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    Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

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    Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained



    On Tawheed




    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship me. I seek not any provision from them, nor do I ask that they should feed Me. Verily, Allah is the All-provider, Owner of Power - Most Strong" (Qur'an 51:56)

    Allah (swt ), informs us that it is He (swt ) Who created the jinn and mankind, and that the wisdom behind that creation was that they worship Him (swt ), Alone and reject the worship of any other, and that He (swt ) did not create them for any benefit for Himself, but in order that they should worship Him (swt ); and He (swt ) has undertaken to provide sustenance for them, and He (swt ) is the Most Truthful in keeping His (swt ) Promises and Able to fulfill them, for He (swt ) is Strong.

    Benefits Derived from This Verse

    1. That the wisdom behind Allah's creation of the jinn and mankind is that they worship Him Alone.

    2. Confirmation of the presence of the jinn.

    3. Allah's complete independence from His creation.

    4. That the source of all sustenance is Allah, but the slave is commanded to do all in his power to attain his needs.

    5. Confirmation of two of Allah's names: Ar-Razzaaq (the All-provider), Al-Mateen (Owner of Power).

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these Qur'anic verses show the wisdom behind the creation of the jinn and mankind is worship of Allah (swt ), Alone and the rejection of all objects of worship besides Him.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And verily, We have sent among every community a Messenger [proclaiming]: "Worship Allah [Alone] and avoid the Taaghoot .1 Then of them were some whom Allah guided, and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied [the truth]" (Qur'an 16:36)

    Allah (swt ), informs us in these Qur'anic verses that He has sent to every community of mankind a Messenger (saas ), who conveyed to them the Message and ordered them to believe in only One God � Allah (swt ) and to reject all those false gods besides Him (swt ). And the people who heard from these Messengers (saas ) are divided into two groups: The first, those whom Allah (swt ) guided to goodness and who responded positively to the guidance of the Messenger (saas ) and abstained from all that was forbidden to them; the second group were forbidden from success and rejected the truth, and therefore they were losers, both in this world and the Hereafter. And whoever travels throughout the earth, seeking to learn from it, will see the evidence of Allah's Retribution upon some of those who stubbornly rejected the Guidance of Allah (swt ) and His Messengers (saas ), such as `Aad, Thamood 2 and Fir'aoun.3

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Evidence that mankind has not been neglected and left without guidance.

    2. The universality of the Message to all nations, and the fact that the Message brought by each new Messenger abrogated that of the previous Messenger.

    3. That the mission of the Messengers was to call the people to the worship of Allah and to reject all false deities.

    4. That the Guidance of Success is through Allah, Alone.

    5. That the fact that Allah has ordained something for a person does not necessitate His liking for it.

    6. The desirability of travelling througout the earth, with the intention of taking heed of the example of the communities of old, whom Allah has destroyed because of their disbelief.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these Qur'anic verses prove that worship of Allah (swt ) is of no benefit if the worship of others besides Him is not rejected.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And your Rabb has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect [uff!], nor shout at them, but address them in terms of honour. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: "My Rabb! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was a child."" (Qur'an 17:23-24)

    Allah (swt ), commands all those obligated to obey Him to worship Him, Alone and to observe filial piety and devotion; and He affirms the right of parents upon their offspring immediately after mentioning His right upon His slaves. Then He describes some of the types of filial piety, especially when they become frail and elderly, such as not displaying annoyance with them and not raising one's voice or scolding them, speaking to them in tones of gentleness and kindness and supplicating Allah (swt ) on their behalf - both while they are alive and after their death.

    Benefits Derived from These Verses

    1. The obligation of worshipping Allah (swt ) Alone.

    2. The obligation upon every Muslim of filial piety and devotion towards both his parents.

    3. The communal responsibility of the whole Muslim society to ensure the rights of parents upon their offspring.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these Qur'anic verses prove the obligation of worshipping Allah (swt ), Alone, without partners.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbour who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer and those [slaves] whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not love those who are proud and boastful" (Qur'an 4:36)

    Sincerity is the foundation upon which true religion is built and Allah (swt ) has commenced this Surah by commanding sincerity in worship and rejection of all false deities and He has followed this up by mentioning the obligation of filial piety because they (our parents) are the means by which we are brought into the world; and He (swt ) has not neglected the rights of the kinfolk for they are the most deserving of his (the Muslim's) benevolence and kindness. And in order that the rest of his brothers and sisters in Islam be not downhearted, Allah (swt ) has enjoined upon him kindness to the orphans and poor, whether close relatives or not. Then Allah (swt ) has made clear the rights of those close to him in this life, mentioning first the neighbour who has Islamic rights and familial rights over the Muslim, then the nearby resident who has rights of a neighbour only - and he is the zimmi .4 Then Allah (swt ) mentions the rights of the close relatives such as the wife, the travelling companion etc. And Islam has encouraged the Muslim to travel in the land with the intention of doing business and of taking heed of the punishment meted out to former peoples, and because of this Allah (swt ) has obliged the Muslim to help the traveller who is in need of it - whether it be material or otherwise. He (swt ), also affirms the obligation of fairness and justice in dealing with other Muslims; but Islam has not forgotten the slaves: In fact, Allah (swt ) requires us to give them all their rights, to treat them with gentleness and mercy and to recognize their human rights. And because these deeds are righteous deeds, they bring about a fear of Allah (swt ), and prevent the Muslim from becoming proud and self-absorbed because these two attributes would cause the reward of the deeds to be lost.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The obligation of worshipping Allah (swt ), Alone.

    2. The obligation of filial piety and obedience - so long as it does not entail disobedience to Allah (swt ) and His Prophet (saas ) nor harm the one so ordered, for Allah's Messenger said: "Do not harm others nor reciprocate (when harm is done to you)." 5

    3. The legal obligation of maintaining close family ties according to the closeness of the relationship.

    4. The duty of treating well the orphans in one's care, bringing them up and investing their wealth.

    5. The virtue of kindness to the poor and needy - and the varieties of kindness are numerous.

    6. The obligation of giving the neighbour his rights.

    7. The exhortation to help all one's companions who request assistance, whether travelling companions, or resident.

    8. The duty to help the lost wayfarer.

    9. The obligation of kindness to the slaves.

    10. The forbiddance of pride and vanity.

    11. Affirmation of Allah's attribute of Love.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That these verses prove the obligation of sincerity and purity of worship for Allah (swt ) Alone, and the rejection of all other objects of worship.

    Note:- The neighbour falls into three categories:

    1. The first has three rights: (i) The right of a Muslim upon his brother, (ii) The right of kinship, (iii) the right of a neighbouring resident.

    2. The second has two rights: (i) The right of a Muslim upon his brother, (ii) The right of a neighbouring resident.

    3. The right of a neighbouring resident only - and he is the zimmi.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Say [oh, Muhammad!]: "Come, I will recite what your Rabb has prohibited for you: Join not anything in worship with him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty - We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sin [adultery, fornication etc.], whether committed openly or in secret, and kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden except for a just cause [in accordance with Islamic Law]. This has He commanded you that you may understand" (Qur'an 6:151)

    Allah (swt ), orders His Prophet Muhammad (saas ) to call the people to come forth and listen to the Commands of Allah (swt ), concerning what has been prohibited for them; and because it is the idolator who most often opposes all good deeds, Allah (swt ) has begun by warning them to abstain from associating partners with Him, then He (swt ) has mentioned many of the evil deeds which they are wanted to commit and forbade them from doing so. He (swt ), orders them to be kind and dutiful to their parents and forbids them from killing their offspring, for such acts are evil and result in the cutting of the family tree - and He has mentioned poverty here because the fear of poverty was the most common reason for the killing of children in the days of ignorance. And the extra-judicial killing of any person is a great sin, whatever the reason. And because fear of poverty was the most common reason for the killing of one's young, Allah (swt ) has undertaken the responsibility of sustaining them and their children; then He (swt ), has prohibited all acts of disobedience - both open and secret. And because unlawful killing causes many problems in society, such as breakdown of law and order, social unrest, revenge killing, vigilantism, etc., Allah (swt ) has laid great stress upon the prohibition of unlawful killing, by His saying: " This has He commanded" - that His slaves may understand and act in accordance with it.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That Shirk 6 is the greatest of sins and that no other deed will be accepted by Allah (swt ) if there is any association of partners involved in it; and because of its importance, Allah (swt ) has mentioned it first.

    2. The obligation of filial piety.

    3. The prohibition of killing one's children - and this includes abortion if carried out after forty days from the start of the pregnancy. 7

    4. That Allah (swt ) has undertaken the responsibility of providing for all mankind.

    5. Attempting to prevent pregnancy due to fear of poverty is an act from the days of ignorance.

    6. The forbiddance of committing shameful sins, such as adultery and fornication and all that leads up to them (flirting, dating, kissing, caressing etc.)

    7. The prohibition of killing any person has been forbidden by Allah (swt ), except by judicial means.

    8. Allah (swt ) has not defined here what is meant by judical means, but the Prophet (saas ) has mentioned something about it in an authentic Hadith, concerning adultery after chastity, disbelief after belief and the taking of a life for a life.8

    The Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse warns against Shirk in any shape or form.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ) `May Allah be pleased him', that he said: "I was riding behind the Prophet (saas ) on a donkey when he said to me: "Oh, Mu`aaz! Do you know what is the right of Allah (swt ) upon His slaves and what is the right of the slaves upon Allah (swt )?" I said: "Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ) know best." He (saas ) said: "The right of Allah (swt ) upon His slaves is that they worship Him and do not associate anything with Him; and the right of the slaves upon Allah (swt ) is that those who do not associate anything with Him will not be punished." I said: "Oh, Messenger of Allah (saas )! Shall I not inform the people (of this)?" He (saas ) said: "Do not inform them, in case they rely upon it." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ) informs us that one day he was riding behind the Prophet (saas ) on a donkey, and he (saas ) wished to favour him with the answers to certain important questions: In order to do this, he (saas ) chose to ask Mu`aaz some rhetorical questions to arouse his curiosity. Mu`aaz did not venture an opinion on a matter of which he had no knowledge, and so he replied that Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ) know best. So the Prophet (saas ) explained to him two important Truths: The obligation which Allah (swt ) has placed upon His slaves, and the Bounty and Grace which He has made incumbent upon Himself. And because Mu`aaz cared so much about the welfare and happiness of the Muslims, he asked the Prophet's permission to inform them of this good news, but the Prophet (saas ) refused his request for he feared that the Muslims might depend upon this promise and stop competing with each other in the performance of good deeds which wipe out their bad deeds and elevate them in status. However, eventually, Mu`aaz informed them of this, fearful of concealing anything of the Guidance from them although the reason for the Prophet's warning his people against depending upon these words is clear.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The legitimacy of riding behind another, if it does not overtax the riding beast.

    2. The humility of the Prophet (saas ) in sharing his donkey with another.

    3. That the sweat of the donkey is not impure.

    4. The virtue of Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ).

    5. That asking rhetorical questions is an Islamic way of teaching.

    6. The forbiddance of a person venturing to discuss matters about which he has no knowledge.

    7. That the first obligation of the slave towards Allah (swt ) is to worship Him Alone.

    8. That the one who dies believing and practising Tawheed is saved from the torment of the Hell-fire - so long as he does not commit any of the major sins which would cause him to be punished in the Fire.

    9. Although it is mentioned in an authentic Hadith that the Prophet (saas ) said: "Whoever concealed knowledge, Allah (swt ) will make him wear a bridle of fire on the Day of Resurrection,"9 there is no contradiction here, because the forbiddance of concealing knowledge in the above Hadith is general, while the first Hadith contains an exception to that forbiddance in special circumstances: For it permits one to conceal knowledge if there is a fear that revealing it will cause disorder or strife in the Muslim community.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that the right of Allah (swt ) upon His slaves is that they worship Him, and do not associate any partners with Him.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    The Virtue of Tawheed and What Sins It Removes



    Allah (swt ), says:

    " It is those who believe and do not adulterate their faith [in Allah's Oneness] with zulm [wrongdoing, i.e. associating partners with Him], for them [only] is there safety and they are rightly-guided" (Qur'an 6:82)

    Allah (swt ), informs us that whoever practised Tawheed, without confusing their faith with Shirk, verily, Allah (swt ) has promised him safety from the Fire in the Hereafter, and He will guide him to the Straight Path in this life.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That faith, when adulterated by Shirk has no value.

    2. Shirk is referred to as zulm by Allah.

    3. That whosoever does not confuse his belief with Shirk is promised safety from punishment in the Hereafter.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that whoever dies practising Tawheed, having turned to Allah (swt ) in repentance from any major sins he may have committed, will be saved from any punishment in the Fire; and whoever dies practising Tawheed, having committed major sins without having repented, will be saved from eternal ****ation in the Fire (although he may be first punished therein, or forgiven as Allah (swt ) Wills).

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of `Ubadah Ibn As-Saamit (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "Whoever testified that none is worthy of worship except Allah (ra ), Alone, without partners, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger (saas ) and that Eisa (as ) is His slave and Messenger, and His Word which was bestowed upon Maryam, and a Spirit (created) from Him, and that Paradise and Hell are realities, Allah (swt ) will admit him to Paradise, whatever his deeds might be." (Narrated by Bukhari)

    This Hadith tells us that whoever pronounced the shahadah, 10 understanding its meaning and acting in accordance with it in his worship, affirming his belief in the status of Muhammad (saas ) as Allah's slave and Messenger and likewise believing in Eisa's status as slave and Messenger of Allah (swt ) and that he was created by Allah's Word: "Be!" from Maryam (may Allah's peace be upon both of them) and that He absolved her from the charges levelled against her by the iniquitous Jews, affirmed his belief in Paradise for the Believers and Hell for the disbelievers, and he who dying in this state of belief will enter Paradise, in spite of his deeds.


    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That the Muslim shahadah or testimony is the essence of the religion.

    2. That the shahadah is not valid except from one who understands its meaning and acts accordingly.

    3. The mentioning together of the Prophet's status as slave and Messenger is a refutation of those who make exaggerated claims for Him (saas ).11

    4. Affirmation of the status of Eisa (as ) as Allah's slave and Messenger; and this is a rebuttal of the claims of godhood made for him by the Christians.

    5. Affirmation of Allah's Attribute of speech.

    6. That Eisa (as ) was created from Maryam by His Word: "Be!" without a father; and this is a refutation of the claims of the Jews, who accused Maryam of the sin of fornication.

    7. Affirmation of the resurrection of mankind on the Day of Judgement.

    8. Confirmation of the existence of Paradise and Hell.

    9. That the sinning Muslims will not dwell eternally in the Hell-fire.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever dies, practising Tawheed will enter Paradise, whatever his deeds may have been.

    ..ooOOoo..

    `Itban (ra ) reported that the Prophet (saas ) said:

    "Indeed, Allah (swt ) has forbidden from Hell the person who testifies that none is worthy of worship except Allah (swt ), seeking nothing by it but Allah's Countenance." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    This Hadith informs us that Allah (swt ), will save from the punishment of the Hell-fire all those who confirm His Oneness and act in accordance with that, intending nothing thereby except to get close to Allah (swt ), without riyaa' 12 and without sum'ah. 13

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That none who sincerely believe in the Oneness of Allah (swt ) will enter the Hell-fire.

    2. That words and deeds are of no value without the intention of getting closer to Allah (swt ).

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Attribute of a Face.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever died, believing sincerely in the Oneness of Allah (swt ) will be saved from the Hell-fire.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri (ra ) from the Messenger of Allah (saas ) that he said: "Moosa said: "Oh, Rabb! Teach me something by which I may remember You and supplicate You." Allah (swt ) Said: "Say, oh, Moosa: "Laa ilaaha illAllah." 14 Moosa Said: "Oh, Rabb! All of Your slaves say that." Allah (swt ) said: "Oh, Moosa! Even were the seven heavens and all that they contain other than Me 15 and the seven earths as well all put in one side of a scale and Laa ilaaha illAllah put in the other, the latter would outweigh them." 16

    Our Prophet (saas ) informs us that Allah's Messenger, Moosa (as ) requested Allah (swt ) to teach him a special act of worship by which he might worship Allah (swt ) and praise Him and get closer to Him; and so Allah (swt ) taught him the words of sincerity, which are: Laa ilaahah illAllah. But Moosa (as ) asked Allah (swt ) to teach him something else, because the shahadah was well-known to all the people, at which Allah (swt ) told him that were this shahadah, to be weighed against the seven heavens and the seventh earths and all that is in them, it would outweigh them, for it is the essence of every religion and the foundation of every community.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That it is permissible to ask Allah (swt ) for something specially for oneself.

    2. That the Messengers (saas ) know not except what Allah (swt ) Inform them.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Attribute of Speech.

    4. Evidence of the fact that the heavens contain inhabitants.

    5. Proof that the seven earths are, like the seven heavens, inhabited.

    6. Evidence of the difference between some deeds and others.

    7. That the Hadith clearly demonstrates the greatness and virtue of Laa ilaaha illAllah.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that the words of Tawheed: Laa ilaaha illAllah are the best zikr and the weightiest in value.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported that Anas (ra ) said: "I heard Allah's Messenger (saas ) say: "Allah (swt ), Said: "Oh, son of Adam (as )! Were you to come to Me with the world full of sins, and meet Me without associating any partner with me, I would come to you with a similar amount of forgiveness."17

    Allah (swt ), informs us in this Hadith Qudsi18 that whoever dies, sincerely believing in the Oneness of Allah (swt ), having rejected all manner of Shirk, Allah (swt ) will replace all his bad deeds with good, even were his sins to fill the earth or to almost fill it.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Confirmation of Allah's Attribute of Speech.

