they sold their souls, if only they knew!" (Qur'an 2:102)

    Allah (swt ), Most High, informs us in this verse that the Jews and Christians turned away from the Book of Allah (swt ) and instead devoted themselves to the study of sorcery which the devils claimed was from the time of Sulaiman (as ) and they further falsely claimed that they had learnt it from Sulaiman (as ) himself; but Allah (swt ) makes it clear that Prophet Sulaiman (as ) did not commit an act of disbelief as they claimed, but it was the devils who blasphemed by their teaching the people sorcery. Then He says that one of the objects of those who taught magic was to cause discord between men and their wives, but that there can be no result from the machinations of the magician unless Allah (swt ) permits it and that whoever abandons his Religion in favour of magic will have no reward on the Day of Resurrection and wretched will be the lot which he has purchased for himself by his actions, if only he knew it.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That sorcery is one of the works of the devils.

    2. That Sulaiman was innocent of practising magic.

    3. That learning magic and teaching it are acts of disbelief.

    4. Proof that magic has no effect unless Allah Wills it.

    5. That there is no benefit in magic.

    6. The vileness and wretchedness of the sorceror.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that practising magic is an act of disbelief.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse warns against practising magic which cannot be performed without committing shirk, and shirk is a negation of Tawheed.

    Important Note

    (a) The Arabic word sihr (سحر) linguistically means: That which its cause is hidden. In Islamic terms, it means: The practice of writing spells on paper, or tying knots which effect the heart and the body until the person becomes ill and dies, or it means to cause a rift between a man and his wife.

    (b) According to Imam Ahmad, Malik and Abu Haneefah, magic is an act of disbelief.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " Do you not see those who were given a portion of the Book? They believe in Al-Jibt and At-Taghoot and they say to the unbelievers that they are better guided than the believers!" (Qur'an 4:51)

    Allah (swt ) directs the attention of the Muslims, in particular, the Messenger of Allah (saas ) to the practices of some of the People of the Book which deviate from the Truth such as their preferring magic and obedience to Satan to the Book of Allah (swt ) and the knowledge and guidance it contains, and their lying assertion that the polytheists are better than the Muslims and closer to the Straight Path.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Evidence that some of the People of the Book were astray.

    2. The presence of magic among the People of the Book.

    3. That flattery, lies and hypocrisy are among the characteristics of the Jews.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the forbiddance of practising magic and censures those who do so.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that engaging in magic is an act of disbelief, because its origin is in shirk.1

    Note

    Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Wahhab said: "`Umar (ra ) said: "Al-Jibt (here) means magic and At-Taaghoot means the devil." Jabir said: "At-Tawagheet2 are fortune-tellers to whom the devils used to descend, one to every neighbourhood."

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Avoid the seven destroyers." They (the Companions) asked: "Oh, Messenger of Allah (saas )! What are they?" He (saas ) replied: "Shirk (associating partners) with Allah (swt ), sorcery, taking the life which has been prohibited by Allah (swt ), except in truth (i.e. in accordance with Islamic Law), devouring usury, consuming the property of the orphans, running away on the day of battle and making false charges against the chaste, unmindful3 women." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Because sins are the cause of loss and destruction, the Messenger of Allah (saas ) has commanded his Ummah to avoid the following major sins which cause the destruction of their perpetrators in this life and in the Hereafter:

    1. Shirk (Associating partners with Allah swt ): This is because it ensnares a person in that which debases him - the worship of other created beings.

    2. Magic: This is because it leads to many sicknesses in society such as swindling of gullible people, superstition and ignorance, fraud and cheating people out of their money by lying and deception.

    3. Taking the life which Allah (swt ) has forbidden: This is because willful murder leads to a state of chaos and disorder and breakdown of law and order, causing the people to exist in a state of fear and insecurity.

    4. Devouring Usury (Ribaa): This is because the presence of usury, or interest4 in society causes loss of the peoples wealth and property, as greedy and unscupulous money-lenders rook people of their honestly earned money, growing fat at the expense of hard-working people, with no benefit to the society but only to themselves.

    5. Usurping the property of the orphan: This is because such behavour constitutes injustice against one who is a minor, without any who can help him or support him except Allah (swt ).

    6. Running away from the enemy without cause or reason: This is because such an act of betrayal to ones Muslim brothers, weakening their forces and breaking their morale.

    7. Unjustly accusing chaste women of adultery: This is because it destroys their reputations and results in loss of trust in them and sows doubts concerning the paternity of their children.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That sins cause destruction and loss to the perpetrator.

    2. The prohibiton of associating partners with Allah, for it is the greatest sin against Allah.

    3. The forbiddance of learning and teaching magic.

    4. The prohibition of taking a life which has not been sanctioned by Allah.

    5. The forbiddance of devouring usury.

    6. The prohibition of appropriating the property of the orphan.

    7. The forbiddance of running away from the field of battle unless there is a valid reason such as to deceive the enemy, or lend aid on another front etc.

    8. The prohibition of slandering chaste women, whether be maidens or married women.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the prohibition of learning and teaching magic.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That magic is forbidden because it is based upon shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported from Jundub (ra ) in a marfoo' 5 form: "The punishment for the magician is that he be struck (i.e. beheaded) by the sword."6

    Because magic is such a serious problem for society, indeed a sickness from which results all manner of corruption and evil, such as killing, stealing, cheating, fraud, discord between spouses etc., Allah (swt ) has provided a drastic cure for it which is the execution by beheading of the magician so that society may be freed from the evil which results from his actions.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of learning sorcery and of teaching it.

    2. That the punishment for practising magic is death by beheading.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that the punishment for sorcery is beheading, which shows that it is forbidden.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that learning and teaching magic is forbidden, because it is built upon a foundation of shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is narrated by Bukhari, on the authority of Bajalah Ibn `Ubadah, that he said: "`Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (ra ) wrote: "Execute every sorceror and sorceress." "So, continued Bajalah," we executed three sorcerors."

    And it is reported authentically from Hafsah (may Allah be pleased with her) that she ordered the execution of her slave for practising magic upon her, and she was executed. Such an event has also been reported from Jundub (ra ). According to Imam Ahmad, execution of sorcerors is authentically reported from three Companions (i.e. `Umar, Hafsah and Jundub ra ).

    Relevance of These Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    The writer (Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Wahhab) has mentioned these narrations in this chapter in order to make it clear that the opinion of the above-mentioned Companions was that the magician be killed.


    Footnotes

    1. This is because the magician places his faith not in Allah (swt), but in the devils among the jinn whom he supplicates.
    2. At-Tawagheet: Plural of At-Taghoot.
    3. Unmindful: Innocent or naive.
    4. There is no difference between these two terms; the idea propagated by some Muslim "modernists" that ribaa means excessive interest rates, and that moderate interest is therefore permissible, is totally without foundation and is in contradiction with the Qur'an, the Sunnah and the confirmed practices of the Companions who were the best people after the Prophet (saas) in understanding the Sunnah and who used to avoid even those permissible transactions that in any way resembled ribaa.
    5. Marfoo': A report from one of the Companions which suggests, without explicitly saying so, that he heard it from the Prophet (saas), such as the above report of Jundub (ra), in the which he states the punishment for a certain crime, for it is not possible that he would have used his own judgement in such a matter.
    6. Narrated by At-Tirmizi, who said: "The correct saying is that it is mawqoof (i.e. a saying of Jundub)." - and Allah (swt) knows best.

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  8. #25
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Clarification of a Number of Types of Sorcery

    Imam Ahmad narrates, on the authority of Muhammad Ibn J'afar, on the authority of `Awf Ibn Hayyaan Ibn Al-'Alaa`, who said: "Qutun Ibn Qabeesah informed us from his father that he heard the Prophet (saas ) say: "Verily, al-'iyaafah,1 at-tarq2 and at-tiyarah3 are all acts of sorcery.

    Because the Muslims at the beginning of Islam had recently come from the Jahiliyyah (Days of Ignorance), they still carried with them many of the customs and superstitions of that time; Islam ordained for them freedom from such ignorant superstition which Revelation and common sense reject and for which no practical evidence can be produced. Such beliefs and practices include: Al-'iyaafah, which is the belief that one's fortune is affected by the flights of birds, their species or their cries; at-tarq, which is to draw lines in the soil or sand and throwing stones in order to supposedly reveal secrets of the unseen; and at-tiyarah, which is to believe in omens and portents. The Messenger of Allah (saas ) has made plain that these three are acts of sorcery and it is confirmed that practising magic, learning it and teaching it are all prohibited and it is incumbent upon every Muslim to avoid it and to declare his innocence of any such beliefs and practices and their adherents.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence that al-'iyaafah, at-tarq and at-tiyaarah.

    2. The prohibition of magic.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the three above-mentioned practices are acts of sorcery.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that these three practices are acts of magic, and magic is built upon a foundation of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "Whoever learns a part of astrology, has learnt a part of magic. Those who learn more accumulate more (sin)."

    Because knowledge of the unseen is for Allah (swt ) Alone, the Prophet (saas ) negated all attempts to uncover it, including astrology, according to which belief, one may know the future by understanding the supposed influence produced by the movement of the stars and the planets on peoples' lives. And He (saas ) has made clear that learning such things is an act of sorcery, and that the more a person learns, the more he is guilty of sin.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence that the study of astrology is a kind of magic.

    2. That magic is of more than one kind.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the study of astrology is a kind of magic.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that the study of astrology is a type of sorcery and sorcery is founded upon Shirk.

    Important Note

    Attempting to uncover the secrets of the physical unknown using practical methods such as the working of the Universe, biology, physics etc. are not considered acts of magic; rather, they are a fulfillment of the Command of Allah (swt ) and His Prophet (saas ) to seek knowledge.

    ..ooOOoo..

    An-Nasaa`i reports on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that he said:

    "Whoever tied a knot and blew on it has committed an act of sorcery, and whoever commits an act of sorcery has committed an act of Shirk, and whoever wore an amulet will be left to its control."

