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    War, Slavery, and Compound Tribute Extraction

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    A basic idea of how the people of previously colonized and impoverished countries are kept as shackled slaves via corrupt leaders vying for a chance to fancy themselves as having power whilst signing off unhonourable "my people owe you" cheques whilst filling their pockets.
    Also gives an idea of why the oil rich middle east is criminally kept in perpetual war.

    Blood and Sweat - the actual currency of the usurer slave drivers of the past generation - though heading towards a digital machine age where only the most foolish and docile are seen by the corrupt mafias as worthy of existing.

    A documentary on the usury leeching World Bank and IMF by journalist John Pilger.







    And 2018

    Last edited by Abz2000; 06-20-2018 at 10:47 PM.
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    Re: War, Slavery, and Compound Tribute Extraction

    What is interest based fiat money?

    A high quality presentation that will make one wonder what university economics professors are up to with hundreds of hours of superficial lectures:

    Last edited by Abz2000; 06-21-2018 at 11:40 AM.
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    Re: War, Slavery, and Compound Tribute Extraction

    Rothschild family banking businesses pioneered international high finance during the industrialisation of Europe and were instrumental in supporting railway systems across the world and in complex government financing for projects such as the Suez Canal. During the 19th century, the family bought up a large proportion of the property in Mayfair, London.
    -----


    Here's an example of how they made a deal with portugal after enslaving it and then taking brazil out of its hands and loading the bondage onto it - of course the brazilians did the manual work in the process of "independence" - and God knows best how they managed to stir that one up:

    "... your friends at the West End have the business in their hands to decide between Portugal & Brazil and an early intimation from you may serve us materially."
    —Samuel Phillips & Co to Nathan Rothschild

    The Rothschild family was directly involved in the Independence of Brazil from Portugal in the early 19th century. Upon an agreement, the Brazilian government should pay a compensation of two million pounds sterling to the Kingdom of Portugal to accept Brazil's independence.[27] N M Rothschild & Sons was pre-eminent in raising this capital for the government of the newly formed Empire of Brazil on the London market. In 1825, Nathan Rothschild raised £2,000,000, and indeed was probably discreetly involved in the earlier tranche of this loan which raised £1,000,000 in 1824.[27][29] Part of the price of Portuguese recognition of Brazilian independence, secured in 1825, was that Brazil should take over repayment of the principal and interest on a £1,500,000 loan made to the Portuguese government in 1823 by N M Rothschild & Sons.[27] A correspondence from Samuel Phillips & Co. in 1824 suggests the close involvement of the Rothschilds in the occasion.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rothschild_family


    Brazil now seems to have become a crime ridden place where people shoot each other to death on the streets over tiny drug deals.

    Looking at how they set up prussia for orchestration of the nazi game after taking monopoly control of the british economy through the battle of waterloo with napoleon - then shut shop in germany due to lack of heirs, assassinating ferdinand of austria and setting off world war one, then financing the arming of the axis powers through their usurer friends and also through Rio Tinto whilst at the same time utilizing the british and american armies and their allies to annihilate each others' fight capable men (conveniently choosing the times in which economic bubble implosions would otherwise draw the wrath of the populations on them) - one notices that the destruction of the fruits of peoples labour and mass slaughter of individuals is not much of an issue as long as the regular tributes via usury keep increasing.


    the family network enabled Nathan to receive in London the news of Wellington's victory at the Battle of Waterloo a full day ahead of the government's official messengers.[22] Rothschild's first concern on this occasion was not to the potential financial advantage on the market which the knowledge would have given him; he and his courier immediately took the news to the government.[22] It was then repeated in later popular accounts, such as that of Morton.[24][25] The basis for the Rothschild's most famously profitable move was made after the news of British victory had been made public. Nathan Rothschild calculated that the future reduction in government borrowing brought about by the peace would create a bounce in British government bonds after a two-year stabilisation, which would finalise the post-war restructuring of the domestic economy.[23][24][25] In what has been described as one of the most audacious moves in financial history, Nathan immediately bought up the government bond market, for what at the time seemed an excessively high price, before waiting two years, then selling the bonds on the crest of a short bounce in the market in 1817 for a 40% profit. Given the sheer power of leverage the Rothschild family had at their disposal, this profit was an enormous sum.