    2. Proof of the vastness of Allah's Generosity and Mercy.

    3. That to die in a state of belief in the Oneness of Allah (swt ) is a condition of obtaining Allah's Forgiveness; and this matter necessitates explanation:

    a. Whoever died upon Shirk Akbar,19 will dwell eternally in the Hell-fire.

    b. Whoever died, rejecting both Shirk Akbar and Shirk Asghar, 20 will dwell eternally in Paradise.

    c. Whoever died without committing Shirk Akbar, but was guilty of a small amount of Shirk Asghar, if his good deeds outweigh his sins, will enter Paradise.

    d. Whoever died without committing Shirk Akbar, but was guilty of a small amount of Shirk Asghar, if his sins outweigh his good deeds, will enter the Fire, but will not remain therein forever.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever died, without being guilty of any kind of Shirk, will enter Paradise, even if his sins were great enough to fill the earth.


    Footnotes

    1. Taaghoot: All that is worshipped or obeyed in disobedience to Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saas). There are many kinds of Taaghoot: Their leader is Iblees - Allah's curse be upon him - and all those who change the judgement of Allah (swt); and all those who judge by other than that which Allah (swt) has revealed; and all those who call to the worship of others besides Allah (swt); and all those who are worshipped besides Allah (swt) and they are pleased with that worship.
    2. 'Aad and Thamood: Communities of old, whom Allah (swt) destroyed, because of their disbelef and rejection of the Messengers.
    3. Fir'aoun: Pharoah.
    4. Zimmi: A non-Muslim living under the protection of a Muslim State.
    5. Narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Majah.
    6. Shirk: Associating partners with Allah (swt).
    7. This does not mean that abortion before forty days is legal, but that before forty days it is not considered murder, but is still forbidden, unless there is some life-threatening danger to the mother.
    8. Narrated by Abu Dawood - The import of this Hadith being that it is not permissible to take the life of a Muslim except for three reasons: (i) Adultery, (ii) apostasy and (iii) murder.
    9. Narrated by Abu Dawood.
    10. Shahaadah: The declaration made by every Muslim: That none has the right to be worshipped but Allah (swt) and that Muhammad (saas) is His Messenger.
    11. Such as the deviant Braillawis of the Indian Subcontinent who have elevated him e to the status of a deity - may Allah (swt) save us from such blasphemy!
    12. Riyaa`: Lesser Shirk: Performing good deeds in order to be seen doing so.
    13. Sum'ah: Performing good deeds in order to gain a good reputation.
    14. Laa ilaaha illAllah: None is worthy of worship except Allah (swt).
    15. This must not be understood to mean that Allah (swt) is contained in His creation, as Allah (swt) has confirmed in innumerable places in the Qur`aan that He is Above His creation.
    16. Narrated by Ibn Hibbaan and Al-Haakim, who declared it authentic.
    17. Narrated by At-Tirmizi, who declared it hasan (good).
    18. Hadith Qudsi: A Hadith in which the Prophet (saas) says: "Allah (swt) said..."
    19. Shirk Akbar: major Shirk.
    20. Shirk Asghar: minor Shirk.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Whoever Fulfilled the Requirements of Tawheed Will Enter Paradise Without a Reckoning

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah [a leader, good and righteous] obedient to Allah, Haneefan [worshipping none but Allah], and he was not one of the polytheists" (Qur'an 16:120)

    Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse that His Messenger, Ibrahim (as ) was a leader in religion, a teacher of goodness, always humble and obedient to his Rabb; and that he rejected Shirk, in all its manifestations and devoted himself exclusively to the worship of Allah (swt ), Alone, without falling into Shirk, either in word, deed or belief.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That Tawheed is the basis of all religion.

    2. The obligation to follow Ibrahim, by sincerely worshipping Allah, Alone.

    3. It is an obligation upon the daa'iyah1 to set a good example to the people in all that he does.

    4. The unchanging nature of true worship as exemplified by the Prophets.

    5. Tawheed is not acceptable without rejections of Shirk.

    6. Rejection of the claim of Quraish in the days of ignorance that in practising their Shirk, they were following the religion of Ibrahim.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that whoever exemplified these four attributes, has earned the right to Paradise, as did Ibrahim (as ), without reckoning or punishment.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And those who live in awe for fear of their Rabb; And those who believe in the Signs of their Rabb, And those who join not anyone [in worship] as partners with their Rabb; And those who give that which they give [i.e. charity] with their hearts full of fear [whether their charity has been accepted or not], because they are sure to return to their Rabb" (Qur'an 23:57-60)


    In these verses, Allah (swt ), describes the Believers by four of their attributes for which they deserve praise and commendation: They fear the punishment of their Rabb, they believe in the revealed Signs of Allah (swt ) and His natural Signs (the planets, the stars, the seasons, the animals, the birds, the plants etc.) which prove the existence of Him (swt ) and the truth of the Message of Muhammad (saas ); and they are guided by these Signs and do not associate partners with Allah (swt ), either openly, or secretly; and because of their strong faith, they fear that Allah (swt ) will not accept their charity and good deeds; and Allah (swt ) Testifies to their mutual rivalry in performing virtuous deeds, and He Informs us that they precede others in doing so.

    The Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. The obligation to fear Allah.

    2. The obligation of belief in the signs of Allah.

    3. The forbiddance of Shirk in all its manifestations.

    4. The concern of the Believers as to whether or not their deeds will be accepted.

    5. The preferability of competing with others in the performance of good deeds.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verses prove that whoever personifies these four attributes and purifies himself from Shirk which nullifies good deeds, will have the right to enter Paradise without a reckoning and without punishment because he has achieved the purest Tawheed and this is his reward.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Husain Ibn `Abdul-Rahmaan that he said: "I was with Sa'eed Ibn Jubair and he asked: "Who among you saw the shooting star last night?" I answered: "I saw it," and I explained to him that I had not been at prayer, because I had been stung (by a scorpion). He asked: "Then what did you do?" "I used a ruqyah,"2 I replied. He said: "What made you do that?" I answered: "A Hadith I heard from Ash-Sh'abi." He asked: "What did he tell you?" I said: "He reported from Buraidah Al-Husayyib, who said that ruqyah is not permitted except in two cases: "Al-'ain 3 and stings." He said: "He who limits himself to what he has heard, has done well; but Ibn `Abbas (ra ) reported to us that the Prophet (saas ) said: "All the nations were made to pass before me, and I saw a Prophet (saas ) with a small group, and a Prophet (saas ) with only one or two men, and a Prophet (saas ) with none. Then there was shown to me a large number of people which I thought to be my Ummah, 4 but it was said to me: "This is Moosa (as ) and his people." Then I looked and saw a huge crowd at which it was said to me: "These are your people: Among them are seventy thousand who will enter Paradise without a reckoning or punishment." Then he (saas ) got up and went to his house, and the people began to discuss who they might be: Some of them said: "Perhaps they are the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (saas ); others said: "Perhaps they are the those who were born in Islam and have never associated any partners with Allah (swt ). While they were talking thus, the Messenger of Allah (saas ) came out and they informed him (about what they had been discussing). He (swt ) said: "They are those who do not treat themselves with ruqyah, nor practise treatment by cauterization, nor believe in good or bad omens - but depend upon and trust in their Rabb (Alone)." `Ukkashah Ibn Mihsan (ra ) stood up and said: "Ask Allah (swt ) for me that I be one of them." He (swt ) said: "You are one of them." Then another man stood and said: "Ask Allah (swt ) that I (also) be one of them." He (saas ) said: "`Ukkashah has preceded you." (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Husain Ibn `Abdul-Rahman (ra ) informs us of a discussion which took place between him and the Tabi'i,5 Sa'eed Ibn Jubair, concerning the use of ruqyah, due to the fact that Husain had been stung by a scorpion, for which he resorted to a ruqyah, in accordance with the Sunnah.6

    When Sa'eed asked him for a proof for that, he informed him of the Hadith of Ash-Sh'abi which permits the use of ruqyah for the treatment of al-'ain and stings. Sa'eed praised him for his adherence to the Hadith, but related to him a Hadith which advocates rejection of ruqyah - the Hadith of Ibn `Abbas (ra ) which also mentions cauterization and belief in omens, and requires us to have complete trust in Allah (swt ), and depend upon Him (swt ), Alone; and says that when `Ukkashah (ra ) requested the Prophet (saas ) to ask Allah (swt ) to make him one of the seventy thousand who would enter Paradise without reckoning and without punishment, He (saas ) informed him that he was one of them, but when another man made the same request, the Messenger of Allah (swt ) gently, but firmly closed the door upon any further requests by saying: "`Ukkashah (ra ) has preceded you."

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That the Salaf 7 used to keep away from riyaa` and anything that might lead to it.

    2. The obligation to ask for proof before accepting anything in the religion.

    3. The permissibility of using ruqyah for al-'ain and stings, on condition that the ruqyah is of a kind endorsed by the Shari'ah8 - from the Qur'an or the authentic supplications of the Prophet (saas ) in the Arabic language.

    4. The profound knowledge of the Salaf.

    5. Acting in accordance with the Qur'an and the Sunnah takes precedence over all opinions.

    6. The virtue of the Salaf and their good manners and politeness in passing on Islamic knowledge.

    7. The disparity in the number of followers of one Prophet and another, and that some Prophets have no followers.

    8. The number of followers a person may have is not necessarily an indication of the truth or falseness of the message.

    9. The virtue of Moosa (as ) and his people.

    10. The excellence of the Ummah of Muhammad (saas ) in comparison with other peoples.

    11. The love of the Companions for all good deeds.

    12. The permissibility of engaging in debate in religious matters.

    13. Whoever possesses the four attributes mentioned in the Hadith, has perfected Tawheed and will enter Paradise.

    14. The permissibility of asking virtuous persons to supplicate Allah (swt ) on our behalf.

    15. That there is no contradiction between the Hadith of Ash-Sh'abi - which permits ruqyah when the conditions for its acceptance are met - and the Hadith of Ibn `Abbas (ra ) - which forbids ruqyah when those conditions are not met.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever possessed the four attributes mentioned therein, has perfected Tawheed and will enter Paradise without reckoning or punishment.



    Footnotes

    1. Daa'iyah: One who invites people to Islam.
    2. Ruqyah: To recite a part of the Qur'an (e.g. Qur'an Al-Faatihah), or to supplicate Allah (swt), using words prescribed by the Messenger of Allah (saas) in authentic Hadith, in order to obtain relief from illness.
    3. Al-'ain: The evil eye.
    4. Ummah: Community.
    5. Taabi'i: A Muslim who met and reported from one or more of the Companions of the Prophet (saas).
    6. Sunnah: Words and deeds of the Prophet (saas) and those of which he approved.
    7. The Salaf: The pious, early generations of Muslims.
    8. Shari'ah: Islamic Law.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Fear of Shirk

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Verily, Allah forgives not that partners be set up with Him [in worship] but He forgives other than that to whom He pleases; and whoever sets up partners with Allah [in worship], he has indeed invented an enormous wrong" (Qur'an 4:48)

    Shirk is the most dangerous of all sins, the wickedest and the most severely punished because of the dishonour and denigration of the Rabb, Almighty, All-powerful, and the likening of Allah (swt ) to His creation which it entails. Allah (swt ) informs us in this verse that He will not forgive the one who commits Shirk and dies as a Mushrik,1 but as for the one who dies believing in the Oneness of Allah (swt ), although he may have committed some sins, Allah (swt ) has promised him forgiveness in accordance with His Will. Then He explains why the mushrik will not be forgiven, saying that by his association of partners with Allah (swt ), he has rejected Him and belied Him and committed a sin the like of which there is no other.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That whoever dies being guilty of Shirk Akbar, will assuredly go to the Fire.

    2. Whoever dies believing in the Oneness of Allah, although he may have committed major sins, may be forgiven if Allah, Most Glorified, Most High Wills.

    3. In the verse is a reply to the khawarij,2 who charged those guilty of major sins with disbelief, and to the mu'tazilah,3 who believed that those guilty of major sins would spend eternity in the Fire.

    4. Confirmation of the Divine Will which is one of His Attributes.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that Allah Will not forgive those who are guilty of Shirk and this should be a warning to all.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And [remember] when Ibrahim said: "My Rabb! Make this city one of peace and security, and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols" (Qur'an 13:35)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us that Ibrahim (as ) supplicated Allah (swt ) to make Makkah a place of safety and stability, because fear and chaos prevent people from performing their religious rituals. Then he followed this with another request to his Rabb: That He preserve him and his family from idol worship, for he knew the danger of that and he knew how easily people can be seduced by it.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The virtue of Makkah over other cities.

    2. Ibrahim's prayer for the security and stability of Makkah.

    3. Evidence of the benefit of supplication.

    4. That the original religion of all the Messengers is one: Belief in the Oneness of Allah.

    5. The desirability of one's supplicating on behalf of his family.

    6. The forbiddance of worshipping idols.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that Ibrahim, with his strong faith, fears for himself and his family that they may be affected by Shirk; thus, the obligation upon us to fear Shirk is that much greater.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported that the Prophet (saas ) said: "Of the things which I fear for my Ummah, the thing which I fear most is minor Shirk. Then he was asked about minor Shirk, and he said: "It is ar-riyaa."4

    The Prophet (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that he fears for us, and that what he fears most for us is minor Shirk. This shows how kind-hearted and compassionate the Prophet (saas ) was towards his Ummah, and how concerned he was for their good: He knew the dangers of minor Shirk, how it can strongly manifest itself in the community, polluting the pure monotheism of the Muslims, especially since it can afflict them without them even knowing it. This is why the Prophet (saas ) warned them to beware of it.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The care and concern shown by the Messenger of Allah (saas ) for his Ummah.

    2. The division of Shirk into two categories: Major and minor.

    3. That riyaa` is considered Shirk.

    4. The obligation of asking the people of knowledge about matters which confuse them.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that Allah's Messenger (saas ) feared for his Companions that they might unwittingly fall into minor Shirk; this, in spite of their strong faith and understanding of Islam and Tawheed. Therefore, we, with our comparatively weak faith and little knowledge, are even more obligated to fear both major and minor Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Whoever died while supplicating another deity besides Allah (swt ), will enter the Fire." (Narrated by Bukhari)

    The Prophet (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that whoever adulterated that which should be purely for Allah (swt ) (i.e. worship), by worshipping others besides Him, and died in this state, will have his abode in the Hell-fire.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Whoever died as a Mushrik will enter the Fire - If it was major Shirk, he will abide therein forever, but if it was minor Shirk, then Allah (swt ) will punish him as much as He wishes, then he will be allowed to leave the Fire.

    2. That a person will be judged upon his last act in this world.5

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever died calling upon a deity other than Allah (swt ), will enter the Hell-fire, therefore it is incumbent upon us to fear Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Muslim, on the authority of Jabir (ra ), that Allah's Messenger (saas ) said:

    "Whoever meets Allah (swt ), without associating partners with Him, will enter Paradise; and whoever meets Him as one who associated anything with Him, will enter the Fire.

    The Prophet (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that whoever died without associating partners with Allah (swt ) - either in Rabbship or worship or in His Divine Names and Attributes is promised an abode in Paradise, while whoever died as a Mushrik, will abide in the Hell-fire.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Confirmation of the existence of Paradise and Hell.

    2. That a person will be judged upon his last act in this world.

    3. Whoever died believing in the Oneness of Allah (swt ), will not dwell forever in the Hell-fire, but will find his eternal abode in Paradise.

    4. Whoever died as a Mushrik must dwell eternally in the Hell-fire.

    Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever died as a Mushrik will enter the Fire, and the knowledge of this obliges us to fear Shirk in all its manifestations.



    Footnotes

    1. Mushrik: One who commits Shirk.
    2. Khawaarij: A deviant sect, who claimed that committing major sins takes a person out of the fold of Islam.
    3. Mu'tazilah: A deviant sect, who denied the Divine Attributes of Allah (swt), and claimed that those who committed major sins would dwell eternally in the Hell-fire.
    4. Narrated by Imam Ahmad.
    5. It is reported on the authority of 'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr (ra) that Allah's Messenger (saas) said: "...verily, he whose abode will be Paradise, his final deed will be of the deeds of the people of Paradise, whatever he did (previously), and verily, he who is destined for the Hell-fire, his final deed will be of the deeds of the people of the Hell-fire, whatever he did (previously)." (Narrated by Ahmad and At-Tirmizi, who said it is hasan-saheeh-ghareeb i.e. somewhere between the classifications of saheeh (authentic) and hasan (good), though narrated at some point(s) in its sanad by only one narrator.

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  7. #5
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    The Call to Testify That None is Worthy of Worship Except Allah

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " Say (O Muhammad) : "This is my way; I invite unto Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. And Glorified and Exalted is Allah. And I am not of the Mushrikin." (Qur'an 12:108)

    Allah (swt ) commands His Prophet (saas ) in this verse to teach the people and make clear to them his Religion and his Sunnah and his way of life and that of those who follow the call to Allah's Religion, and practice Tawheed, and that by so doing, he and those who obey him and believe in him are following Divine Guidance and acting upon knowledge and clear evidence; and they exalt their Lord and glorify Him above any association of partners, in His Lordship, in worship and in His Divine Names and Attributes; and he (swt ) is innocent of the polytheists and their Shirk.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The obligation of sincerity and purity of faith, when calling to (the worship of) Allah.