    The Prophet (saas ) tells us in this Hadith that anyone who makes knots in ropes and then blows upon them is guilty of practising magic; and He (saas ) makes it clear that he who practises magic has committed Shirk; likewise, anyone who wears an amulet or talisman, believing that it will protect him from harm, he will be abandoned to its protection, which is, of course, non-existent; whereas he who gives his heart to Allah (swt ) and is filled with confidence in Him, Most High, and depends upon Him Alone, this will suffice him. And whoever depended upon Allah's creatures - sorcerors and others - he will attain only evil - in this life and in the Hereafter because he has placed his faith in other than Allah (swt ), while Allah (swt ) is Sufficient for His slaves.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The forbiddance of practising magic.

    2. That blowing on knots is a form of magic.

    3. Evidence that the sorceror is a mushrik.

    4. The prohibition of wearing anything as a means of protection, or a provider, or a granter of wishes, etc.

    5. That whoever depends upon other than Allah (swt ) is abandoned.

    6. That whoever depends upon Allah (swt ), this will suffice him.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that the wearing of amulets or the like and blowing upon knots are acts of sorcery.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that magic is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Shall I not tell you what al-'adhdhah4 is? It is an-nameemah." 5 (Narrated by Muslim)

    In order to focus the attention of his Companions on what he was saying, because of the great love and affection that he had for them, he used the form of a question, which he then proceeded to answer himself: He (saas ) asked them about al-'adhdhah; then he explained to them that it is an-nameemah, which means to carry tales about someone behind his back by quoting something he said about a person to that person, the result of which is to sow discord between those two people and to fill their hearts with enmity.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That asking questions is a part of the Islamic way of teaching.

    2. The prohibition of an-nameemah, and that it is a major sin.


    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that an-nameemah is a kind of sorcery, because it produces the same effect as magic, or worse causing division among the people.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that an-nameemah is a kind of sorcery, and, as we have seen, sorcery is a form of Shirk.

    Important Note

    The person who is guilty of an-nameemah is not considered a disbeliever, nor is it ordered that he be killed, but the sorceror is guilty of kufr because he is depending upon other than Allah (swt ) to supply his wants and needs, while the tale-bearer is not, but because of its similarity in some respects to sorcery, it is incumbent upon every Muslim to avoid it.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Ibn `Umar (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Verily, some eloquence (can be so beautiful); it constitutes sorcery.

    In this Hadith, the Prophet (saas ) has compared excessive eloquence and expressiveness with words to magic, for the eloquent man may on occasions succeed in making the false appear true or vice versa. He (saas ) distorts the truth by throwing dust in peoples' eyes, robbing some of their rights by deception and falsehood. The truth of this may be seen by anyone who visits a court of law and watches a lawyer at work.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The forbiddance of some eloquence, i.e. that which attempts to make truth appear as falsehood and vice versa.

    2. The derogatory comparison of some eloquence with magic.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it defines some eloquence as comparable to sorcery because it deflects the heart as does sorcery.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it compares excessive eloquence to sorcery, and as we have seen, sorcery is an act of Shirk.

    Important Note
    It is not to be understood from this Hadith that the capacity of expressiveness with words constitutes kufr, but that since some forms of eloquence result in corruption and usurpation of rights, they are in some ways comparable to sorcery, and therefore it is incumbent upon us to abstain from them.


    Footnotes

    1. Al-'Iyaafah: Foretelling events by the flight of birds.
    2. At-Tarq: Drawing lines in the earth to predict events.
    3. At-Tiyarah: Omens and portents.
    4. Al-'Adhdhah: Literally, biting.
    5. An-Nameemah: Tale-bearing, such as one's saying: "Such-and-such a person says you are untruthful." - even though what that person says may be true, it is still considered to be carrying tales.

  9. #26
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said About Fortune-tellers and Their Like
    Muslim has narrated, on the authority of one of the wives of the Prophet (saas ) (Hafsah - may Allah be pleased with her), that Allah's Prophet (saas ) said:

    "Whoever went to a fortune-teller and asked him about some matter (i.e. of the unseen) and believed him, will have his prayer rejected for forty days."

    The Prophet (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that if anyone visited a fortune-teller and asked him about a matter of the unseen - about which, in reality, none possesses knowledge except Allah (swt ) - and believed in what fortune teller said, Allah (swt ) will not accept his prayers, nor reward them for forty days - and this is a punishment for the major sin which he has committed.


    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of fortune-telling.

    2. The forbiddance of believing the prophesies of soothsayers and fortune-tellers.

    3. That a person may lose the reward of his prayers as a punishment for his sins.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the forbiddance of fortune-telling and the belief in it.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Prophet (saas ) has condemned whoever visits a fortune-teller for he has made him a partner with Allah (swt ) in possessing knowledge of the unseen.

    Important Note

    It has been mentioned by the scholars - may Allah (swt ) have mercy on them - that whoever believed in what the fortune-teller says does not have to repeat his prayers for this period of forty days, but that he receives no reward for them.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that the Prophet (saas ) said:

    "Whoever went to a fortune-teller and believed in what he said, has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad."

    The Prophet (saas ) informs us in this Hadith, that whoever visited a fortune-teller and asked him about the unseen and believed in his words, has committed an act of disbelief in the Qur'an and Sunnah, this is because both of these Revelations have belied fortune-telling, for Allah (swt ) is Alone in His Knowledge of the unseen.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The forbiddance of fortune-telling.

    2. The accusation of lying against the fortune-teller.

    3. That believing the words of fortune-tellers is considered disbelief.1

    4. That the Qur'an is revealed, not created.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves clearly that the fortune-teller is a disbeliever.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith is clear evidence that fortune-telling is kufr; this is because the fortune-teller depends upon methods of shirk.

    The same thing was narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah by "the four"2 and by Al-Haakim, who said that it is authentic according to the strict conditions of acceptance laid down by Bukhari and Muslim.

    It has also been reported, with a good sanad, on the authority of Abu Y'alaa (ra ) that he said the same thing, but in a mawqoof form.3

    ..ooOOoo..

    On the authority of `Imran Ibn Husain (ra ), in a marfoo' form, it is reported: "Whoever practises at-tiyarah, or tells fortunes or seeks advice from a fortune-teller, or practises magic or asks another to do so, is not one of us; and whoever goes to a soothsayer and believes what he tells him has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad." (Narrated by Al-Bazzaar, with a good Sanad and by At-Tabarani, in his book, Al-Awsat, with a good sanad, but without the words: "...and whoever goes to a soothsayer etc...")

    In this Hadith, the Prophet (saas ) declares himself free and innocent of three kinds of people: (i) The one who seeks omens or their interpretation, (ii) the one who tells fortunes or seeks advice from fortune-tellers and (iii) the one who practises magic, or seeks the services of a magician. Then He (saas ) adds, as an extra warning to the fortune-teller and his clients, that whoever believes in the words of the fortune-teller has disbelieved in the Revelation (the Qur'an and the Sunnah) given to him (saas ); this is because Allah and His Messenger (saas ) have informed us that knowledge of the unseen is only with Allah (swt ), therefore belief in the fortune-teller is a rejection of Allah's Words and those of His Prophet (saas ).

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of interpreting omens, of sorcery and fortune-telling.

    2. The forbiddance of seeking these three things.

    3. That believing the prophesies of the fortune-teller is kufr.

    4. That the Qur'an is Revelation, not created.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves without doubt, that the fortune-teller is a disbeliever.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves without question, that the fortune-teller is a disbeliever, because he depends upon shirk in order to predict the future.

    Muhammad Ibn `Abdil Wahhab says: "Al-Baghawi said: "The seer (al-'arraaf) who claims to know the unseen depends upon knowledge stolen (by the jinn, who overheard it from the lowest heaven) and falsehood and the like; It has been said that he is the same as the fortune-teller (al-kaahin), but the latter is, in fact, one who claims knowledge of the unseen events of the future. It has also been said that he is one who knows the secrets of the mind." Abul `Abbas Ibn Taimiyah said: "The seer is a name for the fortune-teller, the astrologer, the thrower of sand, and all those who claim knowledge of these matters by such means." Ibn `Abbas (ra ) said, concerning a people who wrote Abaajaad 4 and practised astrology: "I do not consider that those who do this will have any share (of blessings or reward) with Allah (swt )."


    Footnotes

    1. It has been said by some scholars, based upon this Hadith, that one who believes the prophecies of a fortune-teller is a disbeliever. However, other scholars maintain that what is intended here is that he who believes the words of a fortune-teller has committed an act of disbelief. This is because, in the previous Hadith, the Prophet (saas) informed us that one who visits a fortune-teller and believes in what he says will have his prayers rejected for forty days, while if it were true that he were a disbeliever, his prayer would not be accepted at all.
    2. The Four: That is, Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmizi and An-Nasaa`i.
    3. Mawqoof: That is, the statement of a Companion, which he does not attribute to the Prophet (saas).
    4. Abaajaad: An ancient system of prediction based on use of the letters of the alphabet.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What has Been Said About An-Nushrah 1

    It is reported on the authority of Jabir (ra ) that Allah's Messenger (saas ) was asked about an-nushrah and he said:

    "It is one of the works of Satan." (Narrated by Ahmad with a good Sanad and by Abu Dawood

    Who said: "Ahmad was asked about these matters and he answered that Ibn Mas'ood detested all such things.")

    Because an-nushrah was one of the actions of the Jahiliyyah, and the Companions had no desire or liking for the Jahiliyyah or its deeds, they asked the Prophet (saas ) about an-nushrah. He (saas ) replied that it is one of the works of Satan, and it is well-known that Satan orders not except that which is corrupt and detestable to the Believer. As for that which is permissible and not from the works of Satan, there is ar-ruqyah, seeking refuge (with Allah swt ) and the use of all permissible medicines (i.e. those which do not contain forbidden substances such as alcohol, pig fat etc.) and the Hadith is not a forbiddance of these things.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of an-nushrah, i.e. of using methods which involve sorcery or shirk in order to counteract the effects of magic.