    In 1818, Nathan Rothschild arranged a £5 million (equal to £340 million in 2017) loan to the Prussian government, and the issuing of bonds for government loans formed a mainstay of his bank’s business.


    Nathan Rothschild in league with his brothers in europe gained a position of such power in the City of London that by 1825–26 he was able to supply enough coin to the Bank of England to enable it to avert a market liquidity crisis.

    The five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild were elevated to the Austrian nobility by Emperor Francis I of Austria, and they were all granted the Austrian hereditary title of Freiherr (baron) on 29 September 1822.

    Prussia (/ˈprʌʃə/; German: Preußen, pronounced [ˈpʁɔʏsn̩] ( listen)) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

    In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto.[2][3] Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947.[4]


    Major 19th century businesses founded with Rothschild family capital include:

    Alliance Assurance (1824) (now Royal & Sun Alliance);
    Chemin de Fer du Nord (1845)
    The Rio Tinto mining company (1873)
    Eramet (1880)
    Imerys (1880)
    De Beers (1888)


    The Rio Tinto mining company (1873)
    (from the 1880s onwards, the Rothschilds had full control of Rio Tinto)
    Check out the "public impact" section to see how they managed to cover their tracks via "opponent" dictators most likely funded and run by themselves in a fashion similar to the way they cover their tracks via multi parent companies:
    And yup, sometimes they just have the mine doors closed - other times the employees get diagnosed as mad -like something out of terminator movies- or "commit suicide".

    Activist groups have also expressed concern regarding Rio Tinto's operations in Papua New Guinea, which they allege were one catalyst of the Bougainville separatist crisis.[99] The British antipoverty charity War on Want has also criticised Rio Tinto for its complicity in the serious human rights violations which have occurred near the mines it operates in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.[100]

    On 31 January 2010, Rio Tinto locked out nearly 600 workers from a mine in Boron, California, USA.[101]

    Rio Tinto was also accused of planning and funding the murder of RTI activist Shehla Masood in Bhopal, India. Apparently, she was protesting illegal diamond mining done by Rio Tinto in connivance with government officers. The case was, however, solved and no connection to Rio Tinto was established, though popular opinion still perceives them as the possible culprit.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rio_Tinto_Group


    The family funded Cecil Rhodes in the creation of the African colony of Rhodesia. From the late 1880s onwards, the family took over control of the Rio Tinto mining company.

    Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902)[1] was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.

    He entered the diamond trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18, and over the next two decades gained near-complete domination of the world diamond market. His De Beers diamond company, formed in 1888, retains its prominence into the 21st century. Rhodes entered the Cape Parliament in 1880, and a decade later became Prime Minister. After overseeing the formation of Rhodesia during the early 1890s, he was forced to resign as Prime Minister in 1896 after the disastrous Jameson Raid, an unauthorised attack on Paul Kruger's South African Republic (or Transvaal). After Rhodes's death in 1902, at the age of 48, he was buried in the Matopos Hills in what is now Zimbabwe.

    One of Rhodes's primary motivators in politics and business was his professed belief that the Anglo-Saxon race was, to quote his will, "the first race in the world".[2] Under the reasoning that "the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race",[2] he advocated vigorous settler colonialism and ultimately a reformation of the British Empire so that each component would be self-governing and represented in a single parliament in London.
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes


    Blue eyes are actually a result of melanin deficiency and not something to be proud and arrogant about - Allah alludes to it in a negative manner - and it may possibly have something to do with pork consumption / bestiality with relation to pigs - possibly before humans - however it definitely is not wise to attempt to make the negative trait dominant, and it is definitely forbidden to commit crimes - since it is Allah who can heal.

    Blue-eyed humans have a single, common ancestor
    Date:
    January 31, 2008
    Source:
    University of Copenhagen
    Summary:
    New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. Scientists have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6,000-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye color of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.


    What is the genetic mutation

    "Originally, we all had brown eyes," said Professor Hans Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. "But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a "switch," which literally "turned off" the ability to produce brown eyes." The OCA2 gene codes for the so-called P protein, which is involved in the production of melanin, the pigment that gives colour to our hair, eyes and skin. The "switch," which is located in the gene adjacent to OCA2 does not, however, turn off the gene entirely, but rather limits its action to reducing the production of melanin in the iris -- effectively "diluting" brown eyes to blue. The switch's effect on OCA2 is very specific therefore. If the OCA2 gene had been completely destroyed or turned off, human beings would be without melanin in their hair, eyes or skin colour -- a condition known as albinism.