    2. The call should be based upon a foundation of truth and evidence.

    3. The obligation to stay free from Shirk and its followers.

    4. That deeds are not accepted unless they are in conformity with that which was brought by the Messenger of Allah.

    5. The obligation to exalt Allah above all that is not becoming His Majesty.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that the way of the Prophet (saas ) and those who follow him is to call the people to the religion of Allah (swt ), and this embodies the testimony that none is worthy of worship except Allah (swt ).

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Abbas (ra ) that Allah's Messenger (saas ) said when he sent Mu`aaz (ra ) to Yemen: "You are going to a people who are from the People of the Book: So the first thing to which you call them should be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah (swt )." - And in another narration: "that they testify to the Oneness of Allah (swt )." - "And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allah (swt ) has made compulsory upon them five prayers every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allah (swt ) has made incumbent upon them a charity (Zakah) which is to be taken from the rich among them and given to their poor. And if they obey you in that then be careful not to take the best of their wealth (as Zakah), and be careful of the supplication of those who have suffered injustice, for there is no obstacle between it and Allah (swt ). (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)

    The Prophet (saas ) sent Mu`aaz Ibn Jabal (ra ) as his representative to Yemen, and he advised him of what was required of him there, beginning with the call to worship Allah (swt ), Alone, without partners, and that if they accepted that then he must inform them of the greatest obligations upon them after Tawheed, which are: prayer and Zakah; and that if they obeyed this, then it is incumbent upon him to maintain justice with them, and not to wrong them or cause suffering to them by taking the best of their property as Zakah, for that would constitute an injustice to them and might provoke them and cause them to invoke Allah (swt ) upon him - and the invocation of the oppressed and the wronged is never rejected by Allah (swt ).

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That the first thing to which the Du'ah1 must call is Tawheed - the Oneness of Allah (swt ).

    2. The obligation to call to Allah (swt ) with wisdom, step-by-step, beginning with the most important, then the next most important, and so on.

    3. The obligation of observing five daily prayers.

    4. That witr prayer 2 is not obligatory.

    5. The obligation upon those who have more than they need to fulfill their basic every-day needs to pay Zakah.

    6. That Zakah is not paid to the unbeliever.3

    7. That the fuqaraah` are legitimate recipients of Zakah.

    8. The permissibility of paying Zakah to one category of recipients from amongst the permitted categories.

    9. That it is not permissible to pay Zakah outside the country unless there is no one in need of Zakah within it.

    10. It is not permissible to pay Zakah to the wealthy.

    11. The forbiddance of taking Zakah from the best of the people's wealth.

    12. The forbiddance of any kind of injustice.

    13. That the invocation of the wronged is answered.

    Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that the first thing with which the da'iyah must begin his message is the call to testify that none is worthy of worship except Allah (swt ).

    Important Note

    (a) Although they are two of the five pillars of Islam, fasting and Hajj have not been mentioned in this Hadith; this is because at the time Allah's Prophet (saas ) made this statement, those pillars which had been made obligatory upon the Muslims were Tawheed and belief in the Messengership of Muhammad (saas ), prayer and Zakah - all of which were made incumbent from the beginning of Islam, while the time of fasting and Hajj had not come.

    (b) It is mentioned in this Hadith the obligation to be careful of the supplication of those who have been wronged, because there is no obstacle between it and Allah (swt ), and Allah (swt ) has said in Qur'an:

    " Is not He [better than your gods] Who responds to the distressed one when he calls Him?" (Qur'an 27:62)

    And it is mentioned in another Hadith that the answer to the one who calls upon Allah (swt ) is of three types:

    (i)That it is answered quickly,
    (ii) that some of his sins will be blotted out in accordance with the measure of the supplication, or
    (iii) that it will be stored up for him on the Day of Resurrection.4

    We may reconcile this Hadith with the above narration by saying that the latter concerns the one who is not oppressed or distressed, while the former concerns the supplication of one who suffers oppression or distress for it is answered even if after some time, and Allah (swt ) alleviates his distress and bestows His Mercy upon him.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of S'ad Ibn Sahl that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said on the Day of (the Battle of) Khaibar: "Tomorrow I shall indeed give the flag to someone who loves Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ) and is loved by Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ): Allah (swt ) will grant victory under his leadership. The people spent the night absorbed in discussing who might be given the flag. In the morning, they came eagerly to Allah's Messenger (saas ), each of them hoping to be given the flag. Allah's Messenger (saas ) asked: "Where is `Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra )?" They replied: "He is suffering from an eye ailment." He was sent for and brought to the Prophet (saas ) who spat in his eyes and prayed for him whereupon he was cured as if he had not been in pain before. Allah's Messenger (saas ) then gave him the flag and said: "Advance with ease and gentleness until you arrive in their midst, then call them to Islam and inform them of their duties to Allah (swt ) in Islam. By Allah (swt )! If He may guide through you a single man to Islam, it would be better for you than red camels."

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence of the virtue of `Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra ).

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Love.

    3. Evidence of the Prophet's miracle.

    4. The love of the Companions for all that is good.

    5. The questioning of the Imam about the individual members of his congregation and his concern for their welfare.

    6. The obligation of belief in Divine Ordainment and Predestination, as shown by the Companions when the flag was given to the one who did not ask for it.

    7. The obligation of the leader to behave in a good manner, with gentleness, but with firmness.

    8. The obligation to begin with the call to Islam before engaging in battle for the benefit of those who have not heard the message.

    9. The testimony of belief in the Oneness of Allah (swt ) and the Messengership of His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) is not sufficient unless accompanied by deeds.

    10. The permissibility of swearing in Allah's name concerning one's pronouncements as a means of emphasis.

    11. The permissibility of invoking Allah's name without calling upon Him for a definite purpose.

    12. The virtue of calling people to Allah (swt ) and of teaching.

    Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that the first thing with which the caller to Islam should begin and the first pillar of Islam is the Shahaadatan.5

    Important Note

    The position of the Imam with regard to the disbelievers, if they are from the People of the Book, is that he gives them three choices in this order:
    (i) To embrace Islam,
    (ii) to pay the jizyah or
    (iii) to fight.

    As for the idol-worshipers, their choices are but two:
    (i) To embrace Islam or
    (ii) to fight.6


    Footnotes

    1. Du'ah: Plural of da'iyah (caller to Islam).
    2. Witr prayer: Literally, odd prayer; so called because it consists of an odd number of raka'ahs (units) - one, three five etc. - it is performed any time after'ishaa` prayer, until fajr. Having said that it is not obligatory, it is strongly recommended, for the Prophet (saas) never abandoned it, even when travelling.
    3. ...unless he is one of those whose heart is inclined to Islam, for Allah (swt), says: (Qur'an 9:60)
    4. Narrated by At-Tirmizi.
    5. The Shahaadatan: The two testimonies (i) that none is worthy of worship but Allah (swt) and (ii) that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (saas).
    6. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (saas) said: "I was ordered to fight the people until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allah (swt)." (Narrated by Bukhari) and it is reported that the Prophet (saas) wrote to Munzir Ibn Sawaa, who was the leader of the people of Hajr: "As for the Arabs do not accept anything from them except Islam or (to be killed by) the sword, and as for the People of the Book and the Majiians, accept from them the jizyah." (Narrated by Al-Kalbi)

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Explanation of the Meaning of Tawheed and the Testimony: Laa ilaaha illallaah 1

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Those whom they supplicate [created beings, such as Prophets, pious men, or angels], desiring means of access to their Rabb, as to which of them should be the nearest - they [the Prophets pious men etc.] hope for His Mercy and fear His punishment: Verily, the punishment of their Rabb is fearful" (Qur'an 57:17)

    Allah (swt ) informs us in this verse that those whom the polytheists worship besides Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, such as the angels and the pious people, themselves try to get nearer to Allah (swt ) by obedience to Him, worshipping Him and carrying out His Commands, hoping for His Mercy; and they abstain from those things which He has prohibited, in fear of His punishment because every true Believer fears and dreads His punishment.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The falseness of the worship of deities other than Allah, by the polytheists, since their objects of worship themselves seek nearness to Allah and hope for His Mercy and fear His punishment.

    2. The piety of those who are worshipped does not validate the act of worshipping them.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mercy.


    The true Believer approaches Allah in a state between fear and hope, except at the time when death approaches, then hope becomes stronger.

    Relevance of the Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed and the testimony Laa ilaaha illallah is the abandonment of the deeds of the polytheists such as calling upon the Prophets and the Righteous and requesting their intercession with Allah (swt ); and the verbal recitation of the testimony is not sufficient if the worship of all deities besides Allah (swt ) is not rejected.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And [remember] when Ibraheem said to his father and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, except Him Who originated me, and He will certainly guide me" (Qur'an 43:26-27)

    Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse, that His Messenger and Khaleel2, Ibraheem (as ) told his father - Aazar - and his people that he was totally blameless and guiltless of all of their deities except One: Allah (swt ), Who created him, and Who, Alone Can Grant him success, and by Whose Hand he may be benefitted or harmed.

    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. That the basis of the Religion taught by all the Prophets was one: Tawheed.

    2. That speaking out in the cause of Truth is an essential attribute of all Messengers.

    3. The obligation to condemn that which is detestable, even though it may be found in one's close relatives.

    4. The obligation to declare oneself free (in word and deed) from the wickedness of Shirk.

    5. Evidence that Ibraheem's people used to worship Allah, but associated partners with Him.

    6. That the Guidance of Success comes only from Allah.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verses prove that a person's Tawheed is not correct if he does not declare (by word and deed) his innocence of the worship of any deity besides Allah.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " They have taken their Ahbaar3 and their Ruhbaan4 to be Rabbs beside Allah, and the Messiah, the son of Maryam, though they were not commanded but to worship One God: There is none worthy of worship but He, glorified be He: [Far is He] above that which they associate [with Him]" (Qur'an 9:31)

    Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse that the Jews and Christians have gone astray from the Straight Path, and have done what they were never commanded to do: They raised their scholars and men of religion to the status of gods, worshipping them beside Allah (swt ); this, by obeying them, when they declared that which Allah (swt ) has forbidden to be permissible, and when they declared what Allah (swt ) has permitted to be forbidden, thus elevating them to the level of Rabb, since only the Rabb, Most High ordains what is permissible and what is forbidden. Indeed, the Christians, not content with this, began to worship Eisa (as ), and considered him a son of Allah, though they were not ordered in the Tauraa and the Injeel except to worship Allah (swt ), Alone: Far above that which they attribute to Him is He, the Rabb of the worlds.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That obedience to other than Allah, in contradiction to Allah's Commands constitutes Shirk.

    2. It is forbidden to obey one of Allah's creatures, if in so doing, one is disobedient to the Creator.

    3. Deeds will not be considered righteous unless two conditions are met: (i) That the deeds are done purely for Allah, and (ii) that they conform to the teachings of the Messengers.

    4. That the scholars of religion are not infallible.

    5. Evidence that the Jews and Christians have gone astray from the correct precepts of their Religion: i.e. Tawheed.

    6. The danger of misguided scholars to the Ummah.5

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed, and the testimony: Laa ilaaha illallaah entail confirming the Oneness of Allah by obedience to Him and to His Messenger, because whoever obeyed the Messenger has obeyed Allah.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And amongst mankind are those who take [for worship] others besides Allah, as equals [with Allah]: They love them as they should love Allah. And those who believe love Allah more [than anything else]. If only the wrongdoers could see, behold, they would see the punishment: That to Allah belongs all power, and Allah is Stern in punishment" (Qur'an 2:165)

    Allah (swt ), informs us in this verse that some of mankind set up for themselves deities which they love more than they love Allah (swt ), then He, Most Glorified explains that the Believers are stronger in their love for Allah (swt ) than the polytheists because the Believers are pure and sincere in their love of Allah (swt ), Alone, while the polytheists divide their love between Allah (swt ) and their false gods; and whoever was sincere in loving Allah (swt ), Alone, his love would be stronger than that of the polytheist who divides his love. Then Allah (swt ), Most Glorified promises those who associate partners with Him that when they see the punishment which He has prepared especially for them on the Day of Resurrection, they will wish that they had not associated others with Allah (swt ), either in love, or in anything else. Then they shall know, with certain knowledge that all power belongs to Allah (swt ), and that Allah is Stern in enforcing His punishment.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That love is a kind of worship.

    2. Confirmation that the polytheists love Allah, but this will not benefit them so long as they are guilty of Shirk.

    3. The negation of faith of those who commit Shirk by loving other deities besides Allah.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of all-embracing Power.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed and the testimony: Laa ilaaha illallaah is to confirm the Oneness of Allah in a foundation of love which entails purity and sincerity in all acts of worship for Allah, Alone.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is authentically reported that the Prophet (saas ) said:

    "Whoever said: "Laa ilaaha illallaah," and rejected all that is worshipped besides Allah (swt ), (know that) Allah (swt ) has forbidden the taking of his property and the spilling of his blood; and his account will be for Allah, the Almighty, the All-powerful." 6


    Whoever said: "Laa ilaaha illallaah," pronouncing it, understanding its meaning and acting upon all that it entails, and rejected all that is worshipped besides Allah (swt ) (i.e. by his heart, his tongue and his actions), it is forbidden for the Muslims to take his property (except what the Law requires such as the payment of zakah), or to take his life, except as the Law requires (such as the punishment for adultery after chastity, or disbelief after belief or for murder); and his account will be for Allah (swt ): That is, He will take charge of his account on the Day of Resurrection, and if he was truthful in his testimony, He will reward him, but if he was insincere in his testimony, He will punish him.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The virtue of Islam which protects the life and property of whosoever embraces it.

    2. The obligation to desist from enmity towards the disbeliever, should he embrace Islam, even though he should do so during a battle until and unless it should be proved that his testimony was false.

    3. That a person might say: "Laa ilaaha illallaah, without rejecting that which is worshipped besides Him."

    4. That the conditions of acceptance of faith include pronouncing the shahaadah: Laa ilaaha illallaah, and rejecting all that is worshipped besides Him.

    5. That judgement in this world is based on appearances.

    6. The forbiddance of appropriating the property of the Muslim unless it is ordained by Islamic Law, such as zakah, or a legally imposed fine in compensation for that which he has destroyed (be it property or a life).

    Relevance of the Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the meaning of Tawheed and the explanation of the shahaadah: Laa ilaaha illallaah are not complete without a categorical rejection of all that is worshipped besides Allah (swt ).

    Important Note

    The disbelieving polytheist has only two choices: (i) To embrace Islam or (ii) to be fought; but the People of the Book have three choices: (i) To embrace Islam, (ii) to pay the jizyah, or (iii) to fight (in that order).



    Footnotes

    1. Laa ilaaha Iilallah: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah (swt).
    2. Khaleel: Friend; Ibraheem u is referred to by Allah (swt) as: Khaleelullaah, i.e. The Beloved of Allah (swt). The common translation of Khaleelullaah as the Friend of Allah (swt), is far from doing justice to this illustrious title, for according to scholars of Arabic language, the word khalla, from which the word khaleel is derived indicates a greater degree of love than is conveyed by the word friend.
    3. Ahbar: (sing.= Habr) Religious scholars, according to At-Tabari.
    4. Ruhban: (sing.= Rahib) Reciters of Scriptures and scholars of Religious Jurisprudence, according to At-Tabari.
    5. Ummah: Community, i.e. the Muslim Community.
    6. Narrated by Muslim.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    It is an Act of Shirk to Wear Rings or Threads or the Like as a Means of Prevention or Lifting of Afflictions

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Say: "Tell me then, the things that you invoke besides Allah - if Allah intended some harm to me, could they remove His harm, or if He intended some mercy for me, could they withhold His Mercy?" Say: "Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust [the true Believers] must put their trust."" (Qur'an 39:38)

    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High commands His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) to reject those powerless, graven images worshipped by the polytheists, which can neither remove any harm which might befall a person by Allah's Decree, nor prevent any sustenance or blessings which might come to a person from Him. Then He commands him to place his trust in Allah (swt ), for He is Sufficient to bring benefit or prevent harm for all who sincerely depend upon Him.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The obligation to reject the abominable.

    2. The falseness of idol-worship.

    3. That the removal of harm and the bringing of benefits is only from Allah.

    4. The obligation to trust in Allah and depend upon Him, free from dependence upon any other, and this does not conflict with the requirement to take whatever legal measures one can in order to achieve one's objectives.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that protection from harm is only from Allah (swt ), and so entrusting oneself to any other protector - such as rings, threads etc. is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Umran Ibn Husain (ra ), that Allah's Messenger (saas ) saw a man with a brass ring in his hand, and he asked him: "What is this?" He replied: "It is for protection from al-waahinah."1 The Prophet (saas ) answered:

    "Remove it at once, for verily, it will not increase you except in weakness, and were you to die whilst wearing it, you would never be successful." (Narrated by Ahmad, with an acceptable Sanad)

    Umran Ibn Husain (ra ) informs us in this Hadith that the Prophet (saas ) saw a man with a brass ring in his hand, and he asked him for what purpose he was wearing it. The man answered that he was wearing it to protect him from illness, at which the Prophet (saas ) ordered him to remove it and informed him that it would only cause him to become weak and not protect him from illness at all, and that should he die while wearing it and believing in its power to protect him, he would not succeed in the Hereafter, nor would he know eternal bliss.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The permissibility of requesting detailed information by the Mufti. 2

    2. The importance of intentions.

    3. That the method of reproof and rejection may differ according to the individual concerned, so if there is a likelihood that words of wisdom will suffice, force should not be resorted to.