    2. That the works of Satan are all forbidden.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the prohibition of an-nushrah.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that an-nushrah, which is from the Jahiliyyah, and cannot be performed without committing shirk, is forbidden, and that the one who does so is a magician.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Bukhari, on the authority of Qatadah that he said: "I said to Ibn Al-Musayyib: "A man is under the influence of a magic spell, or is unable to have sex with his wife - should we treat him with an-nushrah or use some other means to cure the spell?" Ibn Al-Musayyib replied: "It is permissible (to use an-nushrah), since they intend by it restoration or mending. That which is beneficial is not prohibited."2

    It is reported that Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: "Magic is not counteracted by its like except by a magician."

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it shows that Al-Hasan Al-Basri considered that counteracting magic with magic is forbidden and that the one who does so is a sorceror.

    Muhammad Ibn `Abdul Wahhaab said: "Ibn Al-Qayyim said: "An-Nushrah is counteracting the effects of magic and it consists of two kinds:

    1. Counteracting magic with its like and this is the work of the devil.

    2. An-Nushrah by means of ar-ruqyah, seeking refuge with Allah (swt ), permissible medicines and making supplications to Allah (swt ) - these are all permitted forms of an-nushrah.

    Important Note

    It might be said, with some justification, that these words of Ibn Al-Qayyim sum up the message of this chapter.


    Footnotes

    1. Counteracting magic with magic.
    2. This is not a permission to use magic against magic; what is permitted here is the use of ar-ruqyah, seeking refuge with Allah (swt), using permitted medicines etc. For how could Ibn Al-Musayyib make permissible that which the Prophet (saas) had forbidden?

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said About At-Tatayyur 1

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " And when good came to them, they said: "This is due to us." But when evil befell them, they ascribed it to omens connected with Moosa and those with him! Verily, in truth the omens of evil are theirs in Allah's sight, but most of them understand not!" (Qur'an 7:131)

    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most High, describes the ways of Fir'aoun and his people in their dealings with Moosa (as ) and his companions: That when any good came to them, they would claim the credit for it themselves, not attributing it to Allah (swt ); but when any calamity befell them, they would blame it on the presence of Moosaa (as ) and his people. Then Allah (swt ) makes plain the falseness of their claims, Confirms that whatever evil comes to them is from Allah (swt ) and it is what they have earned by their disbelief and rejection of the Signs of Allah (swt ). Then He (swt ), Most High, explains the reason for their behaving in this manner, which is their ignorance and lack of knowledge that Allah (swt ) is the Ordainer of all good and evil.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That good and evil are ordained by Allah.

    2. The prohibition of denying Allah's Blessings.

    3. The forbiddance of belief in omens.

    4. That ignorance is the cause of all evil.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the prohibition of at-tatayyur.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that at-tatayyur is Shirk because it is an attachment of the heart to other than Allah (swt ) and a belief that the cause of events is other than He.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), Most High, says:

    " They said: "Your evil omens are with yourselves." If you are admonished [do you deem it an evil omen?] No! But you are a people transgressing all bounds" (Qur'an 36:19)

    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, explains that the Messengers who came to their people with warnings and reminders were considered evil omens by them, but that those Messengers rejected this, saying to them that whatever afflicts the unbelievers is because of their disbelief and rejection of Allah's Signs for they were peoples who transgressed all decent limits and were estranged from the Truth, preferring disbelief over faith - and this is the end result for the disbeliever.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The prohibition of belief in evil omens and of pessimism based upon those omens.

    2. The forbiddance of exceeding the limits of Allah.

    3. That exceeding Allah's prescribed limits is the cause of destruction and humiliation.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the forbiddance of at-tataayyur.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse rejects at-tiyarah because it causes the heart to become attached to other than Allah (swt ) and this is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "There is no `adwaa,2 no tiyarah and no haamah 3 and no Safar. 4" (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Muslim, in his Saheeh, adds: "...and no naw` and no ghool." 5

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That illness cannot spread except by Allah's Will.

    2. The falseness of believing in omens and their effect.

    3. The falseness of the beliefs of the Jahiliyyah regarding the flight of nocturnal birds.

    4. The falseness of pessimism due to the approach of the month of Safar.

    5. The falseness of the beliefs of the Jahiliyyah regarding ghosts and ghouls.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the falseness of belief in omens.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves the invalidity of belief in omens because such beliefs cause an attachment of the heart to other than Allah (swt ) and this is Shirk.

    Important Note

    There is no conflict between this Hadith which states: "There is no `adwaa..." and that in which the Prophet (saas ) said:

    "Flee from the leper as you would flee from a lion,"

    Because in the former Hadith, what is intended is that no disease may affect us except by Allah's leave, while the latter Hadith instructs us to undertake the necessary measures to ensure as best we can that we do not become ill, and this is the true meaning of at-tawakkul (dependence on Allah swt ), to do that which is in your power in order to attain your objective and then to depend upon Allah (swt ).

    ..ooOOoo..

    Bukhari and Muslim report on the authority of Anas (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "There is no `adwaa and no tiyarah, but al-f`al 6 pleases me." They asked: "What is al-f`al?"
    He (saas ) replied: "It is the good word."

    Because good and evil are ordained by Allah (swt ), the Prophet (saas ) negated the idea that infectious disease of itself may affect a person or that omens may affect us, either adversely or positively. And then He (saas ) endorsed and approved optimism because optimism means to think well of Allah (swt ) and to be filled with positive zeal to achieve one's objectives - as opposed to pessimism which produces lethargy and depression.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The negation of the belief that disease may affect us of itself, without Allah's leave.

    2. The absolute falseness of belief in omens.

    3. The desirabilty of optimism, rather than pessimism.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that belief in omens is false.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith rejects the belief in omens because such belief is a denial of Allah's Qadr 7 and because it causes the heart to become attached to other than Allah (swt ), and this is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is authentically reported by Abu Dawood, on the authority of `Uqbah Ibn `Amir (ra ), that he said: "At-tiyarah was mentioned before the Messenger of Allah (saas ) and he said: "The best form of it is al-f`al, for it does not prevent a Muslim (from achieving his objective). Whenever any of you sees something he dislikes, he should say: "Oh, Allah (swt )! None but You Brings good things. None but You can prevent evil things. There is no power and no strength except in You."

    Because at-tiyarah is a sickness in society, which held sway over peoples' souls in the Jahiliyyah, it was mentioned during a gathering in which the Prophet (saas ) was present and so he informed the Companions that such beliefs were baseless, and that while al-f`al is a form of tiyarah, it is much superior because it necessitates thinking good of Allah (swt ), and encourages positive thinking and optimism for the good. Then He (saas ) informed them that at-tiyarah will not prevent any Muslim whose beliefs are correct from attaining his goals, nor weaken his resolve. Then He (saas ) described an effective treatment for whomsoever is confonted by such supposed omens which is to place; the matter in Allah's Hands, that He may attract the good and repel the evil, by Allah's leave and continue to depend only upon Allah (swt ) in order to fulfill all his goals.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That al-f`al is a (permissible) form of tiyarah.

    2. The desirability of optimism because it strengthens one's trust in Allah (swt ).

    3. The legality of supplicating Allah (swt ) should any trace of this belief in omens take hold of one's heart.

    4. That good and evil are ordained by Allah (swt ).

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the falseness of at-tiyarah.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it rejects at-tiyarah because it negates belief in Allah's Qadr and because it causes the heart to become attached to other than Allah (swt ) and this is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    On the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ), in a marfoo' form, it is reported that he said: "At-tiyarah is Shirk, at-tiyrah is Shirk. There is none among us who is not afflicted by it, but Allah (swt ), by true dependence on Him removes it from the heart." (Narrated by Abu Dawood and At-Tirmizi, who said it is authentic, but considered the last part of it to be Ibn Mas'ood's own statement)

    Ibn Mas'ood informs us in this narration that the Prophet (saas ) described at-tiyarah as Shirk, and he emphasised this by repeating it. And he said that there is none who is not afflicted by it to some degree at sometime or other, but that Allah (swt ) will remove it from the heart of the one who places his complete trust in Him and depends upon Him Alone.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That at-tiyarah is Shirk.

    2. The desirability of emphasising important matters.

    3. That true dependence on Allah (swt ) causes at-tiyarah to be removed from the heart.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the falseness of belief in omens.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith rejects belief in omens because it necessitates negation of belief in Allah's Qadr and because it causes the heart to become attached to other than Allah (swt ), which is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Imam Ahmad reports, on the authority of Ibn `Amr (ra ), that the Prophet (saas ) said:

    "Whoever is turned back from his objective by a bad omen has committed Shirk." They asked: "And what is the expiation for that?" He (saas ) replied: "It is to say: "Oh, Allah (swt )! There is no good except that which You bestow and there is no evil except that which You bestow and there is none has the right to be worshipped but You."

    The Messenger of Allah (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that whoever allowed pessimism due to omens to deflect him from his intentions has committed a form of Shirk, and when the Companions asked him what the penance due for this major sin is, He (saas ) replied that it is to supplicate Allah (swt ), rejecting the belief in good and evil omens and affirming their belief in His Qadr, His Oneness and His sole right to be worshipped.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Confirmation of the Shirk of those who allow themselves to be guided by omens.

    2. The acceptance of the repentance of the mushrik.

    3. Guidance as to what the one who succumbs to the temptation of at-tiyarah should say as expiation.

    4. That all good and all evil occur in accordance with Allah's Qadr.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the Shirk of those who allow themselves to be turned away from their goals by omens.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Also narrated by Imam Ahmad, on the authority of Al- Fadhl Ibn Al-'Abbas is: "At-tiyarah is that which causes you to carry out some act or turns you away from some deed.