    The verse actually points to the stupidity and criminality of the secularist leadership:

    ("Amthal" means primary/top/greatest/dominant, "hum" means: them)
    أَزْرَق Azraq means Blue, Tareeq means way/method/institution.



    زُرْقًايَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ وَنَحْشُرُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ يَوْمَئِذٍ


    Shakir:
    On the day when the trumpet shall be blown, and We will gather the guilty, blue-eyed, on that day

    Wahiduddin Khan :
    the Day when the trumpet shall be blown: We shall gather all the sinners on that Day. Their eyes will turn blue with terror

    Umm Muhammad (Sahih International):
    The Day the Horn will be blown. And We will gather the criminals, that Day, blue-eyed.


    يَتَخَافَتُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا عَشْرًا

    Shakir
    They shall consult together secretly: You did tarry but ten (centuries).

    Wahiduddin Khan
    and they shall murmur to one another, You stayed only ten days on the earth

    Umm Muhammad (Sahih International)
    They will murmur among themselves, "You remained not but ten [days in the world]."


    نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذْ يَقُولُ أَمْثَلُهُمْ طَرِيقَةً إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا يَوْمً

    Shakir
    We know best what they say, when the fairest of them in course would say: You tarried but a day.

    Wahiduddin Khan :
    We know best what they will say. The most perceptive of them will say, You stayed only one day.

    Umm Muhammad (Sahih International):
    We are most knowing of what they say when the best of them in manner will say, "You remained not but one day."

    Quran, Chapter 20, Verse 102



    The Prophet is reported to have advised his followers not to enter the abodes of those who were destroyed by Allah's wrath due to their clinging to evil traits and injustice - except if they entered crying - in other words the sahabas were being advised to not say stuff like "how lovely" - nor were they allowed to gloat at the misfortune of those before them - a wise instruction.

    ---


    The master race (German: Herrenrasse, also referred to as -Herrenvolk (help·info) "master people") is a concept in Nazi and Neo-Nazi ideology in which the putative Nordic or Aryan races, predominant among Germans and other northern European peoples, are deemed the highest in racial hierarchy. Members of this alleged master race were referred to as Herrenmenschen ("master humans").


    The Nazi official Alfred Rosenberg believed that the Nordic race was descended from Proto-Aryans, who he believed had prehistorically dwelt on the North German Plain and who had ultimately originated from the lost continent of Atlantis.[1] The Nazis declared that the Nordics (now referred to as the Germanic peoples), or Aryans as they sometimes called them, were superior to all other races. The Nazis believed they were entitled to expand territorially.[2] This concept is known as Nordicism. The actual policy that was implemented by the Nazis resulted in the Aryan certificate, the one form of the official document that was required by the law for all citizens of the Reich was the "Lesser Aryan certificate" (Kleiner Ariernachweis), which could be obtained through an Ahnenpass, which required the owner to trace her or his lineage through baptism, birth certificates or certified proof thereof that all grandparents were of "Aryan descent".

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_race

    Allah knows best how many of those dead bodies in mass graves after relocation to concentration camps were those of European Muslims who had migrated to Europe via Spain and Turkey, circumcision was apparently a method of checking by the fascist charged soldiers who had been trained to hate non-aryans. The fact that most of the world is ignorant of the murder of millions more Muslims in asia than the "holocaust" through rothschild shill Churchill's starvation and mob upset policies shows that this was an issue purposefully ittle publicised.

    https://edition.cnn.com/2016/09/15/u...ims/index.html

    Owing to labour migration in the 1960s and several waves of political refugees since the 1970s, Islam has become a visible religion in Germany.
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_Germany


    Nazi board games were an element of Adolf Hitler’s propaganda campaign within Nazi Germany. Hitler’s Propaganda Minister, Joseph Goebbels, understood that “To be perceived, propaganda must evoke the interest of an audience and must be transmitted through an attention-getting communications medium.” [1] Board games and toys for children served as a way to spread racial, military, and political propaganda to German youth.