    4. Evidence of the ignorance of the polytheists before Islam.

    5. Forbiddance of seeking a cure by the use of that which is prohibited.

    6. That the prohibited is of no benefit at all: Even though it may help to some degree, the harm it causes is greater.

    7. The ignorant man is not excused from the obligation to seek knowledge.

    8. That it is by a person's last actions that he will be judged on the Day of Resurrection.3

    Important Note

    a) This Hadith does not contradict the Hadith of `Ali Ibn Al-Husain, which is allegedly from the Prophet (saas ), and which states: "Plough (the earth) well, for verily, ploughing is a blessed task. And sow many seeds." This is because the Hadith of `Ali Ibn Al-Husain is mursal 4 - one of the mursal narration of Abu Dawood, and Abu Dawood has not vouched for the authenticity of his mursal narration. But even were it authentic, the reference is to seeds ( جماجم ), according to a large number of scholars, i.e. taking the required precautions to ensure the success of one's endeavours such as planting many seeds to ensure a good crop or using permitted medicines to alleviate illness, not to some supposed treatment for fever, which involved the laying of hands on the skull5 of the patient. Taking such precautions is not to be compared to resorting to the forbidden in order to achieve one's goals.

    b) The enquiry made by the Prophet (saas ) might be construed as a rhetorical one, indicating disapproval, and it could also be understood to be a genuine request for more information.

    c) Some of the scholars have said that wearing a ring or such like in order to protect oneself against harm is an act of minor Shirk, but what is understood from the Hadith of Umran is that it constitutes major Shirk because it is mentioned in the Hadith that to die while doing so would result in failure to achieve everlasting bliss in the Hereafter. It could be that the definition depends upon the beliefs and intentions of the perpetrator if he believed that it could cure him of itself, without Allah's Help, then it would be major Shirk; while if he believed it be a cause of the cure, while Allah (swt ) is the One Who grants health, then it would be considered to be minor Shirk - and Allah (swt ) knows best.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation to reject the wearing of rings, bangles, chains etc. as a means of protection against harm, because bringing good and avoiding harm are the prerogative of Allah (swt ), Alone, and seeking such help from other than Allah (swt ) means associating partners with Him.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is also reported by Ahmad on the authority of `Uqbah Ibn A`mir (ra ) in a marfoo' 6 form: "Whoever wore a tamemah, 7 Allah (swt ) will never see his wishes fulfilled, and whoever wears a wada'ah 8 Allah will never grant him peace and tranquility." - and in another narration of Ahmad: "Whoever wears a tamemah has committed an act of Shirk."

    `Uqbah Ibn A`mir (ra ) informs us in this Hadith that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) supplicated against every person who wears a talisman or a seashell, believing that it will benefit him without Allah (swt ), that Allah (swt ) will not allow him to achieve any of his goals nor fulfill his wishes or dreams; rather, He will prevent him from ever finding security and tranquility; and he also informed us that any such action is false; indeed, in another narration, he (swt ) informed us that the tamemah is a form of Shirk because its perpetrator believes that it will benefit him without Allah (swt ).

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Denial of any benefit to the one who believes in the use of tamemah or wada'ah.

    2. The permissibility of making supplication against the disobedient ones in general.

    3. That some of the Companions were ignorant to this extent, so what of those who came after them?

    4. That the tamemah is a kind of Shirk.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that wearing an amulet or talisman, believing that it can benefit one is an act of Shirk because benefits come only from Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Ibn Abi Hatim, on the authority of Huzaifah (ra ) that he saw a man with a thread in his hand to protect him from fever; he broke it and recited the Words of Allah (ra ), Most High:

    " And most of them do not believe in Allah, except that they associate partners with Him" (Qur'an 12:106)

    Huzaifah (ra ) visited a sick man and found him wearing a thread on his wrist; and when he asked the man what was the purpose of it, he told him that it was a protection from fever, at which Huzaifah (ra ) broke it declaring it to be Shirk; and as proof of this, he recited the Words of Allah (swt ), Most High: " And most of them do not believe in Allah, except that they associate partners with Him" - and the meaning of this verse is that many people believe in Allah (swt ), but adulterate their belief with Shirk.

    Benefits Derived From This Narration

    1. Forbidding the detestable by one's own hand, even though the perpetrator may object.

    2. That the use of threads and the like to protect from harm is an act of Shirk.

    3. The obligation to reject the detestable.

    4. The deep understanding of the Companions, and the breadth of their knowledge.

    5. That Shirk is present amongst the people of this Ummah.

    6. That the heart of a person may contain faith and Shirk at the same time.

    Relevance of This Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the use of threads as protection from harm is an act of Shirk, because protection from harm comes only from Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful.


    Footnotes

    1. Al-waahinah: rheumatism.
    2. Mufti: An Islamic scholar, who is qualified to deliver formal legal verdicts, based on the Qur'an and Sunnah.
    3. See footnote no. 33.
    4. Mursal: An incomplete chain of narrators, not reaching to the Prophet (saas).
    5. The Arabic word for skulls is also ( ????? ) - jamaajim.
    6. Marfoo': With a sanad reaching to the Prophet (saas).
    7. Tamemah: Talisman or amulet.
    8. Wada'ah: A sea-shell resembling an oyster shell.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said About the Use of Ar-Ruqi 1 and At-Tamaa`im 2

    It is authentically reported on the authority of Abu Basheer Al- Ansari (ra ) that he was with the Messenger of Allah (saas ) on one of his journeys when he sent a messenger to tell the people: "Let not any necklace of bowstring, or any other kind of necklace remain on the necks of your camels, except that it is cut off."3

    Abu Basheer Al-Ansari (ra ) informs us that he accompanied the Messenger of Allah (saas ) on a journey and he sent a messenger - Zaid Ibn Harithah (ra ) - to order the people to cut the bowstrings from around the necks of their camels; this was because the people in the days of ignorance used to believe that it was a protection against al-'ain.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The obligation to reject the detestable.

    2. The acceptability of information from one reliable person.

    3. The falseness of the belief in the benefit supposedly derived from necklaces, whatever their kind.

    4. That the representative of the leader may act on his behalf in matters entrusted to him.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the forbiddance of wearing necklaces in order to protect against harm.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that such actions are a form of Shirk because protection from harm comes only from Allah (swt ).

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ) that he said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (saas ) say

    That ar-ruqi, at-tamaa`im and at- tiwalah 4 are all forms of Shirk. (Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Dawood)

    Important Note

    Ar-ruqi is permissible if it meets three conditions:

    i) That it contains the Words of Allah (swt ) or mention of His Names and Attributes, or a supplication to Allah (swt ), or a request for His Aid.

    ii) That it is in Arabic and its meaning is clearly understood.

    iii) That it is not believed that the incantation can, of itself bring about any positive result, but that the benefit comes by the Command of Allah (swt ) and His Divine Pre-ordination.

    Ibn Mas`ood (ra ) informs us that the Prophet (saas ) said that ar-ruqi (which means spells and incantations), at-tamaa`im (which are made from beads and such like and are hung around the necks of children), and at-tiwalah (which is a spell made to cause a husband to love his wife, or a wife to love her husband) are all forms of Shirk.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That ar-ruqi are forbidden and are a form of Shirk, except what has been permitted by the Law.

    2. That at-tamaa`im are forbidden and are a form of Shirk.

    3. The forbiddance of at-tiwalah, which is also a form of Shirk.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter and to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that ar-ruqi, at-tamaa`im and at-tiwalah are all forms of Shirk.

    Important Note

    Scholars have disagreed concerning at-tamemah, if it is from the Qur'an: Some have forbidden it, inferring a general prohibition from this Hadith, while others have permitted it, comparing it to ar-ruqiyah, which may be from the Qur'an and is permissible; but the first saying is more correct, and Allah (swt ) knows best.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of `Abdullah Ibn `Ukaim (ra ) in a marfoo' form: "Whoever wore something 5 (around his neck) will be put in its charge." (Narrated by Ahmad and At-Tirmizi)

    `Abdullah Ibn `Ukaim (ra ) tells us that the Prophet (saas ) informed him that whoever needed something, he should entrust his affair to Allah (swt ), and that whoever depended upon Allah (swt ), Alone to fulfill his needs, Allah (swt ) will relieve his distress and make his affairs easy, but whoever depended upon something other than Allah (swt ), and entrusted his affairs to it, will be left in its charge, i.e. he will have no help from Allah (swt ), because it is only by the Hand of Allah (swt ) that goodness is achieved, and none but He can benefit.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The obligation to depend upon Allah (swt ), Alone; and this does not contradict the obligation to undertake all possible, permissible measures to ensure success.

    2. That whoever sought benefit from other than Allah (swt ) will be abandoned.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the forbiddance of seeking benefit from other than Allah (swt ).

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that whoever depended upon other than Allah (swt ) to bring benefit or protection from harm to him will be abandoned, because granting benefit and protecting from harm are the prerogative of Allah (swt ), and seeking such things from others is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Ahmad, on the authority of Ruwaifa' (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) said to me: "Oh, Ruwaifa'! It is probable that your life will be a long one, so inform the people that whoever tied his beard, or wore a bowstring, or cleaned his privates using animal dung or a bone (should know that) Muhammad is innocent of him."

    Ruwaifa' (ra ) tells us in this Hadith that the Prophet (saas ) informed him that he would live a long life, and therefore it was incumbent upon him to tell the people in future that he, Muhammad (saas ) was free from blame in the case of anyone who tied his beard, or hung a bowstring around his neck or around the neck of his riding beast in order to be protected from al-'ain, or cleaned his private parts after relieving himself with animal dung or a bone.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The miracle of the Prophet (saas ), in knowing that Ruwaifa' (ra ) would live a long life.

    2. The acceptance of information from a single, reliable source.

    3. The forbiddance of tying the beard - though, according to some scholars, this means during prayer, and Allah (swt ) knows best.

    4. The forbiddance of tying a bowstring around one's neck, or the neck of a riding beast.

    5. The forbiddance of cleaning one's privates using animal dung or a bone, because the first is a food for other creatures and the second is a food for the jinn.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that it is forbidden to wear a bowstring in order to protect oneself.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Prophet (saas ) declared himself blameless in the case of anyone who wore a bowstring as a means of protection, because bestowing benefit and granting protection from harm come from Allah (swt ), Alone, and so whoever asked them from other than Allah (swt ) has committed an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Sa'eed Ibn Jubair (ra ) that he said: "Whoever cut (and removed) a tamemah from a person, it will be for him as if he had freed a slave." (Narrated by Wakee')

    Also from Wakee', on the authority of Ibraheem An-Nakha'i, is that he said: "They (the Companions) used to hate at-tamaa`im and they used to remove them (wherever they found them) - whether they were from the Qur'an or from other sources."

    In the first narration, Sa'eed Ibn Jubair (ra ) informs us that whoever removed an amulet or talisman from a person will have a reward equivalent to the one who freed a slave, because he would by doing so, free that person from the Fire, and from following vain desires and Shirk.

    As for the second narration, the reporter informs us that the Companions of the Prophet (saas ) used to hate, i.e. forbid the wearing of talismans and amulets and ordered their removal, whether they were from the Qur'an or not.

    Benefits Derived From the Two Narration

    1. The virtue of rejecting the forbidden.

    2. The forbiddance of talismans and amulets.

    3. The virtue of freeing a slave.

    4. The Companions' prohibition of at-tamaa'im - whether they contained verses from the Qur'an or anything else.

    Relevance of the Narration to the Subject of the Chapter

    That both of them prove the prohibition of wearing amulets or talismans, whether they contain Qur'anic verses or not.

    Relevance of the Narrations to the Subject of Tawheed

    That they prove the forbiddance of wearing amulets and talismans as a protection against harm, because protection from harm comes from Allah (swt ), Alone, and seeking it from other than Him is an act of Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. Ar-Ruqi: (sing = ruqiyah) Incantations, magic spells.
    2. At-Tamaa`im: (sing. = tameemah) Placing an amulet around the neck to protect the wearer from the effects of al-'ain.
    3. Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.
    4. At-Tiwalah: Bewitchment, in order to make a person fall in love with another.
    5. i.e. a talisman or an amulet.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Whoever Seeks Blessing From a Tree, Stone, or Any Such Thing

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Have you seen Al-Laat and Al-`Uzzaa? and another, the third, Manaat? What! Is the male sex for you and the female for Him? That would indeed be a most unfair division!" (Qur'an 53:19-22)

    Allah (swt ), Most High, reviles all idol-worshipping polytheists in general and in particular, those who worship the three idols: Al-Laat,1 the idol of the people of Taa'if,2 Al-'Uzza,3 worshipped by the people of Waadi Nakhlah, and Manaat,4 the idol of the people of Al-Mushallal, near Al-Qadeed,5 and He challenges them concerning these idols: Can they benefit them in any way, by bringing good or protecting from harm? Or are they simply names which they have given themselves, not sanctioned by Allah (swt )? Allah (swt ) also reviles their unfair division: That they appoint those whom they despise, especially the weak females, as children for Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, while they prefer for themselves sons, embodying the characteristics of manliness, strength and power.

    That being the case, if this is injustice to women, then how about Allah (swt )? Allah (swt ) is far above that which they attribute to Him from sons and daughters.

    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. The obligation to reject the forbidden.

    2. The falseness of idol-worship.

    3. The obligation to reject the attribution of sons and daughters to Allah.

    4. The corruption of the fitrah6 in the polytheists, who attributed daughters to Allah, even though they despise them for themselves; and they claimed that their idol-worship was only to bring them closer to Allah.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

    That they prove that the worship of these idols by the polytheists was a means of seeking protection from harm; and anyone who seeks blessing from a tree, a grave or worships any other created thing seeking benefit or protection from harm is imitating them and commits an act of Shirk like them.

    Important Note

    It has been said concerning Al-Laat that he was a pious man who used to prepare saweeq7 for the pilgrims to Makkah, and that when he died, they began to worship at the site of his grave.

    It was also said that it was a name given to a carved stone; and in reconciling these two statements, we may say that the carved stone was near to the grave (which is often marked with a stone), and the edifice erected covered both of them, thus making them into one object of worship.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Waqid Al-Laithi (ra ) that he said: "We were travelling with the Prophet (saas ) to Hunain, when we had only recently abandoned disbelief and the polytheists had a lotus-tree at which they used to worship and upon which they used to hang their weapons. They called it: Zaatu Anwaat. So we said to Allah's Messenger (saas ):

    "Make for us a Zaatu Anwaat like theirs," at which the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said: "Allaahu Akbar! Verily, that which you have said - by Him in Whose Hand is my soul - is the same as was said by the Children of Israel to Moosa: "Make for us a god such as the gods which they (the polytheist Egyptians) have." Then he (saas ) said: "Verily, you are an ignorant people who will follow the way of those who were before you."
    (Narrated by At-Tirmizi, who declared it authentic)

    Abu Waaqid Al-Laithi (ra ) informs us in this Hadith that he accompanied the Prophet (saas ) on a journey to the Battle of Hunain, and that they (the Companions) knew that the polytheists had a lotus-tree from which they used to seek blessings and at which they would remain to worship; and because of the fact that they were new to Islam, and because they did not fully realize its goals (i.e. to call people to worship Allah swt , Alone), they asked the Prophet (saas ) to designate a tree like it for them that they might also seek blessings from it and worship in its vicinity like the pagans. At this, the Prophet (saas ) exclaimed, in vexation: "Allaahu Akbar!", 8 then he explained to them that such ignorance was the same as that displayed by the people of Moosa (as ) who asked him to make for them an idol like those of the pagan Egyptians which they might worship and this was after Allah (swt ) had saved them from Fir'aoun9 and his people. Then he informed them that this Ummah will do as the Jews and Christians do in everything, including Shirk.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The virtue of making clear that which would refute the charge of back-biting, by saying: "...when we had recently abandoned disbelief..."

    2. The difficulty man experiences in removing ingrained habits.

    3. That devotion (i'tikaaf) to a particular place is an act of worship.

    4. That the ignorant person is excused by virtue of his ignorance so long as he ceases his mistake once knowledge comes to him.

    5. The prohibition of imitating the ignorant people such as the polytheists and others.

    6. The permissibility of saying: "Allaahu Akbar!" when one is surprised.

    7. The obligation to close off all possible routes leading to Shirk.

    8. That Shirk will occur in this Ummah.


    9.The permissibility of invoking Allah's Name, when delivering a legal verdict.

    10. The permissibility of swearing without the intention of making an oath for good reason.

    11. That this Ummah will do all that the Jews and Christians do.

    12. That all the evil deeds done by the Jews and Christians should serve as a warning to us.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that taking trees as a source of blessing, and carrying out devotions in their vicinity is Shirk and it includes every tree, stone or other object of worship from which blessings are invoked.

    Important Note

    It has become very common nowadays for people to invoke blessings by the sweat of the righteous, or by touching them or their clothes or by their tahneek 10 of children, which they base upon the action of the Prophet (saas ); but this is unacceptable because this was something purely and solely for him (saas ), not a sunnah for all the Muslims. His Companions - who were the best of people in following him and implementing his Sunnah did not do so, either in his lifetime or after his death.