    This is an excellent summing up of this chapter for the kind of tiyarah which has been forbidden is that which determines our course of action or prompts us to abandon a course of action. Even al-f`al may fall under this category of prohibition if the person relies upon optimism alone, without remembering dependence upon and trust in Allah (swt ), for he is the same as the one who depends upon omens of good or evil. Likewise, when a person hears or sees something which he dislikes and become pessimistic due to it, or allows it determine his actions, he is also guilty of at-tiyarah.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The forbiddance of at-tiyarah, which causes one to take a certain course of action or deflects one from acting.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the prohibition of at-tiyarah when it causes us to alter our plans or abandon them.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it rejects at-tiyarah as forbidden because it causes the heart to become attached to other than Allah (swt ) and it negates belief in Allah's Qadr, both of which amount to Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. At-Tatayyur: Belief in omens.
    2. 'Adwaa: Infectious or contagious disease. What is meant here is that disease cannot be contracted unless Allah (swt) wills it.
    3. Haamah: Interpreting omens based on the flight of a nocturnal bird.
    4. Safar: Some scholars said that it refers to parasites which infest the stomach and intestines of mankind and cattle, while others said that it refers to the pagan belief that the arrival of the month of Safar in the Muslim calendar bodes ill, while the dictionary defines safar as jaundice - and Allah (swt) knows best.
    5. That is, there is no foundation to the belief that the positions of the stars affect the climate and there are no such things as ghosts and ghouls.
    6. Al-F`al: Optimism.
    7. Qadr: Divine Preordination: That all events - both good and bad - were written and ordained by Allah (swt), before their creation.

  12. #29
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said About At-Tanjeem 1

    Bukhari narrates in his Saheeh, that Qatadah said:

    "Allah created these stars for three reasons:
    (i) To adorn the heaven,
    (ii) as missiles against the devils and
    (ii) as signs by which (the traveller) may be guided; and so whoever claims more than this for them has is emoneous and has lost his reward (on the Day of Resurrection) and taken upon himself that of which he has no knowledge."


    In this narration, Qatadah informs us that Allah (swt ), Most High, Created the stars for only three things: The first, to beautify the night sky; the second, as projectiles against the devils who approach the lowest heaven in order to overhear the angels speaking of the Commandments of Allah (swt ) which they then attempt to convey to the fortune-tellers and soothsayers; 2 and the third, as guidance for the wayfarer at night, whether on land or at sea. He (saas ) added that anyone who claims more than this for the stars such as the claims of astrologers, that the positions of the stars and planets exert an influence on our daily lives, is acting out of ignorance, and will receive no reward from Allah (swt ) on the Day of Judgement and has gone astray from the Straight Path.

    Benefits Derived From This Narration

    1. The wisdom of creating the stars.

    2. The falseness of the claims of those who say otherwise.

    3. The forbiddance of belief in astrology.

    4. The punishment prescribed for those who practice or believe in astrology.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it informs us of the view of Qatadah concerning astrology, that it is false and forbidden.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of Tawheed

    That Qatadah rejected that which the astrologers claim concerning the stars and knowledge of the unseen because it is an act of Shirk to claim knowledge of the unseen; as such knowledge is only with Allah (swt ).

    Harb informs us that while Qatadah disliked the studying of the lunar phases, Ibn `Uyainah forbade it, and Ahmad and Ishaq permitted it.

    Important Note

    (a) Study of the stars is of three kinds:
    (i) That which is kufr, and that is the belief that the heavenly bodies themselves decide the events of our daily lives.
    (ii) The belief that events may be predicted by studying the courses and relative positions of the stars and planets which they claim is by Allah's Ordainment and His Will and there is no doubt of the forbiddance of this nor of its being a form of Shirk.
    (iii) The study of the stars and the planets in order to have knowledge of their cycles for the purpose of aiding travellers in order to know the direction of the Qiblah 3 and to know the time and season and this is permissible.

    (b) The suggestion that Allah's Words:

    " And marks and signs; and by the stars they are guided" (Qur'an 16:16)

    Are an indication that astrology is permissible is totally false and baseless, because its forbiddance has been reported in many authentic Ahadith and therefore, it is clear that the meaning of this verse is not as the ignorant and misguided have claimed, but that Allah (swt ) has placed in the earth many natural sign-posts such as mountains, valleys, rivers, trees, rocks, etc.; and in the heaven stars to help the traveller find his way and that we may know the time and the season.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Moosa (ra ), that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "There are three who will not enter Paradise:
    (i) The habitual wine drinker,
    (ii) the one who cuts family ties and
    (iii) the one who believes in sorcery."


    The Messenger of Allah (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that there are three categories of people who will not enter Paradise because of the major sins which they committed, all of which are harmful to themselves and to the whole community: The first of them is the alcoholic because when he is under the influence of alcohol, his rationality and his inhibitions depart and he is likely to commit any number of sins. The second is the one who breaks family ties, because in so doing he causes strife, division and enmity between members of his family - the result of this may be the breakdown of the family unit which is the basis of a healthy society. The third is the one who believes in sorcery which includes fortune-telling, astrology, palm-reading etc., because this leads to cheating, fraud and deception for the purpose of stealing the money of the innocent and the gullible.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of alcoholic drinks.

    2. The obligation to maintain family ties.

    3. The forbiddance of belief in sorcery.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that it is forbidden to believe in all kinds of sorcery, including astrology.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith forbids belief in sorcery, including astrology, because belief in astrology necessitates the belief that someone other than Allah (swt ) possesses knowledge of the unseen and such a belief is Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. At-Tanjeem: Astrology.
    2. This refers to meteorites, not stars, which are referred to in Arabic also as stars, as indeed they are in English (shooting stars, falling stars).
    3. Qiblah: The direction towards which we face when we pray i.e. the K'abah in Makkah.

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  14. #30
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said Concerning Al-Anwaa`

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And instead [of thanking Allah] for the provision He gives you, on the contrary, you deny [Him] by disbelief" (Qur'an 56:82)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, rebukes those who reject His Blessings upon them, such as the rain which gives life to the land, causing the crops and fruits of the earth to grow; instead, they attribute it to the movements of the stars which can neither harm nor benefit, saying: "We have been given rain by virtue of the movement of the moon and the stars."

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That good and evil are ordained by Allah.

    2. That the rain is a blessing from Allah.

    3. Attributing blessings to other than Allah is an act of disbelief in Him.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that whoever attributes blessings such as the rain to the movements of the moon and stars is a disbeliever.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it rejects the claims of those who attribute blessings to other than Allah (swt ), such as the sending of the rain, because such a belief is shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn Malik Al-Ash'ari (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "There are four traits remaining from the Jaahiliyyah to be found in my Ummah, which they will not abandon: (i) Pride in the nobility of one's ancestors, (ii) defaming the ancestors of others, (iii) seeking rainfall from the stars and excessive mourning and wailing for the dead." And he (saas ) added: "The wailing woman, if she does not repent before she dies, will be raised on the Day of Resurrection with a dress of liquid tar and a cloak of mange or scabies." (Narrated by Muslim)

    It being the intention of Islam to cut off every connection with the iniquitous customs of the Jahiliyyah, the Messenger of Allah (saas ) informs us in this Hadith, in a spirit of censure and rebuke, that four customs of the Days of Ignorance will remain in this Ummah: The first is pride in the nobility of one's lineage for this leads to slackness and idleness, as one rests on the laurels of one's forebears; the second is the disparagement of the ancestry of others which leads to a situation in which people spend their time in seeking out weaknesses and defects in each others' backgrounds which causes the reputation of Islam and the Muslims to suffer and results in division and enmity amongst them; the third is seeking rainfall from the stars because it causes the hearts to become attached to other than Allah (swt ) and humility before His creations which possess no power to benefit or harm; and the fourth is excessive mourning and bewailing of the dead and eulogising them in loud voices for this suggests non-acceptance of Allah's Ordainments, and adversely affects the deceased's family and spreads depression and despair; because of this, the Prophet (saas ) stressed the punishment of such wailing women, should they not repent to Allah (swt ) before they die.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The refutation of the evil customs practised during the Jahiliyyah.

    2. The prohibition of pride in one's ancestry, of defaming the lineage of others, and of excessive mourning and bewailing of the dead.

    3. That those who seek rain from the stars in the belief that they can, of their own accord send rain, are disbelievers, while those who believe that the stars are the cause of rain, but that Allah (swt ) made them so, are guilty of an act of disbelief, without being considered disbelievers.

    4. The acceptance of repentance as long as it is before the death of the penitent.

    5. Confirmation of the miracle of the Prophet (saas ), since his prophesy has proved true in every respect.

    6. Confirmation of the reality of the Resurrection and the Requital.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the forbiddance of seeking rain from the movements of the stars.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith rejects seeking rain from the stars as this necessitates requesting blessings from other than Allah (swt ), which is shirk.

    Important Note

    It is permissible to mention a person by a nickname such as "the son of the tall one" or "the son of the thin man" or "the son of the lame one" etc., even though the person so named may dislike it, if it is the only way in which he can be identified.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Zaid Ibn Khalid Al-Juhani (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) prayed the morning prayer with us in Al-Hudaibiyyah after it had rained during the night, and when he had finished, he addressed the people, saying: "Do you know what your Rabb said?" They said: "Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ) know best!" He (saas ) said: (Allah swt said) "Some of My slaves this morning are true Believers in Me and others are disbelievers: As for those who say: "We have received rain from the Bounty of Allah (swt ) and His Mercy," they are Believers in Me and disbelievers in the stars, while those who say: "We have received rain from the movements of such-and-such a star," are disbelievers in Me and believers in the stars."

    Zaid Ibn Khalid (ra ) tells us in this Hadith that the Prophet (saas ) led the people in fajr prayer in the area known as Al-Hudaibiyyah, after a night of rain. After the prayer, facing the people, He (saas ) addressed them, wishing to encourage them to do good and to increase their knowledge; He (saas ) told them that Allah (swt ) had revealed to him that regarding the rain, the people are divided into two categories: (i) Those who thank Him and (ii) those who are ungrateful to Him. As for those who are grateful and believe in Him, they are the ones who attribute the blessing of rain to Allah (swt ); and as for those who are ungrateful and disbelieve in Him, they are the ones who attribute the rainfall to the positions of the planets and stars.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The virtue of the Imam addressing the congregation after finishing the prayer.