    Juden Raus! (1936) Edit
    Juden Raus! (lit. "Jews Out!") is a Cross and Circle-style game published in Germany by Günther & Co. in 1936.[3][4] The game was advertised as "entertaining, instructive and solidly constructed."[5] The game's equipment includes a pair of dice, a game board, and several game piece figurines with large pointed hats meant to represent Jews.[6]

    Players take turns rolling the dice and moving their "Jews" across the map toward "collection points" outside the city walls for deportation to Mandate Palestine.[7] Written on the game board, it says "If you manage to see off 6 Jews, you’ve won a clear victory!"[6]

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_board_games


    qlow-300px-Balfour_declaration_unmarked.jpg

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Declaration


    In 1917 Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild was the addressee of the Balfour Declaration to the Zionist Federation,[43] which committed the British government to the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.
    His son, Victor, Lord Rothschild was against granting asylum or helping Jewish refugees in 1938.[a][44]



    After the death of James Jacob de Rothschild in 1868, his eldest son Alphonse Rothschild took over the management of the family bank and was the most active in support for Eretz Israel.[45] The Rothschild family archives show that during the 1870s the family contributed nearly 500,000 francs per year on behalf of Eastern Jewry to the Alliance Israélite Universelle.[46] Baron Edmond James de Rothschild, youngest son of James Jacob de Rothschild, was a patron of the first settlement in Palestine at Rishon-LeZion, and bought from Ottoman landlords parts of the land which now makes up present-day Israel. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonisation Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (50,586 ha) of land and set up business ventures.[47] In Tel Aviv, the Rothschild Boulevard is named after him, as are a number of localities throughout Israel which he assisted in founding, including Metulla, Zikhron Ya'akov, Rishon Lezion and Rosh Pina. A park in Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, the Parc Edmond de Rothschild (Edmond de Rothschild Park), is also named after its founder.[48] The Rothschilds also played a significant part in the funding of Israel's governmental infrastructure.
    James A. de Rothschild financed the Knesset building as a gift to the State of Israel[49]
    and the Supreme Court of Israel building was donated to Israel by Dorothy de Rothschild.[50]
    Outside the President's Chamber is displayed the letter Mrs. Rothschild wrote to the then current Prime Minister Shimon Peres expressing her intention to donate a new building for the Supreme Court.[51]


    Really makes the statement 9/11 was an inside job sound quite lame in comparison...

    The Japanese government approached the London and Paris families for funding during the Russo-Japanese War. The London consortium's issue of Japanese war bonds would total £11.5 million (at 1907 currency rates; £1.03 billion in 2012 currency terms).

    See also:
    Berlin Baghdad Railway:
    International financing can cause a lot of twists and turns
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berl...aghdad_railway




    "I have not the nerve for his operations. They are well-planned, with great cleverness and adroitness in execution – but he is in money and funds what Napoleon was in war."

    —Baron Baring on Nathan Rothschild.



    Some Winking Propaganda and Flattery with a bit of news:

    Niles' Weekly Register, Volume 49 had the following to say about the Rothschilds influence on international high finance in 1836;

    "The Rothschilds are the wonders of modern banking … we see the descendants of Judah, after a persecution of two thousand years, peering above kings, rising higher than emperors, and holding a whole continent in the hollow of their hands. The Rothschilds govern a Christian world. Not a cabinet moves without their advice. They stretch their hand, with equal ease, from Petersburgh to Vienna, from Vienna to Paris, from Paris to London, from London to Washington. Baron Rothschild, the head of the house, is the true king of Judah, the prince of the captivity, the Messiah so long looked for by this extraordinary people. He holds the keys of peace or war, blessing or cursing. … They are the brokers and counselors of the kings of Europe and of the republican chiefs of America. What more can they desire?"[33]




    Here is a romanticised angle on some of the methods of operation:





    The name of Rothschild became synonymous with extravagance and great wealth; and, the family was renowned for its art collecting, for its palaces, as well as for its philanthropy. By the end of the century, the family owned, or had built, at the lowest estimates, over 41 palaces, of a scale and luxury perhaps unparalleled even by the richest royal families.[23] The British Chancellor of the Exchequer Lloyd George claimed, in 1909, that Nathan, Lord Rothschild was the most powerful man in Britain.


    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Hahn

    By the time he was ten years old, all four of his older sisters were married to German princes and living in Germany.