    Footnotes

    1. Al-Laat: Derived from the word: Al-Ilaah, which means: the Deity.
    2. Ta`if: A city in the mountains east of Makkah, in present-day Saudi Arabia.
    3. Al-'Uzzaa: Derived from the name: Al-'Azeez, which means the Almighty and said to be the name given to a tree in Waadi Nakhlah, which is on the road between Makkah and Ta`if. The pagans had erected a building over it, and covered it with curtains and a gate and it was worshipped by Quraish and the tribe of Banoo Kinaanah.
    4. Manaat: Derived from Al-Manaan, which means the Benefector, it was a structure in Al-Mushallal, near to the town of Al-Qadeed; it was worshipped by the tribes of Khazaa'ah, Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj, and they used to use it as a starting point when making pilgrimage to Makkah.
    5. Al-Qadeed: A town lying between Makkah and Madinah in present-day Saudi Arabia.
    6. Fitrah: The natural state in which we are born, i.e. believing in the Oneness of Allah (swt).
    7. Saweeq: A kind of porridge made from wheat or barley.
    8. Allaahu Akbar: Allah (swt) is Greater.
    9. Fir'aoun: Pharoah.
    10. Tahneek: Putting juice and saliva into the mouth of an infant: It is reported on the authority of 'Aa`ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that: "The first child born in the Islamic State (Madinah) amongst the Muhaajiroon (Emigrants) was 'Abdullah Ibn Az-Zubair. They brought him to the Prophet (saas). The Prophet (saas) took a date and after chewing it, put its juice in to his mouth. So the first thing that went into the child's stomach was the saliva of the Prophet (saas)." (Narrated by Bukhari)

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  13. #10
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What is Said Concerning Slaughter Dedicated to Other Than Allah

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Say: "Verily, my prayer, my slaughter, my life and my death are [all] for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner: This am I commanded, and I am the first of those who submit" (Qur'an 6:162-163)

    Allah (swt ), Most High, commands His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) to inform the polytheists who worship gods beside Allah (swt ) that his prayers - both obligatory and supererogatory - his slaughter of animals, everything which he does in his life, and the correct beliefs [in Islamic Monotheism] and righteous deeds upon which he will die are all purely for Allah (swt ), Alone, without partners, and that he was the first of this Ummah to submit himself to the Will of Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful.

    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. That prayer and slaughter are acts of worship.

    2. That all of the slave's righteous deeds in this life - if he did them seeking nearness to Allah will become acts of worship.

    3. That what counts in deeds is one's final actions.1

    4. That sincerity in dedicating one's deeds to Allah, Alone is a condition of their acceptance.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

    That they prove that the slaughtering of animals is not acceptable unless it is done in Allah's Name so that it becomes an act of worship, and dedicating acts of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Therefore pray to your Lord and slaughter [animals in His Name only]" (Qur'an 8:102)

    Allah (swt ) orders His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) to approach these two acts of worship with humility and urgency towards Allah (swt ), and trusting in Him and desiring to draw near to Him; and the first (prayer) is physical and the second (halaal slaughter)2 is financial.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The obligation to draw near to Allah.

    2. The obligation to draw near to Him by halaal slaughter - purely and solely for Him.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that drawing near to Allah (swt ) by slaughtering animals will not be achieved unless it is done purely and solely for Allah (swt ) - and to slaughter an animal in the name of other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    Important Note

    The narration quoted by some, in which `Ali (ra ) was said to have explained the Word of Allah (swt ) in this verse (Wanher) as meaning raising the hands in prayer is rejected by scholars of Hadith and none should follow it or depend upon it.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of `Ali (ra ) that he said: "Allah's Messenger (saas ) told me four things:

    "Allah (swt ) has cursed the one who slaughters in the name of other than Allah (swt ); Allah (swt ) has cursed the one who curses his parents; Allah (swt ) has cursed the one who protects and shelters the muhdith;3 Allah (swt ) has cursed the one who alters the land-marks. (Narrated by Muslim)

    `Ali (ra ) informs us that the Prophet (saas ) told him that Allah's curse is upon every person who attempts to get nearer to Allah (swt ) by slaughtering an animal in the name of other than Him, Most High, and also upon every person who curses his parents, either directly or by inciting others to do so, and upon every person who gives shelter to a criminal or malefactor, and upon every person who alters the landmarks or borders in order to unlawfully seize the land of his neighbour which does not belong to him.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of slaughtering an animal in other than Allah's Name.

    2. The forbiddance of cursing one's parents, either directly, or by inciting others to do so.

    3. The prohibition of aiding and abetting criminals.

    4. The forbiddance of changing borders in order to unlawfully acquire land or territory.

    5. The general permissibility of cursing the profligate.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the prohibition of slaughtering an animal in other than Allah's Name, because directing an act of worship to others beside Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported from Tariq Ibn Shihab (ra ) that the Prophet (saas ) said:

    "A man entered Paradise because of a fly, while another entered the Fire because of a fly." They asked: "How was that possible, oh, Messenger of Allah (saas )?" He replied: "Two men passed by a people who had an idol, which it was not permissible for anyone to pass without making a sacrifice to it. They (the people) said to the first man: "Sacrifice (something)." He said: "I have nothing with which to do so." They said: "Sacrifice some-thing, even if it were only a fly," and so he did so, and they allowed him to continue on his way and so he entered the Hell-fire. Then they said to the second man: "Sacrifice (something)." But he said: "I will not sacrifice anything unless it be to Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful," so they struck his neck (and he died) and entered Paradise." (Narrated by Ahmad)

    The Messenger of Allah (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that two men - possibly they were from the Children of Israel passed by a people who had an idol. They requested the two men to sacrifice something to it, even if it were only something small. The first of them sacrificed a fly, and because of this, he was thrown in the Hell-fire. The second, due to his strong faith and complete Tawheed, refused to do so and so they killed him and he entered Paradise.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The enormity of Shirk, even though it may be only slight.

    2. The existence of Paradise and Hell.

    3. That even among the idol-worshipers, the action of the heart is directed to a certain goal.

    4. The closeness of man to Paradise and Hell.

    5. The warning against sin, even though it may be considered a small sin.

    6. Evidence of the breadth of Allah's forgiveness and the severity of His punishment.

    7. That the most important deeds are the last ones we do in life. 4

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that it is forbidden to slaughter something as a sacrifice to other than Allah (swt ), for such an act of worship is Shirk.

    Important Note

    This Hadith does not contradict the Words of Him, Most High:

    " except he who is forced to do so, while his heart remains steadfast in faith" (Qur'an16:106)

    Because the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said (fa garrab): i.e. he attempted to draw closer to Allah (swt ) by sacrificing the fly, and this indicates his acceptance of the deed and it is this which caused him to enter the Hell-fire because his heart was inclined towards it and did not remain steadfast in faith.



    Footnotes

    1. See footnonte no. 33.
    2. Halaal slaughter: Slaughter in accordance with Islamic rites.
    3. Muhdith: A criminal or wrongdoer.
    4. See footnote no. 33.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Do Not Slaughter in the Name of Allah (swt ) in a Place Where Animals Are Slaughtered in the Name of Others Beside Him

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Do not ever stand [in prayer] therein. There is a mosque whose foundation was laid on piety from the first day. It is more worthy of your standing [for prayer] therein. In it are men who love to be purified; and Allah loves those who purify [themselves after answering the call of nature]" (Qur'an 9:108)

    Allah (swt ), Most High, forbids His Prophet (saas ) in this verse, from praying in the Mosque of Harm and Disbelief,1 which was the first mosque to be built on a foundation of wicked intentions; and He commands them (the Muslims) to pray in the mosque which was built from the first upon a foundation of obedience to Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas );2 then Allah (swt ) praises the people of that mosque and He tells us that they are meticulous in their cleanliness and ablutions; then He informs us that he loves those who purify themselves from all unclean things, especially when coming from the toilet, or after sexual intercourse, etc. And those who purify themselves from the spiritual `filth' of Shirk.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The prohibition of encouraging that which is false.

    2. The obligation to deny those deeds which are rejected and whose perpetrators are abandoned.

    3. The evidence of the danger of the hypocrites to this Ummah, and the obligation to warn against them.

    4. The superiority of The Prophet's Mosque and/or Qubaa` Mosque.

    5. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Love.

    6. That Islam encourages cleanliness and purity, both physical and spiritual.

    7. The forbiddance of praying in the Mosque of Harm and Disbelief or in the place where it stood, up to the Day of Resurrection.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that it is forbidden to carry out an act of obedience to Allah (swt ) and His Prophet (saas ) in a place used to carry out acts of disobedience to Allah (swt ) and His Messenger (saas ), and that includes slaughtering animals in a place where animals are slaughtered for others besides Allah (swt ).

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the prohibition of all things which might lead in the end to Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Thabit Ibn Adh-Dhahhak (saas ) that he said: "A man vowed to sacrifice a camel at a place called Buwanah, and he asked the Prophet (saas ) about it. He (saas ) said to him: "Does the place contain any of the idols from the time of the Jahiliyyah?"3 They said: "No." He (saas ) then asked: "Did the disbelievers hold any of their (religious) festivals there?" They replied: "No." So the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Then fulfill your vow, for verily, vows, which entail disobedience to Allah (swt ) or that which is beyond the capacity of the son of Adam should not be fulfilled." (Narrated by Abu Dawood, with a Sanad that meets the conditions of acceptance laid down by Bukhari and Muslim)

    Thabit Ibn Adh-Dhahak (ra ) informs us that a man made a vow to slaughter a female camel in a place called Buwanah, and so the Prophet (saas ) enquired as to whether it had been used as a place of worship for the idols of the Jahiliyyah or whether any of their pagan festivals had been celebrated there. When it was made clear to him that this was not the case, he ordered the man to fulfill his vow. In addition to this, he then gave a general ruling binding upon his Ummah until the Day of Ressurrection, prohibiting the fulfillment of vows made in disobedience to Allah (swt ) or which require of man what is beyond his capacity.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The obligation to fulfill one's vows so long as it does not entail disobedience to Allah (swt ) or some impossible act.

    2. The lawfulness of making inquiries on the part of the Mufti before delivering judgement.

    3. The prohibition of carrying out an act of obedience in a place where acts of disobedience are performed.

    4. The forbiddance of fulfilling vows which entail disobedience; instead, an act of recompense is required.4

    5. That a vow should not be taken to do something which is beyond man's ability.

    6. The permissibility of specifying a place or a time for the fulfillment of a vow.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the prohibition of carrying out an act of obedience to Allah (swt ) in a place where acts of disobedience to Him are performed, and this includes slaughtering animals in a place where animals are dedicated to others than Allah (swt ).

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves the forbiddance of performing an act which may lead in the end to Shirk.



    Footnotes

    1. This mosque known as Masjid Dhiraar, or, the Mosque of Harm and Disbelief, was built by the hypocrites of Madinah in an attempt to prove their allegiance to Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saas).
    2. It is commonly believed that the mosque referred to in this verse is Qubaa` Mosque, on the outskirts of Madinah, as this is the first mosque built by the Muslims after the Hijrah (Migration) of the Muslims from Makkah to Madinah. Ibn Katheer states that some, or a few (???) of the Salaf held this view, while he says that a number ( (????? held that it was the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah that was referred to in the verse. While there are some proofs for both views, those who held the latter view drew support from the Hadith reported by Muslim, Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shaibah and others, on the authority of Humaid Al-Kharraat, who said: " I heard Abu Salamah Ibn 'Abdul-Rahman say: "'Abdul-Rahman Ibn Abi Sa'eed Al-Khudri visited me, and I said to him: "What did you hear from your father, concerning the mosque which was built upon a foundation of piety?" He replied: "My father said: "I visited the Messenger of Allah (saas) in the house of one of his wives, and I said to him: "Oh, Messenger of Allah (saas)! Which of the two mosques is it that was built upon a foundation of piety?" The Prophet took a handful of stones and beat the earth with them, then he said: "It is this, your mosque, the Mosque of Madinah." He (Abu Salamah) then said: "I testify that I heard your father say likewise." Ibn Jareer At-Tabari agreed with this, while Ibn Katheer said that there was no contradiction in saying that both mosques were intended - and Allah (swt) knows best.
    3. Jahiliyyah: The time of ignorance and polytheism prior to Islam.
    4. It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas (ra) that the Prophet (saas) said: "If anyone takes a vow to do an act of disobedience, its atonement is the same as that for an oath." (Narrated by Abu Dawood) - and concerning the atonement for an oath, Allah (swt), Most High says: [Allah will not call you to account for your unintentional oaths, but He will hold you to account for your deliberate oaths: For expiation, feed ten poor persons, on a scale of what is average for the food of your families; or clothe them; or give a slave his freedom. If that is beyond your means, fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths you have sworn] (Qur'an 3:89)

  15. #12
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Vow to Another Besides Allah (swt ) is Shirk

    Allah (swt ), says:

    [ They perform their vows, and they fear a Day whose evil is spread far and wide] (Qur'an 76:7)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, praises His righteous slaves in this verse because they fulfill the vows which they have made incumbent upon themselves desiring nearness to Allah (swt ); and He makes clear to us their certainty of belief on the Day of Resurrection and their fear of Allah's severe chatisement, which will be delivered far and wide on that Day.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The obligation to fulfill one's vows so long as they do not constitute disobedience to Allah.

    2. That fear of the Day of Resurrection is one of the attributes of the Believers.

    3. Confirmation of the Resurrection of mankind on that Day.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse praises the fulfillment of vows, and Allah (swt ) does not praise except that which is obligatory or that which is strongly preferred, or refraining from the prohibited. This is why fulfillment of a vow is considered to be an act of worship, and dedicating an act of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    [ And whatever you spend in charity or whatever vow you make, be sure Allah knows it all. But the wrongdoers have no helpers] (Qur'an 2:270)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that whatsoever man gives in the way of charity and whatever vows he makes, seeking nearness to Allah (swt ), He knows it, even if the perpetrator were to keep it secret, and He will reward him for it. Then, Allah (swt ) warns the people against injustice in charity and in their vows and in all their deeds, and He (swt ) informs them that they will find none to help them or protect them should Allah (swt ) punish them for their sins.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Evidence of the breadth of Allah's (swt ) Knowledge and of the fact that it encompasses every single thing.

    2. That taking a vow is an act of worship.

    3. The prohibition of all types of injustice.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, has knowledge of each and every vow, and that He rewards the one who makes it, therefore fulfilling a vow is an act of worship and dedicating an act of worship to another besides Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is authentically reported on the authority of `Aa`ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (r ) said: "Whoever vowed to obey Allah (swt ), he should do so, and whoever vowed to disobey Him, should not do so.1"

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The obligation to fulfill vows so long as they are in obedience to Allah (swt ).

    2. The prohibition of fulfilling vows if they entail disobedience to Allah (swt ). Instead, he must perform the expiation of an oath.

    Relevance of the Hadeeth to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the obligation to fulfill one's vow so long as it does not entail disobedience to Allah (swt ). This means that fulfilling a vow is an act of worship, and dedicating an act of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. Narrated by Imam Malik.

  16. #13
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Seeking Refuge in Other Than Allah (swt ) is Shirk


    Allah (swt ), says:



    " And there were persons among mankind who took shelter with persons among the jinn, but they [only] increased them in rahaq" (Qur'an 72:6)


    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that there were men from among the human race who turned to the men from among the jinn, seeking protection with them, but their supplications only caused to increase the jinn in pride and injustice, and they caused the jinn to increase mankind in fear and misguidance.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The prohibition of seeking protection from other than Allah.

    2. That whoever seeks protection from other than Allah, will be disappointed, and he will be guilty of injustice against the one called upon.

    3. Confirmation of the existence of the jinn, and of their being composed of men and women.


    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter
    That it proves the prohibition of seeking shelter or protection with other than Allah (swt ), because doing so is an act of worship, and dedicating worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.


    Important Note

    If we understand from Allah's Words:

    " they [only] increased them in rahaq"

    That `they' refers to mankind, then the meaning would be that the supplication of man only increased the jinn in arrogance and oppression; but if we understand from the verse that `they' refers to the jinn, then the meaning would be that the jinn increased mankind in fear and misguidance.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Khawlah Bint Hakeem (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said: "I heard Allah's Messenger (saas ) say:

    "Whoever visited an abode and said: "I seek refuge in the Most Perfect Words of my Rabb, from the evil of what He has created," no harm shall befall him until he departs from that place." (Narrated by Muslim)

    Khawlah Bint Hakeem informs us that the Prophet (saas ) has approved as a sunnah for the Muslims that when they visit a dwelling, they should seek shelter with Allah (swt ) rather than with the jinn or others, from the evil of His creatures; and he informed us that whoever seeks refuge and shelter in the Most Complete and Perfect Words of Allah (swt ), which are free from every defect and imperfection, Allah will be sufficient protection for him from every evil present in His creatures until he leaves that place.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence of the blessing of this supplication.

    2. That the Qur'an was revealed, not created.1

    3. That protection is not sought with other than Allah (swt ), nor with His Divine Attributes.

    4. Evidence that Seeking shelter with Allah (swt ) is prescribed by the Religion.

    5. Evidence of the completeness and perfection of the Qur'an because, being the Word of Allah (swt ), it is necessarily Perfect and Complete.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that seeking protection with other than Allah (swt ), or with one of His Attributes is not permissible, because seeking shelter or protection is an act of worship and dedicating an act of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. This is because the Qur'an is the Word of Allah (swt), and as such, it is not created.

  17. #14
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    It is Shirk to Seek Aid From Other Than Allah (swt )

    Allah (swt ), says:


    " Nor call on any besides Allah, such can neither profit you, nor hurt you. If you do, then you will surely be one of the zalimun" (Qur'an 10:106)


    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, forbids His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) - and the forbiddance applies to the whole Ummah - from performing acts of worship, in particular supplication for any other besides Allah (swt ), because none beside Him possesses power to benefit or harm. Then Allah (swt ) informs His Prophet (saas ) that should he do so, he would be one of the Zalimun, i.e. the polytheists.


    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That benefit and protection from harm are only from Allah, the Almighty, the All-powerful.