    2. The virtue of infusing knowledge by asking: "Do you know.?"

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

    4. The correct manner of responding to a question in religious matters when one does not know the answer.

    5. The forbiddance of rejecting Allah's Blessings.

    6. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mercy.

    7. That attributing Allah's Blessings to other than Allah is kufr.

    8. The forbiddance of saying: "We have received rain due to the position of such-and-such a star."

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that attributing rainfall to the movements or positions of stars is forbidden.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith shows that whoever attributes rainfall to the stars' movements is a disbeliever because he has attributed blessings to other than Allah (swt ), Who is the Source of all blessings.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra ) a Hadith carrying the same meaning as the previous Hadith: "Some (of the people) said: "The promise of rain of such-and-such a star has come true." Then Allah (swt ) revealed the following verses:

    " Furthermore, I call to witness the setting of the stars - and that is indeed a mighty oath, did you but know it - that this is indeed a Qur'an most honourable, in a Book well-guarded, which none has touched except the pure ones [i.e. the angels]: A Revelation from the Lord of the worlds. Is it such a Message as you would deny? and instead [of thanking Allah] for the provision He gives you, on the contrary, you deny [Him] by disbelief" (Qur'an 56:75-82)

    In these verses, Allah (swt ), Most High, swears by the setting of the stars concerning the greatness of the Qur'an and its blessings, that it is preserved in a Book, which is in the hands of the angels, touched by none but the angels, and that it was revealed from the Owner of creation and the Director of its affairs, and that it is not, as the disbeliever's claimed, poetry, or magic. Then Allah (swt ) rebukes those who support the disbeliever's in the Qur'an and abet them by attributing to the stars that which is for Allah (swt ), Alone, i.e. the rain, for this is a denial of the Qur'an which clearly states that it is Allah (swt ) Who sends the rain.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That it is for Allah (swt ) to swear by anything He Wills, but it is not permissible for His slaves to swear except by Allah (swt ), or one of His Divine Attributes.

    2. Confirmation of the greatness of Qur'an and that Allah (swt ) has preserved it from all corruption and change.

    3. That the Qur'an was revealed, not created.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of being Above His creation.

    5. The forbiddance of friendly relations at the expense of religion.

    6. The prohibition of attributing the rain to the movements of the heavenly bodies.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that whoever attributed blessings to other than Allah (swt ) is a disbeliever.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse rejects the claim that blessings come from other than Allah (swt ); this includes attributing the rain to the movements of the stars and planets, because this is shirk.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Allah's Words: And Among the People Are Those Who Take [for Worship] Partners Besides Allah

    Allah , says:


    " And among the people are those who take [for worship] partners besides Allah; they love them as they should love Allah, but those of faith are greater in their love for Allah. If only the evil-doers could see. Behold! They would see the punishment: That to Allah belongs all power, and Allah will strongly enforce the punishment" (Qur'an 2:165)

    Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that some of the people set up partners with Allah , whom they love and glorify as they do Allah . Then Allah makes it clear that the Believers love Allah more, for their love is a pure unadulterated love, which is only for Allah , while the love of the polytheists is corrupted and spoiled by their equal love of the other deities whom they have taken as partners with Allah . Then Allah warns that those polytheists, when they see the punishment that is theirs on the Day of Resurrection, will know that all power belongs to Allah and that His punishment is condign.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That love of Allah is a form of worship.

    2. The love of the polytheists for Allah does not benefit them at all because of their shirk.

    3. That shirk invalidates one's deeds.

    4. That pure love for Allah is sign of true faith.

    5. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Power.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that whoever loves someone or something as much as Allah , has set up a partner with Allah and this is an act of shirk.

    Important Note

    In order that there should be no confusion in this matter, it is important to point out that love falls into two categories: (i) That which is pure, and that is worshipful love which necessitates humility, submissiveness, exaltation and complete obedience; none has the right to such love except Allah ; (ii) The second kind of love is shared love: This includes natural love, such as the love of certain foods, certain aromas, etc., the love of family, such as that of a child for his parents and vice versa, and the love that a person may have for a friend. Such love may come and go, strengthen and weaken, unlike the first category, for it is incumbent upon us to love Allah to the utmost of our ability.

    ..ooOOoo..
    Allah , says:


    " Say: "If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard, and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision - and Allah guides not the rebellious" (Qur'an 9:24)

    In this verse, Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, commands His Prophet, Muhammad to make plain to the people that whoever places his love of worldly things above his love of Allah , and His Prophet and defence of his religion, verily, he will see what awaits him of chastisement from Allah , because Allah does not grant success to those who do not submit themselves to Him Alone.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. The forbiddance of placing one's love of worldly things above one's love of Allah .

    2. The permissibility of love for such things as long as it does not interfere with one's love for Allah .

    3. That love of Allah and His Messenger are both obligatory, and love of one without the other is not acceptable.

    4. That the guidance of success comes only from Allah and no other.


    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the prohibition of placing one's love of worldly things above that of Allah .

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the obligation to love Allah and His Messenger ; therefore, this kind of love is an act of worship, and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    On the authority of Anas , it is reported that Allah's Messenger said:


    "None of you truly believes until I am more beloved by him than his sons, his father and all of mankind." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Allah's Messenger informs us in this Hadith that none has complete faith, nor can he achieve the necessary level of faith by which he may enter Paradise without punishment, unless and until he places his love of the Prophet before his love of parents, children and all mankind. This is because love of the Messenger of Allah means love of Allah , for the Messenger is the one who brings to us Allah's Revelation and Guidance to His Religion and love of Allah and His Messenger is not true unless it leads to the implementation of all of Allah's Laws and abstinence from all that He has forbidden - and love of Allah's Messenger is not demonstrated merely by singing his praises or by celebrating his birthday, which is a despicable innovation unknown to the Prophet and his Companions.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. That the negation of complete faith in this Hadith does not necessitate exclusion from the fold of Islam.

    2. That deeds are a part of faith, for love is an action of the heart.

    3. The obligation to place one's love of the Messenger before love of parents, children and all of mankind.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation of placing one's love of Allah and His Messenger before love of all others.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the obligation of placing one's love of Allah and His Messenger before that of all others; this proves that love is an act of worship and directing an act of worship to other than Allah is an act of worship.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Also reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Anas (ra) is that he said: "Allah's Messenger said:


    "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will have the sweetness of faith: (i) The one to whom Allah and His Messenger are more loved than anything else; (ii) the one who loves a person purely and solely for Allah's sake; and (iii) the one who hates to return to kufr after Allah has saved him, as he would hate to be thrown into the Fire." and in another narration: "None of you will find the sweetness of faith until..."

    Allah's Messenger informs us in this Hadith that faith has a sweetness, and that this sweetness will not be experienced by any except him who places his love of Allah and His Messenger before that of all others and who does not love anyone except for Allah's sake and none other, and who hates disbelief and the idea of returning to it as much as he hates the Hell-fire and as much as he would hate to be thrown into it.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. Confirmation of the sweetness of faith and that it is not achieved by every Believer.

    2. The obligation of placing love of Allah and His Messenger above love of all others.

    3. The permissibility of referring to Allah and His Messenger together.

    4. That loving a person for Allah's sake is a part of faith.

    5. The obligation to hate kufr and its adherents.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the obligation to love Allah and His Messenger more than all others.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that placing one's love of Allah and His Messenger before love of all others is an obligation which shows that love is a form of worship and directing an act of worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra) that he said: "Whoever loved for Allah's sake and hated for Allah's sake and befriended for Allah's sake and showed enmity for Allah's sake, will achieve by this Allah's friendship and the slave will not attain the real taste of eemaan (faith), even though he may pray much and fast much, until he does all these things. Today, most of the people maintain relationships and love only for some worldly reason, but this will not profit them anything (on the Day of Judgement)." (Narrated by Ibn Jareer At-Tabari)

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it shows that Ibn `Abbas considered that love is a form of worship and directing an act of worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    Ibn `Abbas (ra) said, concerning Allah's Words:


    " And all relations between them would be cut off" (Qur'an 2:166)

    that it refers to relations of love.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it shows that Ibn `Abbas (ra) explained this verse as follows: That if love is not for Allah's sake, it will be wasted and a source of loss to the one who loved on the Day of Judgement for it is tantamount to shirk.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Allah's Words:


    " It is only Satan who suggests to you the fear of his awliyaa` [supporters and friends]. Do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are of the Believers" (Qur'an 3:175)


    Because fear of Allah's creatures might cause the Muslims to refrain from supporting and raising the flag of Islam, Allah , Most High, informs us in this verse that any such fear which may enter our hearts is only the deception of Satan and his followers, that delegation often takes the form of spreading falsehood by various methods. Then Allah commands the Muslims not to pay any heed to the whispers of these devils, but to fear Allah , Alone - if they are truthful in their belief, for fear of Allah must take precedence over any other fears.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. The forbiddance of abandoning one's obligations due to fear of Allah's creatures.

    2. The obligation to fear Allah, Alone, sincerely.

    3. That fear of Allah is a sign of faith.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation of fearing Allah Alone, sincerely.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves the obligation of fearing Allah , Alone, in sincerity; therefore, it is clear that fear is a form of worship and directing an act of worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    Important Note

    Fear consists of four kinds: (i) The fear that someone other than Allah will cause one some form of illness, poverty or other misfortune by his power and will - whether he claimed that this was due to the feared one's independent power or because of his supposed position as an intercessor with Allah : This kind of fear is forbidden, for it equates the one who is feared with Allah , which is an act of major shirk; (ii) fear of one of Allah's creatures which leads the one in fear to seek a solution from that which has been forbidden, or to abandon his obligations; this is forbidden; (iii) fear of Allah's promised recompense for the disobedient: This type of fear is the highest level of faith; (iv) natural fear, such as the fear of another of Allah's creatures e.g. a lion, a snake, etc. Such fear is permissible.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah , says:


    " The mosques of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, offer prayers perfectly, give zakah and fear none but Allah: It is they who are most likely to be on true guidance" (Qur'an 9:18)

    Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, tells us in this verse that, because the mosques are places of worship for the Muslims and centres of knowledge, leadership and guidance, He has placed the responsibility of their building and maintenance in obedience to Allah and His Messenger on the shoulders of the Muslims. He , Most High, adds that none should perform this duty except those who believe in the Oneness of Allah and in the Day of Recompense and Accounting, who perform the obligations commanded by Allah in the prescribed manner and do so purely for Him, Alone. Then He , Almighty, All-powerful, confirms that such people will be successful, by Allah's Will and His facilitation.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That the building and maintenance of mosques for the purpose of worship is a sign of faith.