    Read also:

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/arti...mily-past.html

    In 1933, Philip moved to Schloss Salem, the home of his sister, Princess Theodora and her husband, the Margrave of Baden. Part of Schloss Salem was a school run by Kurt Hahn, Within a short amount of time, Kurt Hahn, who was Jewish, left the Salem School to start Gordonstoun in Scotland. Prince Philip transferred to Gordonstoun, and continued his education.

    ---

    As has been previously reported, the Queen Mother wrote an impassioned letter to her daughter, The Queen in May 1961.

    'However good Gourdonstone is, it is miles and miles away, he might as well be at school abroad,' she wrote. 'He would be terribly cut off and lonely up in the far north.'

    Despite her best efforts Prince Philip won and Prince Charles went to the rigorous Scottish boarding school. He escaped whenever he could to stay with his beloved grandmother.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/ar...e-Charles.html

    Also:
    https://www.nytimes.com/1974/12/16/a...un-school.html














    https://hendersonlefthook.wordpress....of-rothschild/See also:
    Last edited by Abz2000; 07-30-2018 at 10:44 AM.
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  5. #4
    Abz2000's Avatar
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    Re: War, Slavery, and Compound Tribute Extraction

    Dajjāl (Arabic: دجال) is an adjective of Syriac origin.[1] It is also a common Arabic superlative form of the root word dajl meaning "lie" or "deception".[2] Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, with the definite article al- ("the"), refers to "the deceiving Messiah", a specific end times deceiver.
    The Dajjāl is an evil being who will seek to impersonate the true Messiah.

    The name Dajjal also is rooted in an Arabic word dajel, which means "to gold plate" or "to coat in gold". It is derived from word meaning "to mix".


    I just found the full N.Y Herald quote from the niles register.

    Screenshot_2018-07-29-23-39-53.jpg

    Screenshot_2018-07-29-23-18-39.jpg

    Attachment 6473




    From the Niles Register , September 19, 1835 (page 41 of Weekly Register, Vol. 49) we find this
    passage:

    a. “The Rothschilds are the wonders of modem banking. Sprung from that poetic, that ancient, that mysterious race, from whom we all derive our religion and half of our civilization, we see the descendants of Judah, after a persecution of two thousand years, peering above kings, rising higher than emperors, and holding a whole continent in the hollow of their hands. The Rothschilds govern a Christian world. Not a cabinet moves without their advice. They stretch their hand, and with equal ease, from Petersburgh to Vienna, from Vienna to Paris, from Paris to London, and from London to Washington. Baron Rothschild, the head of the house, is the true king of Judah, the prince of captivity, the Messiah so long looked for by this extraordinary people. He holds the keys of peace and war, blessing or cursing.
    To what will all of this lead?
    Is the holy city to be rebuilt? - the third temple to rear its turrets to heaven? No. The lion of the tribe of Judah, Baron Rothschild, possesses more real force than David- more wisdom than Solomon. What do they care for the barren seacoast of Palestine? They are the brokers and counsellors of the kings of Europe, and of the republican chiefs of America. What more can they desire? We understand that an accomplished and beautiful daughter of this house, is married to an American, and intends to soon make New York her permanent residence. The beauty of Judah is not departed, nor is the strength of the House of Israel weakened.

    [N. Y. Herald reprint]


    https://archive.org/stream/nandonnan...Grove_djvu.txt

    Screenshot_2018-07-29-19-35-45.jpg

    Screenshot_2018-07-29-19-38-17.jpg


    The book goes on to claim


    Once again, it is not about the veracity of the report, only that 100 years later the world reflected the claims described in reality, with the Rothschilds being instrumental in the creation of the State of Israel, as we’re about to learn.

    38. In 1841 we find an article published in the “ Colonial Timed ’ (now The Times of London), published February 23 rd of that year, containing Lord Shaftesbury’s “Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the Restoration of the Jews to Palestine ”.

    Reading further on this topic of proto-Zionism on Wikipedia we read: “Ideas of the restoration of the Jews in the Land of Israel entered British public discourse in the early 19th century, at about the same time as the British Protestant Revival. Not all such attitudes were favorable towards the Jews; they were shaped in part by a variety of Protestant beliefs; or by a streak of philo-Semitism among the classically educated British elite; or by hopes to extend the Empire.

    At the urging of Lord Shaftesbury, Britain established a consulate in Jerusalem in 1838, the first diplomatic appointment in the city.