    2. That whoever called upon other than Allah, believing that he possesses the power to benefit or harm him without Allah, has committed an act of Shirk.

    3. The reference to Shirk as Zulm (injustice).

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt), says:

    " If Allah does not touch you with hurt, there is none can remove it but He: If He designs some benefit for you, there is none can keep back His Favour: He causes it to reach whomsoever of His slaves He wills, and He is the Most Forgiving, Most Merciful" (Qur'an10:107)


    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) that both good and evil are determined by Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, and that none of His creatures - whoever he may be - has the power to lift harm or prevent benefit coming to anyone; and that all power of disposal is in Allah's Hands. He forbids whom He wills, in His Wisdom, and He gives to whom He wills from His Bounty, and He is Oft-forgiving to whomsoever turns in repentance to Him; even to the one who has committed shirk, He is Full of Mercy.


    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That all goodness and evil is at Allah's Disposal.

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Iradah (i.e. Wish, Decree).

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Mashee`ah (i.e. Will).

    4. Confirmation of the totality of Allah's Dominion and Rulership.

    5. Confirmation of two of Allah's Names: Al-Ghafoor (the Most Forgiving) and Ar-Raheem (the Most Merciful to all in this world and to the Believers in the Hereafter) and both of these names encompass the Attributes of Forgiveness and Mercy.


    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that preventing or removing harm and the granting of benefit come only from Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, and seeking them from other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " You do naught but worship idols besides Allah, and you invent falsehood. The things that you worship besides Allah have no power to give you sustenance: Then seek you sustenance from Allah, worship Him and be grateful to Him: To Him will you return" (Qur'an 29:17)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High tells us in this verse about Prophet Ibraheem (as ), how he made clear to his people the truth concerning the idols which they worshipped, that they possessed no power to harm or to benefit, and that they had invented a lie by attributing such powers to them, for goodness may only be sought from Allah (swt ), and from none other; and that He, Alone is the One Who has the right to be worshipped, and to be praised and Who deserves our gratitude because all creatures will return to Him when they die; then they will be resurrected and they will receive the recompense of their deeds.


    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That the original Religion of all the Prophets is Tawheed.

    2. The falseness of worshipping idols.

    3. That all goodness and evil is within Allah's power.

    4. The obligation to worship Allah and to be grateful to Him.

    5. Confirmation of the coming of the Day of Resurrection.


    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that sustenance must not be sought except from Allah (swt ), because supplicating for sustenance from other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), Most High says:

    " And who is more astray than one who calls upon other than Allah, such as will not answer him until the Day of Resurrection, and who are [even] unaware of their calls to them. And when mankind are gathered [on the Day of Resurrection], they [the false deities] will become enemies to them and will deny their worshipping" (Qur'an 46:5-6)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that none is further astray nor more ignorant than the one who rejects the worship of the All-hearing, the One Who answers, and instead, worships things which are unable to answer him until the Hour comes, either because they themselves are slaves of Allah (swt ), who are bound to worship Him, such as the angels, the Prophets and the righteous, or because they are inanimate objects, such as idols. Then Allah (swt ) makes clear to us that mankind will be gathered together on the Day of Resurrection, then the worshipers will be shown the uselessness of their deeds because their objects of worship will declare themselves innocent of them and their actions; indeed they will become their enemies, rejecting them and all that they did.


    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. That the most ignorant and farthest astray of all people are those who call upon other than Allah.

    2. Confirmation that their objects of worship are ignorant of them and cannot answer them.

    3. That this supplication is a kind of worship.

    4. That their calling upon these false gods will be the cause of those deities' enmity towards those who worshipped them on the Day of Resurrection.

    5. Evidence that these objects of worship will declare themselves innocent of their worshipers on the Day of Resurrection.


    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

    That they prove that there is none more ignorant, none farther astray than the one who calls upon other than Allah (swt ), because supplication is an act of worship, and dedicating an act of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.


    Important Note

    The rejection by those objects of worship, such as the angels, the Prophets and the righteous will be by their mouths, obviously. As for those inanimate objects, such as idols, trees, stones, etc., it has been said that Allah (swt ) will create for them the power of speech, and they will speak, denouncing their worshipers and their deeds; and it has also been said that they will reject them by their silence and inanimity.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Is not He [better than your gods] Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls Him, and Who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors of the earth [generation after generation], is there any deity with Allah? Little it is that you bear in mind [the warning]" (Qur'an 27:62)


    Allah (swt ), Most High, defines some of the Attributes which are purely for Him, and nobody else, such as responding to those in dire straits, lifting harm from them and protecting mankind. Then Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, makes clear that those who will not be warned by this, nor fear the consequences, and do not worship Allah (swt ), Alone, will not heed any warning.


    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That making one's du'aa` 1 purely for Allah will ensure its acceptance.

    2. Confirmation of the blessing of Du'aa`.

    3. That goodness and evil are within Allah's power.

    4. Proof of Tawheed of worship through Tawheed of Rabbship.

    5. That Allah (swt ) answers the Du'aa` of the distressed and the oppressed.

    6. Knowledge of Allah (swt ) through the fitrah.


    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject

    That the verse proves that none can answer the oppressed or the distressed except Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, because Du'aa` is a form of worship and dedicating an act of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    At-Tabarani reports that: "In the time of the Prophet (saas ) there was a hypocrite2 who used to harm the Believers, and some of them said: "Come, let us seek aid from the Messenger of Allah (saas ) against this hypocrite." But the Prophet (saas ) said: "Aid must not be sought from me; aid must only be sought from Allah (swt )."

    The narrator informs us in this Hadith that a man from amongst the hypocrites used to harm the Companions in any way he could, and so some of them went to the Prophet (saas ) to seek his aid in stopping this harm. And even though the Prophet (saas ) was able to do so, he forbade them from seeking help from him and instead, he guided them towards that which was better for them - to seek aid from Allah (swt ), to ask Him to alleviate their distress and protect them from their enemies in accordance with the dictates of Tawheed.


    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence that the hypocrites used to do their utmost to harm the Muslims.

    2. The prohibition of seeking help from other than Allah (swt ) in those things which are beyond their power.


    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the forbiddance of seeking aid from other than Allah (swt ), in those things which are beyond the capabilities of all but Allah (swt ) because seeking aid is an act of worship, and dedicating acts of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    Important Note

    There is no contradiction between this Hadith and the Words of Allah (swt ), Most High:

    " And the man from amongst his own people appealed to him for aid" (Qur'an 28:15)


    Because this verse tells us that it is permissible to seek aid from one of Allah's creatures in those things which are within their power. Secondly, the Hadith does not prohibit that, but the Messenger of Allah (saas ) forbade them, seeking to guide them to that which is better - that is to seek aid from Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, for Allah (swt ) says:


    " And when my slaves ask you [O, Muhammad!] about me, [inform them that] verily, I am near [i.e. in His Knowledge, His Hearing and His Seeing]. I answer the request of every supplicant when he calls upon Me" (Qur'an 2:186)

    Footnotes

    1. Du'aa`: Supplication.
    2. It is likely that the hypocrite referred to here is 'Abdullah Ibn Ubayy.

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  19. #15
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Concerning Allah's Words:

    " Will they associate [with Me] those that do not create, but are [themselves] created - those that can bring them no victory?" (Qur'an 7:191-192)


    Allah (swt ) rejects and censures the polytheists from among the Arabs and the non-Arabs in this verse, and those false gods which they worship beside Allah (swt ) which can not bring into being anything - for they are themselves created from nothing, and cannot help those who worship them - in fact, they cannot even help themselves, should some misfortune befall them! And this is the ultimate in weakness and powerlessness.

    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. Evidence of the ignorance of the polytheists.

    2. Confirmation of the weakness and powerlessness of all that is worshipped beside Allah, and that therefore, logically, they are not fit to be worshipped.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

    That they prove the negation of all worship except that of Allah (swt ), and that to do so is false and rejected, and this includes everything to which people turn besides Allah (swt ), such as graves, trees and such like.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That they prove that turning towards other than Allah (swt ) in order to obtain some benefit or protection from harm is an act of Shirk.

    Important Note

    The warning here is against worshipping those who are blessed with the power of thinking and logic, though many objects of worship are inanimate, and unaware of what is said or believed concerning them.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " He merges the night into the day [i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added to the hours of the day] and He merges the day into the night [i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day is added to the hours of the night]. And He has subjected the sun and the moon: Each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the Dominion. And those whom you call upon instead of Him, own not even a qitmeer [the thin membrane covering a date-stone]. If you call upon them, they hear not your call and even were they to hear, they could not grant it [your request] to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your ascribing them as partners [with Allah]. And none can inform you [oh, Muhammad!] like He [the All-knowing]" (Qur'an 35:13-14)


    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in these verses that He decreases the hours of the night, and adds them to the hours of daylight, and vice versa, according to the changing seasons, by Allah's Will and in accordance with His Divine Decree. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. These two lights bring innumerable benefits to mankind, by Allah's Will, and He Who is Able to do all things has the exclusive right of Rabbship and to be worshipped alone, without partners - How could it be otherwise, when His is the Dominion over all created things, and everything that is worshipped besides Him possesses nothing, not even the covering of a date-stone, and does not hear the supplication of those who call upon him? And even were they able to hear, they would be incapable of responding to it; indeed, they will reject those who worshipped them and their Shirk on the Day of Resurrection, and none besides Allah (swt ), the All-knowing, could inform the Messenger (saas ) of the truth of these matters and their outcome.

    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. That the sun and moon move in their orbits and are not stationary.

    2. That idols do not possess any power to benefit or harm those who worship them, either in this world or in the Hereafter.

    3. That Shirk will be the cause of enmity between the worshipers and the worshipped.

    4. That knowledge should be taken from its original source - in this case, Allah, Who is the source of all knowledge.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verses reject and condemn the idea that those deities worshipped besides Allah (swt ) have any power to benefit or harm the worshipers.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verses prove that making Du'aa` to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is authentically reported on the authority of Anas (ra ) that the Prophet (saas ) was struck during the battle of Uhud, and one of his molar teeth was broken, at which he said: "How can a people ever be successful, when they strike their Prophet?" and so it was revealed:

    " The matter is not for your decision: Whether He turns in mercy to them or punishes them; for verily, they are the wrongdoers" (Qur'an 3:128) 1

    Anas Ibn Malik (ra ) informs us in this Hadith that the Prophet (saas ) received an injury to his head, which bled and one of his teeth was broken during the Battle of Uhud, and he became despondent of the prospect of their accepting Islam because of this outrage against the personage of Allah's chosen Messenger and the enmity which they showed for him. Then Allah (swt ) revealed this verse:

    " The matter is not for your decision..."

    And so it became clear to him the path that he must follow and that forgiveness or punishment for these polytheists rests with Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, Alone and with no other.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That the Prophets are subject to illness and injury, which is proof of their humanity and a rejection of those who ascribe Divine Attributes to them.2

    2. That the Prophets are unable to do anything, except what Allah (swt ) Wills for them, so how about other lesser creatures?

    3. None knows what a person's last actions will be except Allah (swt ).

    4. That turning to Allah (swt ) in sincere repentance wipes out all previous sins.

    5. That wrongdoing (i.e. Shirk) will be punished.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the Prophets, who are the best of people do not possess any power to benefit or harm, so what about other lesser creatures?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that benefit or harm comes only from Allah (swt ), and requesting it from other than Him is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Ibn `Umar (ra ) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (saas ) saying as he raised his head from bowing, in the second rak'ah of fajr prayer: "Oh, Allah (swt )! Curse so-and-so and so-and-so," after saying: "Sami' Allahu Liman Hamidah," and: "Rabbanaa wa Lak Al-Hamd." And so Allah (swt ) revealed:

    " The matter is not for your decision..." 3


    In another narration, it is reported that he (saas ) made Du'aa` against Safwaan Ibn Umayyah, Suhail Ibn `Amr and Al-Harith Ibn Hisham, and so this verse was revealed:

    " The matter is not for your decision..."


    `Abdullah Ibn `Umar (ra ) informs us in this Hadith that the Prophet (saas ), while straightening up from bowing in the second unit of the dawn prayer, said: "Allah hears the one who praises Him," and: "Our Rabb! To You is due all praise." Then he invoked Allah's Curse on the heads of a number of the pagans of Quraish, in one narration, naming them; then Allah (swt ) revealed to him a verse prohibiting him from doing so because of Allah's Knowledge of what the future held for some of them, who would eventually embrace Islam, and become good Muslims.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That the Imam recites "Sami' Allahu Liman Hamidah," as well as "Rabbanaa wa Lak Al-Hamd."

    2. The lawfulness of invoking Allah (swt ) upon someone in times of need.

    3. Proof that the Qur'an is revealed, not created.

    4. Evidence that the Prophets do not possess any power to benefit or harm anyone, nor do they have knowledge of the unseen.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that the Prophets, though they are the best of people, do not have power to benefit or harm, so what of lesser creatures?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that benefit and harm are in Allah's power only, and so seeking them from other than Him is an act of Shirk.

    Important Note

    It has been authenticated that the three persons mentioned in the Hadith, Safwaan Ibn Umayyah, Al-Haarith Ibn Hishaam and Suhail Ibn `Amr all later embraced Islam.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra ) that when this verse was revealed:

    " And warn your nearest kinsmen" (Qur'an 26:214)

    Allah's Messenger (saas ) stood up and said: "Oh, you people of Quraish (or something similar)! Save your own souls! I possess nothing with which to protect you from Allah (swt ). Oh, `Abbas Ibn `Abdul Muttalib! I possess nothing with which to protect you from Allah (swt ). Oh, Safiyyah, aunt of the Messenger of Allah (saas )! I possess nothing with which to protect you from Allah (swt ). Oh, Fatimah Bint Muhammad! Ask me of what I have anything you which; I possess nothing with which to protect you from Allah (swt )."

    Abu Hurairah (ra ) informs us in this Hadith, that when the Words of Allah:

    " And warn your nearest kinsmen"

    Were revealed, the Messenger of Allah (saas ) stood amongst them and addressed them, requesting them to save themselves from the punishment of Allah (swt ) by obeying Him and His Messenger (saas ) and that he could not save them or protect them from Allah's severe chastisement. Then he addressed some of his close family members, one at a time, so that they should not be proud or conceited and depend upon their relationship to him.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. That the Qur'an is revealed, not created.

    2. That nothing can benefit a person except his good deeds.

    3. The falseness of relying on one's ancestry or family ties to save him from Allah's punishment, rather than good deeds.

    4. Those closest to Allah's Messenger (saas ) are those who obey him, not those who claim close family ties.

    5. The permissibility of asking the Messenger of Allah (saas ) for that which was in his power while he was alive.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that the Prophets do not possess any benefit for any person, nor any harm, so how could any lesser person?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that bringing benefit or harm is the special prerogative of Allah (swt ), Alone and therefore seeking them from other than Him is an act of Shirk.

    Important Note

    There is no contradiction between this Hadith and the Ahadith which confirm the Prophet's intercession, because the latter inform us that he will intercede for the Believers after Allah (swt ) Allows him to do so, while the former Hadith rejects the idea that he can save us of his own self.


    Footnotes

    1. Narrated by Muslim.
    2. Such as the Jews who claimed that 'Uzair (as) was their god, and the Christians, who claimed that Eesa (u) was the son of God, and the deviant Braillawis, who ascribe divine Attributes to the Prophet Muhammad (saas).
    3. Reported by An-Neesaaboori in "Asbaab An-Nuzool", who said: "It was narrated by Bukhari. and by Muslim.

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    The Words of Allah (swt ), Most High:

    " No intercession can avail with Him, except for those whom He allows so [much so] that, when terror is removed from their hearts, they will say: "What is it that your Lord has said?" They will say: "The Truth; and He is the Most High, the Most Great."" (Qur'an 34:23)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that none can intercede on behalf of another on the Day of Judgement - whosoever he might be - unless Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful Permits him to do so, and that all, including the angels, will be prostrate due to their fear of Him. Then when the fear is removed from the angels' hearts, they will begin to ask one another concerning what Allah (swt ) has said and what He has revealed; and some of them will answer that He has said naught but the Truth, and He (swt ) is the Most High, the Most Great.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That none may intercede except if Allah Wills it.

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Greatness and His Fearfulness.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

    4. That the Words of Allah are free from all falseness.

    5. Confirmation of His Divine Attribute of being Above all of His creation - in His Self and in His Attributes.

    6. Confirmation of two of His Names, which are: The Most High and the Most Great.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that even the angels fear Allah (swt ) and are humbled before Him.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that the angels themselves fear their Lord, so how can anyone call upon them instead of Allah (swt )? And if such acts of worship are rejected, whether they are worshipped directly or as intercessors with Allah (swt ), then what must be said about worshipping others such as the inhabitants of graves? - they have even less right to be worshipped.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is authentically reported from Abu Hurairah (ra ) that the Prophet (saas ) said: "When Allah (swt ) orders a matter in the heaven, the angels beat their wings in humility and submission to His Words, and the sound is like the sound of a chain on smooth rocks; they continue to do so until it enters their hearts. Then, when fear has been removed from their hearts, they (i.e. some of the angels) say: "What has your Lord said?" They (the others) reply: "The Truth, and He (swt ) is the Most High, the Most Great," and the listening thief and (another listening thief) hears it, so, one above another," Sufyaan (one of the narrators) described it by spreading out his fingers, "...and he (the thief) hears the Words (of Allah swt ) and transmits them to the one below him and he transmits it to the one below and so on, until it reaches the tongue of the magician or the fortune-teller, and sometimes the meteorite strikes him (the thief) before he can convey the news, and sometime he conveys it before he is struck, and then he adds a hundred lies to what he hears, and it is said: "Did not he (the fortune-teller) tell us such-and-such on such-and-such a day?" Then he is believed because of these Words which were overheard from the heaven." 1

    Allah's Messenger (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that when Allah (swt ), Almighty, All-Powerful, decrees a matter in the heaven, the angels fall prostrate in fear of Him and in glorification of Him; then, when the fear is removed from their hearts, they begin to ask one another about what the Lord, Almighty, All-powerful has said. One of them (probably Jibreel as )2 replies that Allah (swt ) has spoken the uncompromising Truth, of which there is no doubt; and it could be that the listening thief, who is a devil, overhears what is said and transmits it to the awaiting magician or the fortune-teller, although a meteorite might strike the devil and incinerate him before he has the chance to pass on what he has heard, or it might be passed on before he is destroyed - all in accordance with Allah's Will. And the devil, the magician or the fortune-teller adds a hundred lies to what he has heard and the people hear and believe ninety-nine lies because of this one scrap of Truth which was heard from the heaven.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Confirmation of Allah's being above His creation.