    2. The obligation to perform the five prayers correctly.

    3. The obligation to give zakah to those who are entitled to it.

    4. The obligation to fear and glorify Allah , Alone.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the obligation to fear and glorify Allah , Alone.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves the obligation to fear and glorify Allah , Alone, therefore such fear and glorification is a form of worship and to direct such worship to other than Allah is an act of shirk.

    Important Note

    It has been said that by building and maintaining mosques, what is meant here is being responsible for their planning, financing supervision, regularly organizing teaching and lectures by scholars therein; and it has been said that what is intended is the physical construction, repair and maintenance, cleaning etc. But it is more correct to say that the verse covers both meanings, since they do not contradict each other.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah , says:


    " Then there are among men those who say: "We believe in Allah," but when they suffer affliction in Allah's cause, they treat men's oppression as if it were the punishment of Allah! And if help comes to you [oh, Muhammad] from your Lord, they will surely say: "We have [always] been with you!" Does not Allah know best all that is in the hearts of the `aalameen [the worlds of mankind and the jinn]?" (Qur'an 29:10)

    Allah , Most High, informs us in this verse that some of the people (i.e. the hypocrites) affect to believe by their words, but when hurt comes to them from others because of their professed faith, they compare this temporary punishment of man to the lasting punishment of Allah and abandon their faith. Then when Allah aids his followers and slaves from among the Believers, and blesses them with victory and spoils, they affect to believe once more in order that they may receive a share of the spoils along with the believers. Then Allah warns them that He knows the hypocrisy that is in their hearts and that He will recompense them for it.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. Patience in the face of affliction borne for the sake of one's religion is a part of faith.

    2. The forbiddance of hypocrisy in religion.

    3. That it is the way of the hypocrite to flee from the enemy in terror when he advances, but to advance in avarice and greed when the enemy is in retreat.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the forbiddance of likening fear of Allah with fear of His creation.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the obligation to place one's fear of Allah above fear of His creation; this shows that fear is a form of worship, and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri (ra), in a marfoo' form that he said: "It is from a lack of certainty (of faith) that a person pleases people and by so doing, invokes Allah's Anger, and that he praises them for the livelihood which Allah has given him and that he blames them for the things not bestowed by Allah . Not even the avarice of the greediest of people can bring Allah's Blessings, nor can the aversion of the one who hates it prevent it."

    Abu Sa'eed informs us in this narration, which is attributable to the Prophet , that it is weakness of faith and uncertainty which causes a person to gratify people by his speech and actions at the expense of his religion, increasing their pleasure with him at the same time as they decrease Allah's Pleasure with them and thanking them for the blessings which Allah has given them and holding them to blame for those blessings which Allah does not ordain for him, forgetting that the One Who grants or withholds is Allah . Then Abu Sa'eed mentions that all bounty comes from Allah's Hand - He grants to whom He wills and He withholds from whom He wills, and that none can attract such bounty, even though he may be the most avaricious of people, nor can he withhold it from any, even though he may violently oppose it.

    Benefits Derived From This Narration


    1. That faith may increase and decrease, strengthen and weaken.

    2. That righteous deeds are a part of faith.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Anger.

    4. The forbiddance of thanking people, if it is believed that the blessing came from them independently, without Allah's having ordained it.

    5. The forbiddance of blaming people for what Allah has not ordained for us.

    6. That good and evil are ordained by Allah .

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the prohibition of abandoning an obligation due to fear of men.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the narration shows that fear is a form of worship, and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    Important Note


    (a) This narration has some weakness in its sanad but other narrations strengthen and support it.

    (b) There is no contradiction between this narration and the Hadith which states: "Whoever does not thank people does not thank Allah ," because here what is intended is thanking people for doing something which was in their power and which they have in fact, done, such as giving financial aid; this is quite unlike thanking a person for making it rain or thanking him for making the sun shine. Also, it is forbidden to thank a person for something believing that he acted independently, without Allah having ordained it.

    ..ooOOoo..

    On the authority of `A`ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) it is reported that Allah's Messenger said:


    "Whoever seeks Allah's Pleasure at the expense of men's displeasure, will win Allah's Pleasure and Allah will cause men to be pleased with him. And whoever seeks to please men at the expense of Allah's Displeasure, will win the Displeasure of Allah and Allah will cause men to be displeased with him." (Narrated by Ibn Hibban in his Saheeh)

    The Prophet informs us in this Hadith that whoever sought Allah's Pleasure by obeying His Commands and abstaining from all of that which He has prohibited, without caring whether or not he pleased others and without paying heed to their insults and oppression, will achieve Allah's Pleasure and He will place love for that person in the hearts of mankind; but as for him who tried to please the people at the expense of his Religion, he will incur the Wrath of Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, and He will place hate of that person in the hearts of the people as a punishment for him because of his bad intentions - one only has to look at the present situation in the Muslim world to see the truth of this.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Pleasure.

    2. That adhering strictly to the tenets of the Religion will result in Allah's Pleasure.

    3. The forbiddance of hypocrisy in religious matters.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Anger.

    5. That hypocrisy in religious matters results in Allah's Anger.

    6. That the love or hate in the heart is in Allah's Hands.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the forbiddance of abandoning obedience to Allah due to fear of others or seeking to please them.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves the obligation to fear Allah , Alone; this proves that fear is a form of worship and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

  17. #33
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Allah's Words: [And Depend Upon Allah if You Truly Believe]


    " Two men from among the God-fearing, upon whom Allah had bestowed His Grace said: "Assault them [the enemy] from the [proper] gate. Once you are in, victory will be yours. And depend upon Allah, if you truly believe" (Qur'an 5:23)

    Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that two believing men from Bani Israa`eel 1 advised their people and requested that they enter the city of Jerusalem, promising them that they would receive Allah's Help if they did so, because they believed in Allah's Promise which they had heard from the mouth of their Prophet, Moosa (as ), and they asked them to depend upon Allah and trust in2 Him that He would fulfill His Promise and not to be intimidated by the strength of the enemy forces, for victory is in Allah's Hands - He grants it to whom He wills and He withholds it from whom He wills, and He has promised the Believers victory and He never breaks His Promise.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. The obligation of mutual advice and encouragement by the members of the army.

    2. That faith and trust in Allah are the most important factors in attaining victory.

    3. That trust in Allah is a condition of the acceptance of faith.

    4. The obligation to trust in Allah and no other.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the obligation of sincere dependence on Allah and trust in Him, Alone.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that depending on Allah and trusting in Him is a form of worship, and directing an act of worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah , says:


    " For Believers are those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts and when His verses are recited to them, they [the verses] increase their faith and they put their trust in their Rabb, Alone" (Qur'an 8:2)

    Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that the true Believers are those who, when they fear Allah , fear His punishment, and as a result, obey all of His Commands and abstain from all that He has forbidden; and when verses from the Noble Qur'an are recited to them, their faith and belief are increased and they depend upon Allah and trust in Him, Alone; and they entrust all matters to Him, doing all that is beneficial to them and abandoning that which is harmful to them.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That fear of Allah and trust in Him are characteristics of the Believers.

    2. That faith increases and decreases.

    3. The obligation to depend upon Allah and trust in Him, Alone.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the obligation to trust in Allah and depend upon Him, Alone.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that trust and dependence are acts of worship and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah , says:


    " Oh, Prophet! Sufficient for you is Allah, and for those who follow you among the Believers" (Qur'an 8:64)

    In this verse, Allah gives glad tidings to His Prophet, Muhammad and his believing followers and promises them victory over their enemies and He commands them implicitly to trust in Him, Alone, for He is sufficient for them against their enemies.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That Allah is Sufficient for those who trust in Him and depend upon Him, Alone.

    2. That faith is an essential element in achieving victory.

    3. The obligation of faith, by loving Allah, Alone.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation of faith, by loving Allah , which includes trust in Allah and no other.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that trust and dependence are forms of worship and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    Important Note

    We have said that love includes trust and dependence because whoever has faith in Allah , Alone, must, of a necessity, depend upon and trust in Him Alone.

    ..ooOOoo..
    Allah , says:


    " And whoever places his trust in Allah, Sufficient is He for him, for Allah will surely accomplish His Purpose: For verily, Allah has appointed for all things a due proportion" (Qur'an 65:3)

    Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that whoever trusted in Him and depended upon Him to fulfill his needs and wants, Allah will suffice him in every matter, whether worldly or religious, for Allah will surely accomplish His Purpose and nothing escapes Him and no request is difficult for Him; and in order that those who ask him be not impatient, He informs us that He has appointed for everything a time and a place, which none can delay nor bring forward.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Evidence of the virtue of trust in Allah and dependence upon Him, Alone.

    2. That trust and dependence are among the most important factors in achieving that which is beneficial and avoiding that which is harmful.

    3. The obligation to believe in Allah's Ordainment and His Decree.

    4. The Completeness and Perfection of Allah's Decree and His Wisdom.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the obligation of dependence upon Allah and trust in Him, for Allah protects His slave and is Sufficient for him, when he depends upon his Rabb.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that trust and dependence are forms of worship and directing worship to other than Allah is an act of shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah , says:


    " [There were] those to whom people said: "The people are gathering against you, so fear them." But it only increased their faith; they said: "For us Allah is Sufficient and He is the best Disposer of affairs" (Qur'an 3:173)

    When Abu Sufyaan and his disbelieving people returned from the Battle of Uhud, they began to gather an army from among them for another attack on the Muslims. On the road, they passed by a group of riders from Bani `Abdul Qais and Abu Sufyaan advised them to inform Prophet Muhammad and his Companions that Quraish were preparing to assault them with an overwhelming force, but this threat did not discourage them; rather, they were strengthened in their faith and they trusted in Allah , and He was Sufficient for them against their enemies, for He is the One Who is trusted above all others and He never fails the Believers.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That one of the signs of true faith is steadfastness in the face of adversity.