    In 1839, the Church of Scotland sent Andrew Bonar and Robert Murray M'Chevne to report on the condition of the Jews there. The report was widely published 11 ® and was followed by Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine.

    In August 1840, The Times reported that the British government was considering Jewish restoration. Correspondence in 1841-42 between Moses Montefiore. the President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews and Charles Henry Churchill, the British consul in Damascus, is seen as the first recorded plan proposed for political Zionism ”

    b. Reading further, we visit an article on Wikipedia titled “ Timeline of Zionism ” and find these
    points which provide more context:

    “ 1839: Lord Shaftesbury takes out a full-page advert in The Times addressed to the Protestant monarchs of Europe and entitled "The State and the rebirth of the Jews", which included the suggestion for the Jews to return to Palestine to seize the lands of Galilee and Judea, as well as the phrase "Earth without people - people without land".

    c. 1840: Lord Shaftesbury presents a paper to British Foreign Minister Lord Palmerston calling for the 'recall of the Jews to their ancient land'.

    d. 1840 (August 1 1): Lord Palmerston writes to Lord Ponsonbv. British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire :

    "There exists at the present time among the Jews dispersed over Europe, a strong notion that the time is approaching when their nation is to return to Palestine... It would be of manifest importance to the Sultan to encourage the Jews to return and settle in Palestine because the wealth which they would bring with them would increase the resources of the Sultan's dominions; and the Jewish people, if returning under the sanction and protection, and at the invitation of the Sultan, would be a check upon any future evil designs of Mehemet Ali (of Egypt) or his successor... I have to instruct Your Excellency strongly to re-commend (to the Turkish Government) to hold out every just encouragement to the Jews of Europe to return to Palestine.

    https://archive.org/stream/nandonnan...Grove_djvu.txt


    The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics

    Historians/History
    tags: Holocaust

    by Edwin Black

    Edwin Black is the author of "IBM and the Holocaust" and "War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race," from which the following article is drawn.

    Hitler and his henchmen victimized an entire continent and exterminated millions in his quest for a co-called "Master Race."

    But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race didn't originate with Hitler. The idea was created in the United States, and cultivated in California, decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenicists played an important, although little known, role in the American eugenics movement's campaign for ethnic cleansing.

    More than just providing the scientific roadmap, America funded Germany's eugenic institutions. By 1926, Rockefeller had donated some $410,000 -- almost $4 million in 21st-Century money -- to hundreds of German researchers. In May 1926, Rockefeller awarded $250,000 to the German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, later to become the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. Among the leading psychiatrists at the German Psychiatric Institute was Ernst Rüdin, who became director and eventually an architect of Hitler's systematic medical repression.

    Another in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's eugenic complex of institutions was the Institute for Brain Research. Since 1915, it had operated out of a single room. Everything changed when Rockefeller money arrived in 1929. A grant of $317,000 allowed the Institute to construct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The Institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years. Leading the Institute, once again, was Hitler's medical henchman Ernst Rüdin. Rüdin's organization became a prime director and recipient of the murderous experimentation and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies and others.

    Beginning in 1940, thousands of Germans taken from old age homes, mental institutions and other custodial facilities were systematically gassed. Between 50,000 and 100,000 were eventually killed.

    Leon Whitney, executive secretary of the American Eugenics Society declared of Nazism, "While we were pussy-footing around…the Germans were calling a spade a spade."

    A special recipient of Rockefeller funding was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin. For decades, American eugenicists had craved twins to advance their research into heredity. The Institute was now prepared to undertake such research on an unprecedented level. On May 13, 1932, the Rockefeller Foundation in New York dispatched a radiogram to its Paris office: JUNE MEETING EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE NINE THOUSAND DOLLARS OVER THREE YEAR PERIOD TO KWG INSTITUTE ANTHROPOLOGY FOR RESEARCH ON TWINS AND EFFECTS ON LATER GENERATIONS OF SUBSTANCES TOXIC FOR GERM PLASM.

    At the time of Rockefeller's endowment, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a hero in American eugenics circles, functioned as a head of the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. Rockefeller funding of that Institute continued both directly and through other research conduits during Verschuer's early tenure. In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to form a rival eugenics facility in Frankfurt that was much heralded in the American eugenic press. Research on twins in the Third Reich exploded, backed up by government decrees. Verschuer wrote in Der Erbarzt, a eugenic doctor's journal he edited, that Germany's war would yield a "total solution to the Jewish problem."