    2. Evidence of Allah's Greatness.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

    4. Confirmation that the devils overhear what the angels are saying in the heaven, and that Allah (swt ) has allowed them to do so as a test and a trial for them.

    5. The permissibility of the use of practical examples in order to explain abstract matters.

    6. That the devils are the source of knowledge for both the magician and the fortune-teller.

    7. The attachment of some souls to that which is vain and futile.

    8. Evidence that the sorcerors and fortune-tellers are liars and cheats.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it shows the position of the angels, that they fear and revere their Lord.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that the angels themselves worship Allah (swt ) and fear Him, and so, if it is not permissible to worship them, whether by calling upon them as intercessors, or as gods, then it is eminently clear that calling upon them is even more obviously futile.

    ..ooOOoo..

    An-Nawwaas Ibn Sam'aan (ra ) reported that Allah's Messenger (saas ) said: "When Allah (swt ), Most High, wishes to reveal something, He speaks out the Revelation and the heavens begin to shake (or he said: thunder heavily) due to fear of Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, and when the inhabitants of the heavens hear it, they fall down in prostration to Allah (swt ), and Jibreel (as ) is the first to raise his head; then Allah (swt ) speaks to him and Allah (swt ) gives him the Revelation according to His Will. Then Jibreel (as ) passes by the angels, and every time he passes through a different heaven, its angels ask him: "What Has our Lord revealed, oh, Jibreel as ?" Jibreel (as ) then answers: "He has spoken the Truth, and He (swt ) is the Most High, the Most Great." Then they all repeat the same after him, and then Jibreel (as ) proceeds to the destination commanded by Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful."

    Allah's Messenger (saas ) informs us in this Hadith that when Allah (swt ) speaks the Revelation which He wishes, it causes the heavens to shake with thunder and convulsions and the angels to fall down prostrate, in fear of His Majesty; then the first of them to recover and raise his head is the angel Jibreel (as ), and Allah (swt ) then speaks to him as He (swt ) Wills, after which Jibreel (swt ) departs with the Revelation to wheresoever Allah Commands him; and every time he passes through one of the heavens, its inhabitants from among the angels enquire of him as to what the Rabb, Almighty, All-powerful has commanded. And each time he gives the same reply: That Allah (swt ) has spoken the evident Truth, and He (swt ) is the Most High, above all His creation, the Most Great, without equal in greatness.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Iradah. 3

    2. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Kalaam (speaking) and that His (saas ) Speech is heard.

    3. Evidence of Allah's unparalleled Might.

    4. Evidence that all of the heavens are inhabited.

    5. Proof of Jibreel's superiority over the rest of the angels.

    6. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Qawl. 4

    7. Confirmation of two of Allah's Names: The Most High and the Most Great.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith clearly shows the position of the angels that they fear Allah (swt ).

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that the angels, who are amongst Allah's finest creations, fear Allah (swt ), and so worship of them by others is false and an act of Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. Narrated by Bukhari
    2. Since he is the leader of the angels and the greatest of them.
    3. Iradah: Want, wish, will, decree.
    4. It is not easy to adequately translate the words Qawl and Kalaam into English, but we may say that Qawl is when we say: "Such-and-such a person said: "...", whereas Kalaam refers to the spoken words of Allah (swt), which are spoken to whom He wills from amongst the angels or Prophets (alayhum-as-salaam).

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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    Intercession

    Allah (swt ) says:

    " And warn by it, those who fear to be gathered to their Lord: Besides Him they will have no protector nor intercessor: That they may become pious, God-fearing" (Qur'an 6:51)

    Allah (swt ), Most High commands His Prophet, Muhammad, (saas ) in this verse to inform and strike fear into those who are convinced of the truth of the Day of Resurrection: That they will stand before their Lord on that Day, and that they will find no helper, nor intercessor to intercede between them and Allah's punishment, that hopefully, they will fulfill the commands of Allah (swt ) and abstain from that which He has forbidden.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That warnings profit not except those who believe.

    2. Confirmation of the Resurrection.

    3. That there will be no intercession except and until its conditions have been fulfilled.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that no intercession will be excepted unless and until its conditions have been met.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that none can intercede on his own initiative; therefore, to seek such intercession from one of Allah's creatures is an act of major Shirk. Likewise, seeking intercession from idols which their worshippers claim can intercede with Allah (swt ) on their behalf is a Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Say to Allah belongs all intercession. To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and to Him you shall all return" (Qur'an 39:44)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, commands His Prophet, Muhammad (saas ) in this verse to inform the people, whatever their philosophy or creed, that the right to grant every manner of intercession is purely and solely for Allah (swt ), the Almighty, the All-powerful, and none may contend with Him in it, nor can any intercede except by His permission; then He affirms that He is the One and Only Disposer of affairs in the heavens and the earth and all that they contain and that there is no escaping from the Day when all mankind will be returned to Allah (swt ); then those who took others as intercessors will know the futility of their deeds.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The plurality of intercession.

    2. That intercession is the dominion of Allah and none may intercede unless He Wills it and is pleased by the one for whom intercession is made.

    3. Confirmation of the truth of the Resurrection.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that every kind of intercession is the dominion of Allah (swt ) and it will not be granted to anyone unless Allah (swt ) permits it and Is pleased by the one for whom intercession is sought.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse confirms that intercession is the dominion of Allah (swt ), to which none other than He is entitled. Therefore, seeking it from other than Allah (swt ) is an act of major Shirk, including those idols which people worship, claiming that they are doing so in order to obtain intercession.

    Important Note

    Allah's Words: " to Allah belongs all intercession" Prove that intercession is of many different kinds and the scholars have mentioned eight of them:

    1. Major Intercession: It is that which will fall upon the shoulders of the Prophet Muhammad (saas ) after all the other Prophets and Messengers have refused to accept it on the Day of Resurrection: The people will ask all of the previous Prophets and Messengers to intercede with Allah (swt ) on their behalf but they will refuse, saying: "Myself! Myself!" Then they will come to the Messenger of Allah (saas ), and he will accept, and go to his Rabb and prostrate before Him for as long as He wills, then he will be given permission to raise his head and intercede on behalf of the believing people, and none other than he (swt ) shall be given this right and privilege.

    2. Intercession for the People of Paradise: This has been confirmed by the long Hadith of Abu Hurairah (ra ) which has been narrated by Bukhari and Muslim and which mentions that the Prophet (saas ) will intercede with Allah (swt ) on behalf of the People of Paradise that they may be allowed to enter therein.

    3. Intercession for the Disobedient Muslims: He (saas ) will intercede with his Lord on behalf of those Muslims who may have committed sins of disobedience to their Rabb, Almighty, that they may not be placed in the Fire.

    4. Intercession for the Disobedient People of Tawheed: He (saas ) will intercede with Allah (swt ) on behalf of those Muslims who have entered the Hell-fire because of their sins, that they may be removed from it. The authentic narration concerning this has been widely reported and all of the Companions and Ahl As-Sunnah are agreed upon it.

    5. Intercession for Increasing the Reward of the People of Paradise: The Messenger of Allah (saas ) will intercede on behalf of a people from amongst the People of Paradise, that they may have their reward increased and their status elevated; and there is none who disputes this.

    6. Intercession of the Prophet (saas ) for his Uncle: He (saas ) will intercede on behalf of his uncle Abu Talib, that his punishment in the Hell-fire may be lightened.

    7. Intercession of the Children: Those children who died while still below the age of reason will intercede on behalf of their believing parents.

    8. Intercession of Some of the Believers for Others: It is authentically confirmed that some of the Believers will intercede on behalf of their believing brothers.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Allah! There is none has the right to be worshipped but He, the Living, the Ever-lasting. Neither slumber or sleep overtakes him. His are all things in the heavens and the earth. Who is it that can intercede in His presence, except as He permits? He knows what is before them and what is behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His Knowledge, except as He Wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them, for He is the Most High, Most Great" (Qur'an 2:255)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High informs us in this verse that there is none who has the right to be worshipped besides Him, because He is the Living, Whose Life is complete and without beginning or end, Who gives life to His creatures, but is in no need of anything and is afflicted by nothing which affects His slaves, such as tiredness, sleep, hunger etc. His Lordship is complete and all-encompassing: His is the Dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is in them and none can gainsay Him in anything concerning them, including the matter of intercession, and none possesses power to intercede except as He Wills and permits, and whose intercession pleases Him. And He informs us that none encompasses anything of His Knowledge except Him whom He blesses and grants knowledge, whether Revelation or other wisdom. And He tells us that His Kursi1 extends over all of the heavens and the earth and that guarding and protecting them causes Him no fatigue or discomfort, for He (swt ) is the Most High, above all of His creation, and He is the Most Great, Greater than all others who claim greatness.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Affirmation of five of Allah's Names:
    (i) Allah (swt );
    (ii) Al-Hayy (the Living);
    (iii) Al-Qayyoom (the Ever-lasting);
    (iv) Al-'Ali (the Most High);
    (v) Al-'Azeem (The Most Great).

    2. That Allah (swt ) does not succumb to slumber or sleep, for He is in no need of them; they are attributes of His creatures which indicate imperfection and He is far above any imperfection.

    3. That none may intercede with Him on his own initiative but only as He permits.

    4. Evidence of Allah's Will.

    5. Confirmation of intercession after Allah (swt ) permits it.

    6. Proof of the existence of Allah's Kursi.

    7. Evidence of Allah's Complete Power and Knowledge.

    8. Affirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of being Above, both literally and metaphorically.

    9. Evidence of Allah's Greatness.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse negates any intercession by Allah's creatures on their own initiative without His permission.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it negates any intercession by Allah's creatures of their own volition, and therefore seeking such intercession from other than Allah (swt ), is an act of major Shirk including idols which their worshipers claim can intercede with Allah (swt ) on their behalf.

    Important Note

    This blessed verse has been described in authentic Hadith as the greatest verse in the Qur'an, and it is reported that whoever recites it in the evening, will be protected from Satan until he wakes in the morning, and also that whoever recites it in the morning will be protected from Satan until the evening, in accordance with His Will.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And no matter how many be angels in the heavens, their intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He Wills and pleases" (Qur'an 53:26)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse that in the heavens there are hosts of angels, but in spite of their large numbers, and their elevated status in the sight of Allah (swt ), they cannot benefit anyone unless Allah (swt ) grants them leave to intercede and is Pleased with their intercession.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Proof that all of the heavens are inhabited by angels.

    2. Evidence that intercession will only be granted on two conditions: (i) That Allah has permitted the intercession, and (ii) that He is pleased with the one for whom intercession is sought. And Allah is not Pleased with any save the People of Tawheed as is confirmed by the Hadith: "On behalf of whom will your intercession be most pleasing (to Allah), oh, Messenger of Allah?" He replied: Him who says: Laa ilaaha illal-laah, sincerely, from his heart." 2

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Will.

    4. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Pleasure.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves the negation of intercession by every created thing unless two conditions are fulfilled:
    (i) That Allah's permission is granted to the intercessor, and
    (ii) that Allah (swt ) is pleased with the one for whom intercession is sought.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that intercession is not granted except after Allah (swt ) permits it and is pleased with the person for whom intercession is sought, which proves that intercession belongs to Allah (swt ) and therefore, seeking it from other than Him is an act of major Shirk, especially including the worship of idols in the belief that they can intercede with Allah (swt ).

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Say: "Call upon those whom you claim [as gods] besides Allah: They have no power, not the weight of an atom - in the heavens or on the earth. No share have they therein, nor is any of them a helper to Allah. No intercession can avail with Him, except for those for whom He has granted permission. So much so that, when terror is removed from their hearts, they will say: "That which is true and just; and He is the Most High, Most Great."" (Qur'an 34:22-23)

    In these verses, Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, challenges the polytheists to ask their objects of worship which they have set up as partners with Allah (swt ), for they will not be able to grant any benefit or protect anyone from harm because they possess not an atom's weight of goodness or evil in the heavens or the earth, nor do they have any share in the heavens or the earth, nor are they helpers for Allah (swt ), nor intercessors. Not even the angels or any other of Allah's creations possess the power to intercede on behalf of anyone except by His permission. Then Allah (swt ) makes plain that the angels, who are the most powerful of Allah's creatures, fall down in fear and submission to Allah (swt ) and His aweful Majesty. Then, when the fear is removed from their hearts, they ask one another concerning what their Rabb, the Almighty, the All-powerful has Said; and some of them answer that it is the firm truth, and He (swt ) is the Most High, the Most Great.

    Benefits Derived From These Verses

    1. Negation of all the polytheists' claims regarding the idols they worship - that they possess any power or dominion in the heavens or the earth, or that they have any share in that, or in Allah's Help, or that they have the power of intercession with Allah (swt ).

    2. Confirmation of intercession after Allah (swt ) permits it and negation of it without His permission.

    3. Evidence of the awesomeness of Allah (swt ) and His Greatness.

    4. Affirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

    5. Confirmation of two of Allah's Names: (i) Al-'Ali, and (ii) Al-Kabeer.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of the Chapter

    That they prove the negation of intercession without Allah's leave.

    Relevance of These Verses to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verses prove the negation of intercession for all of Allah's creatures on their own initiative, and that granting intercession is the exclusive right of Allah (swt ), and therefore, to seek it from other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk. This includes the worship of idols which their worshipers claim have the power of intercession.

    Important Note

    Abul `Abbas said: "Allah (swt ) has negated all that the polytheists do in worship: Such as the belief that any besides Allah (swt ) possesses sovereignty or has any share in sovereignty, or aid, so that naught remains except intercession; and He has made plain that intercession is not possible except by His permission for the intercessor and the Hadith of Major Intercession also supports this, for in it is (reported the Words of Allah (swt ) on the Day of Resurrection: "Raise your head and ask and it shall be given; intercede and it will be accepted." (Narrated by Bukhari)

    And it will not be accepted unless Allah (swt ) is Pleased with the one for whom intercession is sought, as is proved by the Words of Him (swt ), Most High:

    " And they offer no intercession except for those with whom He is well-pleased" - and Allah (swt ) is not well-Pleased except with the people of Tawheed as evidenced by the Hadith: On behalf of whom will your intercession be most Pleasing (to Allah swt ), Oh, Messenger of Allah (saas )? He replied: "Him who says: Laa illaha illallah, sincerely, from his heart."


    Footnotes

    1. Kursi: It has been authentically reported that the Kursi is the resting place of the Feet of the Beneficent, and it is the largest of all created things after the 'Arsh (Throne).
    2. Narrated by Bukhari, on the authority of Abu Hurairah (ra).

  22. #18
    MinAhlilHadeeth's Avatar
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    The Words of Allah (swt ), Most High:

    " Verily, you will not guide everyone whom you love, but Allah guides whom He wills and He knows best those who Will guided" (Qur'an 28:56)

    Allah (swt ) informs the Prophet (saas ) that his assiduous pursuit of his uncle, Abu Talib in order to call him to Islam will be of no avail, that he will not be guided; for Allah (swt ) knows all things - past, present and future, and none other than Allah (swt ) has knowledge of the unseen. And He informs His Messenger (saas ) that successful guidance comes only by His will, and He makes successful the guidance for whosoever of His slaves He Wills and that is because He knows best who deserves to be guided to success.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That successful guidance comes only through Allah.

    2. That the natural love of a person for his disbelieving kin - so long as they do not fight against Islam - does not conflict with true faith and belief.

    3. Confirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Will.


    The Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that there can be no successful guidance through the Prophet (saas ) alone in spite of the fact that he is the noblest of all mankind; and if he cannot guide anyone of his own Will, then obviously, no lesser human being can do so.

    The Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the verse proves that successful guidance comes only from Allah (swt ) and therefore seeking it from other than Allah (swt ) is of Shirk.