    2. That psychological warfare cannot harm the Believers.

    3. That faith increases and decreases.

    4. The preferability of of the Believer's saying: "Hasbunallaahu wa N'imal wakeel," [i.e. Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the best Disposer of affairs].

    5. That taking whatever measures are required in order to achieve one's objectives is not in contradiction with trust in Allah and dependence upon Him, rather it is a requirement for that trust and dependence to be correct.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the obligation to trust in Allah , to depend upon Him, Alone, and to suffice oneself with Him.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that trust and dependence are forms of worship and directing worship to other than Allah is shirk.

    Final Words on this Subject

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra) that he said:


    " Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the best Disposer of affairs" (Qur'an 3:173)

    Ibraheem (as ) said it when he was thrown in the fire; and Muhammad said it when it was said to him:


    " The people are gathering against you, so fear them." But it only increased their faith; they said: "For us Allah is Sufficient and He is the best Disposer of affairs" (Qur'an 3:173)

    Important Note

    Tawakkul means dependence of the heart on Allah , believing Him to be Sufficient against all others for His slaves. Tawakkul (dependence) upon Allah is of three kinds: (i) Depending upon one of Allah's creatures to do something which none is able to do except the Creator: This is major shirk; (ii) depending upon one of Allah's creatures to do something which is within his capabilities but in the belief that he is able to do so independent of Allah's Will: This is minor shirk; depending upon one of Allah's creatures to do something in the knowledge that it will only happen if Allah wills it: This is permissible, such as depending upon someone in business transactions to fulfill his side of the bargain etc.

    Tawakkul is half of the Religion and the other half of it is turning in repentance to Allah . And tawakkul does not negate taking precautions; instead, it is a requirement in order for the tawakkul to be accepted and for one's faith to be complete.

    Footnotes

    1. Bani Israa`eel: The People of Israel.
    2. Dependence upon and trust in Allah (swt), known as tawakkul in Arabic.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Allah's Words: " Did They Then Feel Secure Against the Plan of Allah?"

    Allah , says:


    " Did they then feel secure against the Plan of Allah? But none can feel secure against the Plan of Allah except those who are lost" (Qur'an 7:99)

    In this verse, Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, rebukes the people of the towns and cities to whom Guidance was sent, and all those who behave as they did, because they did not esteem Allah , as is His right, nor did they fear Him, though it was from Him that they received all blessings; rather, they increased their disobedience until Allah's Wrath descended upon them and His punishment overwhelmed them. Then Allah , Most High explains that no one behaves as they did except those who are doomed and will have no success in the Hereafter.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. The obligation to fear Allah's Plan.

    2. The permissibility of describing Allah as Planning, as a comparison.

    3. That belief in security from Allah's Plan results in destruction.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation of fearing Allah's Plan.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the forbiddance of believing in security from Allah's Plan, because this would necessitate a lack in Allah's Completeness and this is in contradiction with a belief in pure, Islamic monotheism.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah , says:


    " And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?" (Qur'an15:56)

    Because the Mercy of Allah , Most Glorified, Most High, covers all things, and because the Prophets were the most knowledgeable of people concerning Allah's Mercy and His Generosity, Ibraheem (as ) said that he did not doubt the news of the impending birth of a son to him, even though he and his wife were advanced in years, for he did not despair of the Mercy and Bounty of his Rabb. His question to the angels, " Do you give me glad tidings that old age has seized me?" merely reflected his surprise that he should have a son, bearing in mind the advanced age of him and his wife. Then He asked rhetorically: " And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?"

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. The forbiddance of despairing of Allah's Mercy.

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mercy, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    3. That despair of Allah's Mercy is a sign of ignorance and being astray.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves the forbiddance of despairing of Allah's Mercy.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the forbiddance of despairing of Allah's Mercy, because this suggests a lack in Allah's most perfect Generosity and this is in contradiction with a belief in pure, Islamic monotheism.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority Ibn `Abbas (ra) that the Messenger of Allah was asked about the major sins; He replied: "Associating partners with Allah (shirk), despairing of Allah's Mercy and believing that one is safe from Allah's Plan."

    Because obedience to Allah and His Messenger was of the utmost importance to the Companions of the Prophet and the overriding goal of their lives, they asked the Messenger of Allah about the major sins in order that they might refrain from them and so He informed them about some of the worst of them: The first which he mentioned, and the worst of all, was shirk, or associating partners with Allah , because no deeds are accepted where shirk is involved, no matter what they may be and no matter how praiseworthy they may be. Then He, Most High, mentioned both despair of Allah's Mercy and believing that one is safe from Allah's Plan, for the Muslim should be in a state between hope and fear: He does not despair of Allah's Mercy and Compassion, which are without limit, for to do so would be to think ill of the Most Generous of all; nor does he depend totally on Allah's Mercy to the extent that he abandons those righteous deeds [i.e worship of Allah ] for which he was created.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That sins are categorized as major or minor.

    2. The forbiddance of all manner of shirk, of despair of Allah's Mercy and Compassion and of believing oneself safe from Allah's Plan, and that all of these are major sins.

    3. The obligation of both fear of Allah and hope of His Mercy.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mercy, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    5. The permissibility of describing Allah's plan in comparison with the plans of His creatures.


    The obligation to think well of Allah, All-Mighty , All-powerful.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the obligation of fearing Allah , while hoping for His Mercy.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the obligation of fearing Allah and hoping for His Mercy, because this is confirmation of Allah's Completeness and Perfection, a belief which is a necessary requisite for correct tawheed.

    Important Note

    Scholars have said that it is incumbent upon every Muslim that he comes to Allah in a state of fear and hope, like a bird between its wings, but that hope should predominate at the time when death approaches.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra) that he said: "The most heinous of all the major sins are: shirk, believing that one is safe from Allah's Plan, despairing of Allah's Mercy and losing hope of Allah's Relief.

    Ibn Mas'ood (ra) informs us in this narration that sins are major and minor, and of the major sins, some are more serious than others and that the worst of all major sins is shirk, or associating partners with Allah , for no deed will be accepted if it is accompanied by shirk. After mentioning shirk, he goes on to inform us of another of the worst major sins, which is believing that one is safe from Allah's Plan, i.e. that Allah will not punish the disobedient; this erroneous belief springs from complete dependence on Allah's Mercy, without fearing His punishment, hence that leads to abandoning the righteous deeds for which we were all created. Then Ibn Mas'ood mentions another of the worst major sins which is despairing of Allah's Mercy and Compassion and losing all hope of His Relief; this is because such a belief entails thinking ill of Allah , All-Mighty , All-powerful.

    Benefits Derived From This Narration


    1. The prohibition of all forms of shirk, of believing oneself safe from Allah's Plan, of despairing of Allah's Mercy and Compassion and of losing all hope of His Relief, that all of these are major sins.

    2. That sins are categorized as minor, major and worst major sins.

    3. The permissibility of describing Allah's Plan in comparison with those of His creatures.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mercy in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    5. The obligation to be fair and just in all matters.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation of fearing Allah's punishment while hoping for His Mercy.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the obligation of both fear and hope of Allah , for such is necessary in order for one's tawheed to be complete.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Part of Belief in Allah Consists of Patience in the
    Face of All That Allah Has Ordained for Us


    Allah , says:


    " No kind of calamity occurs except by Allah's leave: And whoever believes in Allah, Allah will guide his heart [aright]: For Allah knows all things" (Qur'an 64:11)

    Allah , Most High, informs us in this verse that no calamity, whether loss of wealth, bereavement, or other, occurs unless Allah has written it and ordained it, and that whoever truly believes this, will most assuredly be guided by Allah , so that he accepts and bears with equanimity the trials and tribulations of life and acknowledges Allah's Wisdom, for Allah knows what is best for His slaves, and He is Most Kind, Most Merciful.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse


    1. That evil, like good, is ordained by Allah.

    2. Evidence of the blessing of faith, and that it results in right guidance of the heart and an upright character.

    3. Evidence of the all-encompassing nature of Allah's Knowledge.

    4. That the reward of goodness is goodness.

    5. That the guidance of success comes only from Allah, Most High.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that patience and equanimity, in the face of Allah's Ordainments are signs of faith in Allah .

    Important Note


    (a) The Arabic word, sabr means, linguistically speaking, prevention, while in religious parlance, it means preventing or restraining oneself from succumbing to depression or anxiety and guarding the tongue from complaint and angry words, and guarding the limbs from forbidden deeds, such as slapping the cheeks, tugging at the hair and tearing the clothes.

    (b) Sabr may be divided into three categories:
    (i) Patiently persevering in obedience to Allah ;
    (ii) refraining from what Allah has forbidden;
    (iii) patiently forbearing in the face of calamities which Allah may ordain for us.

    ..ooOOoo..

    `Alqamah said: "He (i.e. the person referred to in the verse) is the one who, when calamity strikes him, knows that it is from his Rabb and accepts it with equanimity and submits (himself to Allah's Will.")

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it shows that `Alqamah considered that sabr in the face of calamity and calm acceptance are signs of faith.

    ..ooOOoo..

    In Muslim's Saheeh, it is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra) that Allah's Messenger said: "Two traits found in people are signs of disbelief: Defaming a person's lineage and bewailing the deceased."