    Important Note

    There is no contradiction between this verse and the Words of Allah (swt ), Most High:

    " And verily, you do guide [men] to the Straight Path" (Qur'an 42:52)

    For in the former verse, Allah (swt ) is negating the ability of the Prophet (saas ) to make people accept his guidance, while in the latter He says that His Messenger (saas ) Calls people to the Straight Path.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is authentically reported on the authority of Ibn Al-Musyyib from his father, that he said: "When death approached Abu Talib, Allah's Messenger (saas ) came to him, and with him were `Abdullah Ibn Abi Umayyah and Abu Jahl. The Prophet (saas ) said to his uncle: "Oh uncle! Say: Laa ilaaha illallaah, a word by which I will plead for you with Allah (swt )." But they said: "Will you reject the faith of `Abdul Muttalib?" And the Messenger of Allah (saas ) repeated his words, and again they repeated their question, and so the last testament of Abu Talib was that he reamined upon the religion of `Abdul Muttalib and he refused to say: Laa ilaaha illallaah. So the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said: "Verily, I will continue to ask forgiveness for you until I am forbidden to do so." Then Allah (swt ) revealed:

    " It is not for the Prophet or those who believe with him to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even though they be their close relative after it has been made plain to them that they are of the people of the Hell-fire" (Qur'an 9:113)

    And concerning Abu Talib, He revealed: " Verily, you will not guide everyone whom you love, but Allah guides whom He wills and He knows best those who will be guided"
    1

    Sa'eed Ibn Al-Musayyib (ra ) informs us in this Hadith, that when death approached Abu Talib, the Prophet (saas ) requested him to pronounce the words of Tawheed (i.e. Laa ilaaha Iilallaah) so that he might be a witness for him to Allah (swt ); but Abu Talib's two wicked visitors aroused in him the passion of the Jahiliyyah, reminding him that it was the religion of his ancestors, and so Abu Talib refused to embrace Islam an died upon the religion of his people, after which the Prophet said that he would continue to ask forgiveness for him until Allah (swt ) forbade him to do so. This he did, until Allah (swt ) revealed the above-mentioned verse.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The permissibility of visiting the sick, even though he may be a polytheist if the purpose in so doing is the desire to call him to Islam.

    2. That whoever said: Laa ilaaha illallaah at the time of death, will be judged by appearances to be a Muslim, even though he may never have done any good deeds or acts of worship in Islam.

    3. That the most important deeds are one's final in life.

    4. The obligation to strive in the cause of propagating Islam, to be patient and persevering in that cause, and to order the good and forbid the evil.

    5. Refutation of the claim of those who assert that `Abdul Muttalib and his forebears were Muslims.

    6. The harm inflicted by the evil people upon the good.

    7. The forbiddance of seeking forgiveness from Allah (swt ) for the disbelievers and polytheists, even though they be close family members and even though they might perform services for Islam and the Muslims.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the negation of successful guidance through the Prophet (saas ) and since he is the noblest of mankind, it stands to reason that no lesser mortal may be assured of successful guidance.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that successful guidance is from Allah (swt ), Alone and therefore seeking it from other than Him is an act of Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. Narrated by Bukhari.

  23. #19
    MinAhlilHadeeth's Avatar
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    Wink Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has Been Said Concerning the Reason for Mankind's Disbelief and Rejection of Their Religion-it is Exaggerated Praise of the Righteous

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " Oh, you People of the Book! Commit not excesses in your religion, nor say of Allah anything but the truth. The Messiah, `Eisa, the son of Maryam is no more than a Messenger of Allah, and His Word, which He bestowed upon Maryam, and a Spirit proceeding from Him: So believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not "Three"-desist: It will be better for you: For Allah is one God, glory be to Him [Far exalted is He] above having a son. To him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Disposer of affairs" (Qur'an 4:171)

    In this verse, Allah (swt ), Most High, forbids the Jews and Christians from exaggeration and excess in their religion, such as the deifecation by the Christians of `Eisa (as ), the son of Maryam, while the Jews went to the opposite extreme, rejecting him, but Allah (swt ) refutes the claims of both, by describing Eisa (as ) as His Messenger and a Spirit from amongst the spirits created by Allah (swt ), and therefore they are obliged to believe truly in Allah (swt ), Alone, without attributing fathers, sons, wives or companions to Him, and to believe in all of the Messengers and not to belie them and not to elevate them above their true status, and to reject the belief in the trinity, and to affirm their belief in Allah (swt ) as the only God Who has the right to be worshipped, as the only Rabb, Owner and Creator of the whole universe, and the sole Guardian of all creatures.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. The forbiddance of excess in religion.

    2. The prohibition of speaking according to one's own opinion in matters of religion without evidence.

    3. Affirmation of the Prophethood and Messengership of Eisa.

    4. A refutation of the claims of the Jews and Christians regarding the status of Eisa.

    5. Affirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Speech.

    6. Evidence of the falseness of the belief in the trinity.

    7. That every aspect of Tawheed represents goodness.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the verse proves that the cause of the People of the Book leaving their religion was, in the case of the Christians, their excessive praise and glorification of Eisa (as ), and in the case of the Jews, their vilification of him.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Christians exceeded in their praise of Eisa (as ) until they deified him and worshipped him as a partner with Allah (swt ).

    ..ooOOoo..

    Allah (swt ), says:

    " And they said: "Do not abandon your gods: Do not abandon Wadd, nor Yaghooth, or Ya'ooq, or Nasr," and they have led many astray. And [oh, Allah!] Grant increase to the wrong-doers save error" (Qur'an 71:23-24)

    Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High, informs us in this verse about polytheists: That they are devoted to the worship of their idols as evidenced by their advising each other to worship them and not to abandon them, in particular, those mentioned in the verse. Then He, Most Glorified, Most High, makes plain that they have caused many to go astray by their false advice, and they are described as wrong-doers who deserve their punishment and who are far astray from the Straight Path of Allah (swt ).

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. That Shirk was present among the former communities.

    2. That these five names mentioned in the verse are the names of the idols of the people of Nooh.

    3. Evidence of the mutual cooperation of the people who practice falsehood in the perpetuation of that falsehood.

    4. That permissibility of supplicating Allah against the unbelievers in general.

    Relevance of This Verse to the Subject of the Chapter

    The relevance of this verse to the subject of the chapter may be realized from the tafseer1 of some of the mufassiroon2: It is stated that these names were the names of righteous men and that their people became excessive in their love of them so that when they died, Satan whispered to them that they should make pictures of them in order to remember them; then later, when those people died, the original purpose of the pictures was forgotten and the succeeding generations began to worship them.3

    Relevance of Verse to the Subject to Tawheed

    That the verse proves that exaggeration and excessive veneration of the righteous is an act of Shirk because doing so means that one attributes to a created being what should only be attributed to Allah (swt ), thus making them partners with Allah (swt ).

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported on the authority of `Umar (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Do not extoll me as the Christians extolled the son of Maryam (as ); I am no more than a slave (of Allah) and so (instead), say: Allah's Slave and His Messenger."4

    In this Hadith, the Prophet (saas ) forbids his Ummah to praise him excessively so that they may never raise him above the status in which Allah (swt ) has placed him. Then he makes plain that the correct way in which to speak of him is as a dependent, worshiping slave of Allah (swt ), Most Blessed, Most High, and His (saas ) Messenger; and this entails believing him in all that he says, and obeying him in what he commands abstaining from what he forbids and knowing that Allah (swt ) may not be worshipped except in accordance with the Law which He has ordained.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith


    1. The forbiddance of exceeding in praise of the Prophets and the righteous.

    2. The care taken by the Prophet to prevent any means that might lead to sin.

    3. Evidence of the Christians' exaggeration in their praise of Eisa (as ).

    4. Refutation of those who claim that Muhammad (saas ) was more than a Messenger.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That is proves that excessive praise and glorification of the Prophet (saas ), who is the best of mankind, will lead the Muslim out of the fold of Islam, just as the Christians left their religion because of excessively extolling Eisa (as ).

    Relevance of This Hadeeth to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that excessive praise and glorification of Allah's creatures may lead to worship of them.

    ..ooOOoo..

    The Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Beware of exaggerated praise, for it was only this which led those before you to destruction."5

    In this Hadith, the Prophet (saas ) forbids us from excess in religion and exaggerating the praises of Allah's creatures so that we may not be destroyed like the communities that came before us when they practised excess in their religion and exceeded all bounds in worship.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The forbiddance of excess in religious matters.

    2. That excess in religious matters is a cause of destruction.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that the reason for the destruction of former people was their excess in matter of religion.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the subject Tawheed

    That it proves that excess in matters of religion, or excessive praise and reverence of Allah's creatures removes a person from the legal bounds set by Allah (swt ) because the one who does so is following his own vain desires, which means that he is elevating those desires to the level of partners with Allah (swt ), and this is Shirk, and is in contradiction with the pure Islamic concept of Tawheed.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is reported by Muslim on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ) that the Messenger of Allah (saas ) said:

    "Destroyed are those who are extreme"

    And he repeated it three times.

    Because the Prophet (saas ) was sent to us with Law, he warned his community against extremism and severity in all things, particularly in matters of religion which have been prescribed by Allah (swt ), Most Glorified, Most High; and he made clear for us the limits of that Religion and he repeated his words three times in order to emphasise their importance to the listening Companions that they should understand and be warned of transgressing those limits.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The prohibition of extremism in all matters.

    2. The virtue of stressing important matters.

    3. The ease and flexibility of Islam.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that extremism in all matters, including reverence and praise of the righteous, is a cause of destruction.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That it proves that extremism in religious matters, or in excessive praising of the righteous puts a person beyond the limits imposed by Allah (swt ), because he spends his life in pursuit of his own vain desires and this is an act of Shirk.


    Footnotes

    1. Tafseer: Explanation of the meanings of the Qur'an.
    2. Mufassiroon: Scholars of tafseer
    3. Ref.: Tafseer Ibn Katheer.
    4. Narrated by Bukhari.
    5. Narrated by Ahmad, An-Nassa'I and Ibn Majah.

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  25. #20
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    Re: Kitaab at-Tawheed Explained

    What Has been Said Concerning the Condemnation of One Who Worships Allah (swt ) at the Grave of a Righteous Man - and Therefore of One Who Worships its Inhabitant

    It is authentically reported on the authority of `Aa`ishah that Um Salamah (May Allah be pleased with them both) told the Messenger of Allah (saas ) about a church she had seen in Abyssinia in which there were pictures. The Prophet (saas ) said: "Those people, when a righteous member of their group or a pious slave (of Allah swt ) dies, they build a mosque over his grave and make images therein; by so doing, they combine two evils: (i) The evil of the graves and (ii) the evil of images." 1

    `Aa`ishah tells us that Um Salamah informed her that she had told the Prophet (saas ) about a church in Abyssinia which she saw when she migrated there with her husband in which there were images. The Prophet (saas ) then explained to her the significance of what she had seen: That the Christians, when a pious man from among them died, would build an edifice over his grave and place his image in it in order to remember him and be inspired by his piety; and he added that these people were the worst of people in the sight of Allah (swt ) because they had combined two sins: (i) The sin of building over graves which may lead eventually to the worship of their occupants; and (ii) the sin of making images of living creatures which may also lead to worship of those images when the original purpose of their making has been forgotten.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The acceptability of the evidence of a truthful woman.

    2. That placing images in places of worship is among the deeds of the Christians.

    3. The forbiddance of building mosques over graves.

    4. The prohibition of placing images over graves.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves that building a place of worship over the grave of a righteous man is strongly condemned - and therefore what may be said of one who actually worships its occupant?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves the forbiddance of building mosques over graves because it entails glorification of their inhabitants and glorification is a form of worship, and dedicating worship to other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Al-Bukhari and Muslim report that `Aa`ishah said: "When the Messenger of Allah (saas ) was close to death, he covered his face with a cloth, and then when it became difficult for him to breathe, he uncovered his face and said:

    "May Allah (swt ) curse the Jews and Christians who took the graves of their Prophets as places of worship - do not imitate them."


    And, (added `Aa`ishah,) "if it had not been for this, his grave might have been raised above ground, but it was feared that it would be taken as a place of worship."

    `Aa`ishah informs us in this narration that when the Prophet (saas ) was near to death and in a state of delirium, he invoked Allah's curse on the Jews and Christians because they built places of worship over the graves of their Prophets. Then `Aa`ishah explains that the Prophet (saas ) intended by this to warn his Ummah against doing what the Jews and Christians had done; and she made clear that the reason for his forbidding the Companions from burying him outside his house was to prevent them from taking his grave as a place of worship.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. Evidence that the Prophet (saas ) was afflicted by the agonies of death.

    2. That the Prophet (saas ) cared deeply for his Ummah.

    3. The general permissibility of invoking Allah's curse on the disbelievers.

    4. The general prohibition of building over graves.

    5. That the Hadith is a reply to those who claim that building over graves - in particular those of Muslim scholars - is permissible.

    6. That building over graves is a custom of the Jews and Christians.

    7. Evidence of `Aa`ishah's knowledge and understanding in matters of fiqh.

    8. Evidence of the reason for burying the Prophet (saas ) in his house.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that it is prohibited to build places of worship over graves or to worship Allah (swt ) beside them. Therefore, what may be said of one who worships the occupant of the grave?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith proves that it is forbidden to build places of worship over graves because this entails glorification of their inhabitants and glorification is an act of worship and directing such an act to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    Muslim narrates on the authority of Jundub Ibn `Abdillah (ra ) that he said: "I heard the Prophet (saas ) say five days before his death:

    "Verily, I bear witness before Allah (swt ) that I have taken none of you as my Khaleel,2 for truly, Allah (swt ) has taken me as His Khaleel, just as He took Ibraheem (as ) as a Khaleel. If I were to take any man from my Ummah as a khaleel, it would be Abu Bakr. Your predecessors used to take their Prophets' graves as places of worship, so do not make graves into places of worship for I have forbidden you to do this."


    Jundub Ibn `Abdillaah (ra ) informs us that the Prophet (saas ), shortly before his death, rejected that he had taken any man as his Khaleel, and this was because his heart was completely filled with love for Allah (swt ) as was the heart of his ancestor, Ibraheem (as ). Then he said that were he to take any man as his Khaleel, the one with most right to be considered would be Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq (ra ) because of his many virtues, his unceasing efforts in the cause of Islam and his help and support of the Prophet (saas ); and when he knew that the Companions loved him and were influenced by him in everything they did, he began to fear that they might build an edifice over his grave for the purpose of worship as the Jews and Christians had done with their Prophets, and so he expressly forbade the building of places of worship over graves especially his own.

    Benefits Derived From This Verse

    1. Confirmation that the Prophet is Allah's Khaleel.

    2. Affirmation of Allah's Divine Attribute of Love.

    3. Confirmation that Ibraheem is Allah's Khaleel.

    4. Evidence of the virtue of Abu Bakr and therefore of his right to be the first Khaleefah (Caliph) of Islam, because the most loved of mankind in the eyes of the Prophet naturally has more right than any other to be his successor.

    5. That building places of worship over graves was the practice of the former nations.

    6. The prohibition of taking graves as places of worship.

    7. The obligation to take precautions against that which is undesirable.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That the Hadith proves the forbiddance of building places of worship over graves, and so what may be said of those who worship their inhabitants?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith clearly prohibits the building of places of worship over graves because this entails glorification of their inhabitants, and glorification is a kind of worship, and directing acts of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    ..ooOOoo..

    It is narrated by Ahmad, with a good sanad,3 on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood (ra ), in a narration traced back to the Prophet (saas ) himself, the following:

    "Verily, the most wicked of people are those who, when the Hour overtakes them, are still alive, and those who take graves as places of worship." (Also Narrated by Abu Hatim in his Saheeh)

    The Messenger of Allah (saas ) informs us in this Hadith about the two categories of people upon whom the Hour (i.e. the Day of Judgement) will fall: (i) Those who build places of worship over graves and (ii) those who pray at those places of worship, since this is implicit in the phrase: "taking the graves as places of worship," for they glorify the occupants of the graves and deify them and seek blessings from their graves, which actions are totally unacceptable to the person who has an uncorrupted soul and is still upon the fitrah, and which no person with an ounce of faith in his heart can accept it because conflicts with all authentic sources, whether in the Qur'an or the Sunnah.

    Benefits Derived From This Hadith

    1. The miracle of the Messenger's prophecy being fulfilled as he had predicted that some members of his Ummah would build places of worship over graves.

    2. That the Hour will not fall upon the Believers.

    3. Confirmation that the Hour will come.

    4. Prohibition of building places of worship over graves and praying close to them, even without building anything over them because a place of worship does not have to be a building but may be any place used for worship, even if it is outdoors.

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of the Chapter

    That it proves that building places of worship over graves is prohibited, and therefore, what may be said of those who actually worship their inhabitants?

    Relevance of This Hadith to the Subject of Tawheed

    That the Hadith describes those who build places of worship over graves as the wickedest of people because that entails glorification of their inhabitants, and glorification is a form of worship, and dedicating acts of worship to other than Allah (swt ) is Shirk.

    Important Note

    The rules of the grave are four:

    1. For men to visit them without undertaking a journey to do so, is a favourable act because it reminds them of the Hereafter.

    2. Building over graves and burning lights over them is totally forbidden because it leads inevitably to Shirk.

    3. Taking the occupants of graves as intercessors, or supplicating them directly is an act of major Shirk because supplication is a form of worship and directing it to other than Allah (swt ) is an act of Shirk.

    4. For women to visit graves is prohibited as the Prophet (saas ) said: "Allah (swt ) has cursed those women who visit the graves."4

    What Shaikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah Said Concerning This Matter

    He (saas ) forbade it (building over graves) towards the end of his life and cursed whoever did so, likewise praying near them, even if no building is erected over them, and this is the intended meaning here, since none of the Companions would have built a mosque over the grave of the Messenger of Allah (saas ), for every place where the intention for prayer is made is a place of worship; indeed, every place which is used as a place of prayer may be classified as a mosque, as He (saas ) said: "The whole earth has been made for me a pure and clean mosque." 5


    Footnotes

    1. Narrated by Bukhari.
    2. Khaleel: A special, most beloved friend.
    3. Sanad: Chain of narrators.
    4. Narrated by Abu Dawood.
    5. Narrated by Abu Dawood.

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