    Because Islam came to abolish all of the vile customs of the Jahiliyyah, which are incompatible with the lofty principles of Islam, the Prophet informed the Companions that defaming another's ancestors and excessive mourning of the dead are traits of disbelief from the days of ignorance which will remain in this Ummah and this is a warning to us, for these two traits cause evil to the individual and to the community: Slandering another's ancestors is bound to cause hurt to and unjustified distress to that person. As for bewailing the deceased, this provokes renewed grief and fear on the part of the bereaved and shows lack of acceptance of Allah's Qadr and it is often accompanied by lying, as they indulge in exaggerated eulogies of the deceased and raise him above his true status.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. The forbiddance of slandering another's ancestors and of bewailing the dead.

    2. That these two traits will remain in this Ummah.

    3. That a person may possess some of these traits of disbelief without being a disbeliever.

    4. That Islam has prohibited everything that might lead to division in society.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves the forbiddance of bewailing the dead, for this connotes a lack of forbearance and acceptance of Allah's Qadr which is a necessary requisite of the true Believer.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra) in a marfoo' form: "He who slaps his cheeks and tears his clothes and makes supplications of the Jahiliyyah is not one of us."

    Because Islam preaches the noblest of ideals and because it ennobles the soul, it has forbidden all manner of excessive mourning of the dead such as slapping the cheeks, tearing the clothes and making the supplications of the days of ignorance; 1 and it is made clear to us that such actions are completely un-Islamic, because they cause unnecessary and prolonged grief to the bereaved, reflect a lack of acceptance of Allah's Qadr and keep alive the evil customs of the Jahiliyyah which Islam came to destroy.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. The forbiddance of slapping one's cheeks and tearing one's clothes in anguish over the death of a loved one.

    2. The falseness and futility of the customs of the Jahiliyyah except those which are in conformity with Islaamic Law and are confirmed by the Qur'an or the Sunnah, such as hospitality to the guest and the like.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the forbiddance of slapping one's cheeks, tearing one's clothes and making the supplications of the Jahiliyyah.

    Important Note

    It is permissible to weep for the dead if it is due to genuine feelings of sadness and compassion, free from all traces of anger and hysteria.

    ..ooOOoo..

    On the authority of Anas it is reported that the Prophet said: "When Allah wills good for His slave, He hastens to punish him in this life and when He wills evil for His slave, He withholds punishing him for his sins until he comes before Him on the Day of Resurrection." 2

    Allah's Messenger informs us in this Hadith that sometimes Allah afflicts a person with calamity in order to purify him of his sins, which otherwise, might cause him to be punished in the Hereafter, in order that he might on that Day receive the record of his deeds in his right hand and be among the successful. Alternatively, Allah may withhold punishment from a person, not because He loves him or honours him, but when he is called forth on the Day of Reckoning, he will bear a heavy burden of sins and he will receive the full punishment of those sins; and Allah grants His Favour to whom He Wills and punishes whom He Wills with justice; and He Will not be asked about what He does, but they will be asked about what they did.


    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Will, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    2. That good and evil are from Allah's Qadr.

    3. That the trials and tribulations to which the Believer is subjected are signs of goodness, so long as they are borne with patience and without resorting to forbidden acts or abandoning one's obligations.

    4. It is incumbent upon the Muslim to fear the continuation of blessings and good health, lest they betoken that his sins will not be wiped out by trials in this life.

    5. The obligation to think well of Allah concerning the calamities which He might ordain for us.

    6. It does not necessarily follow that when Allah gives us something good, that He is pleased with us.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that whoever truly believes in Allah , will bear the trials and tribulations which Allah ordains for him with patience and equanimity for he believes that they bode goodness for him.

    ..ooOOoo..

    The Prophet said: "Verily, the greatness of the reward is tied to the greatness of the trial: When Allah loves a people, he puts them to trial. Whoever accepted it, will enjoy Allah's Pleasure and whoever is displeased with it, will incur Allah's Displeasure." 3

    The Prophet informs us in this Hadith that the Believer may be afflicted by calamity in this world, such as loss of wealth, bereavement etc., but that Allah will reward him for these calamities if he bears them patiently, and He tells us also that the more a person's trials and tribulations increase, the more his reward with Allah increases and that trials are a sign of Allah's Love for the Believer, not His Anger and that Allah's Ordainment and His Qadr will be implemented and that whoever patiently perseveres in the face of adversity and accepts it, will incur Allah's Pleasure and His Reward, while whoever is angry at what Allah has ordained for him and dislikes it, will incur Allah's Displeasure and His punishment which will be more than suffice him.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. That afflictions wipe out sins, so long as the afflicted does not abandon his obligations or commit forbidden acts.

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Love, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    3. That the trials to which the Believer is subjected are signs of faith.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Pleasure, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    5. The virtue of accepting Allah's Qadr and His Ordainments with patience and equanimity.

    6. The forbiddance of anger at Allah's Qadr and His Ordainments.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith forbids anger and despair in the face of Allah's Ordainments, and this shows that patient perseverance in the face of trials and tribulations is a part of faith.

    Footnotes

    1. Such as: "Woe to me!" or "May I be destroyed!" etc.
    2. Something very similar to this was narrated by Imam Ahmad, on the authority of 'Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal.
    3. Narrated by At-Tirmizi.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said About Ar-Riyaa`

    Allah , says:


    " Say: "I am but a man like you, [but] it has been revealed to me that your God is One God: So whoever desires to meet his Lord, let him do righteous deeds and let him not associate any partners with his Lord in his worship" (Qur'an 18:11)

    In this verse, Allah commands His Prophet, Muhammad to tell the people the plain truth about himself: That he is a mere mortal, like them, without any Divine Attributes or angelic characteristics, but that Allah has distinguished him from them by inspiring him with Revelation; and from that Revelation is the Command to worship Allah , Alone, without ascribing partners to him, and that whoever feared the meeting with his Rabb on the Day of Resurrection, and hoped for His reward, he should make his deeds purely and solely for Allah ,and they should be in conformity with that which the Prophet taught.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. Confirmation of the Messengership of Muhammad and the denial of his possessing any Divine Attributes or angelic characteristics.

    2. In this verse is proof of the shahadataan (i.e. None is worthy of worship but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah .

    3. That the tawheed which our Prophet, Muhammad brought is that of worship, for even the disbeliever in Islam accepts the truth of tawheed of Rabbship.

    4. That the acceptance of deeds is conditional upon their being performed purely and solely for Allah , without Shirk - and riyaa` is a kind of Shirk.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves the invalidity of deeds which contain elements of Shirk - and riyaa` is a form of Shirk.

    The Meaning of Ar-Riyaa`

    Riyaa` is defined as the performance of a deed with the intention of pleasing other than Allah . The difference between riyaa` and sum'ah (sometimes confused in the minds of some), is that while riyaa` is done in order to show off in front of people (such as ostentatiously giving charity or praying), the latter involves the performance of good deeds in order to be heard (such as mentioning Allah or reciting the Qur'an in a loud voice etc.) - both with the same intention: To favourably impress people.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Muslim reports, on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra) in a marfoo' form, the following Qudsi narration: "I am Independent of all the partners (ascribed to me). Whoever performs a deed while associating partners with Me, I will leave him and his Shirk."

    Allah , Most High informs us in this Qudsi narration that He is Free and Independent of all those false partners which are associated with Him; and therefore, He does not accept any deed which includes Shirk and riyaa` is a form of Shirk, because it contradicts the belief that Allah is Independent and is not befitting His Nobility: In this is the clearest warning to all those who allow themselves to be seduced (by the devil) into performing actions with the intention of impressing people, rather than with the sole intention of pleasing Allah , so that when they come forth on the Day of Resurrection, they will find no good deeds credited to them; instead they will find Allah and His Reckoning - and Allah is Swift in Reckoning!

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Complete Independence from all partners.

    2. That Allah does not accept deeds except those which are performed purely and solely for His sake.

    3. The invalidity of riyaa` in deeds.

    4. Confirmatiuon of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech, in a manner befitting His Majesty.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the invalidity of deeds which contain Shirk - and riyaa` is a form of Shirk.

    Important Note


    (a) When the intention behind a deed is other than Allah's Pleasure, then the deed is in vain.

    (b) When the intention behind a deed is to please Allah , but after making this intention a person was guilty of riyaa`, but he then rejected this, his deed would be acceptable; but if he continued to be guilty of riyaa` until he had completed the deed, then according to some scholars, his deed would be in vain, while others said that his deed would still be accepted because of his original intention and this is the most correct saying - and Allah knows best.

    ..ooOOoo..

    On the authority of Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri (ra), in a marfoo' form, it is reported: "Shall I not tell you what I fear for you more than Al-Maseeh Ad-Dajjaal?" 1 They replied: "Yes." He said:


    "It is hidden Shirk such as when a person stands in prayer and he improves his prayer when he knows that others are watching."
    (Narrated by Imam Ahmad)

    Allah's Messenger informs us in this Hadith that he worries for his Ummah and fears for them Al-Maseeh Ad-Dajjaal, but that more than this, he fears for them hidden Shirk, which is riyaa`; this is because the danger of Al-Maseeh Ad-Dajjaal is confined to a specific time, while the danger of riyaa` is present at all times and in all places and because riyaa` is hidden and its power of seduction is great 2 and it is difficult to free oneself from its grip. In addition, it leads to showy, ostentatious behaviour, self-glorification, self-promotion, all of which appeal to the weaknesses in man.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. That asking questions is an Islamic style of teaching.

    2. The care and compasssion of the Prophet for his Ummah.

    3. The great danger of riyaa`, which lies in its being hidden, its strength of appeal to most people and the difficulty of abstaining from it.

    4. Evidence of the danger of Al-Maseeh Ad-Dajjaal to this Ummah.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Prophet feared more than anything else for this Ummah, that they would be seduced by ar-riyaa`; therefore it is incumbent upon us to be very careful, do our utmost to abstain from it and warn others of it.

    Footnotes

    1. Al-Maseeh Ad-Dajjaal: The false Messiah, who will deceive many people by performing apparent miracles, such as giving life to the dead. There are many authentic Ahadith concerning him.
    2. It is a common human weakness to enjoy being praised and hearing good about oneself.

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