    Verschuer had a long-time assistant. His name was Josef Mengele. On May 30, 1943, Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Verschuer notified the German Research Society, "My assistant, Dr. Josef Mengele (M.D., Ph.D.) joined me in this branch of research. He is presently employed as Hauptsturmführer [captain] and camp physician in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anthropological testing of the most diverse racial groups in this concentration camp is being carried out with permission of the SS Reichsführer [Himmler]."

    Mengele began searching the boxcar arrivals for twins. When he found them, he performed beastly experiments, scrupulously wrote up the reports and sent the paperwork back to Verschuer's institute for evaluation. Often, cadavers, eyes and other body parts were also dispatched to Berlin's eugenic institutes.


    Rockefeller executives never knew of Mengele. With few exceptions, the foundation had ceased all eugenic studies in Nazi-occupied Europe before the war erupted in 1939. But by that time the die had been cast. The talented men Rockefeller and Carnegie financed, the institutions they helped found, and the science it helped create took on a scientific momentum of their own.

    After the war, eugenics was declared a crime against humanity--an act of genocide. Germans were tried and they cited the California statutes in their defense. To no avail. They were found guilty.

    However, Mengele's boss Verschuer escaped prosecution. Verschuer re-established his connections with California eugenicists who had gone underground and renamed their crusade "human genetics." Typical was an exchange July 25, 1946 when Popenoe wrote Verschuer, "It was indeed a pleasure to hear from you again. I have been very anxious about my colleagues in Germany…. I suppose sterilization has been discontinued in Germany?" Popenoe offered tidbits about various American eugenic luminaries and then sent various eugenic publications. In a separate package, Popenoe sent some cocoa, coffee and other goodies.

    Verschuer wrote back, "Your very friendly letter of 7/25 gave me a great deal of pleasure and you have my heartfelt thanks for it. The letter builds another bridge between your and my scientific work; I hope that this bridge will never again collapse but rather make possible valuable mutual enrichment and stimulation."

    Soon, Verschuer once again became a respected scientist in Germany and around the world. In 1949, he became a corresponding member of the newly formed American Society of Human Genetics, organized by American eugenicists and geneticists.

    In the fall of 1950, the University of Münster offered Verschuer a position at its new Institute of Human Genetics, where he later became a dean. In the early and mid-1950s, Verschuer became an honorary member of numerous prestigious societies, including the Italian Society of Genetics, the Anthropological Society of Vienna, and the Japanese Society for Human Genetics.

    Human genetics' genocidal roots in eugenics were ignored by a victorious generation that refused to link itself to the crimes of Nazism and by succeeding generations that never knew the truth of the years leading up to war. Now governors of five states, including California have issued public apologies to their citizens, past and present, for sterilization and other abuses spawned by the eugenics movement.


    https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/1796





    Aliyah Bet , the most efflcient service of Israel, prepared many dirty operations to convince Jews living outside Israel for emigration to the "Promised Land" and eventually accomplished are the dirtiest operations of Aliyah Bet organization against the Jewish community are revealed:

    Between 1948-1950, 50 thousand Yemen Jews were misled by Aliyah Bet planned "the Messiah came to the world in Israel" the name of this operation was "Magic Carpet Operation" with the Resurrection of Messiah in Israel.

    Between 1950-1959, 120 thousand Iraq Jews had to emigrate Israel in order to escape(!) from the bombing assaults Aliyah Bet executed to the synagogues in Baghdad. Aliyah Bet named this operation "Ali Baba Operation". - In 1984, 7 thousand Ethiopian Jews were kidnapped by Aliyah Bet to Israel from East Sudan with a covert operation named "Moses Operation". - In 1991, 15 thousand Ethiopian Jews were purchased fi-om the leaders of the state like slaves, and with the "Solomon Operation" of Aliyah Bet they were kidnapped to Israel.

    Aliyah Bet's filthy operations created the needed atmosphere and effect to have a mass number of Jews who perceived emigration as "salvation". Israel joumalists Dan Raviv and Yossi Melman speak about Aliyah Bet as below:


    "Thanks to the secret agents of Aliyah Bet, the population of Israel nearly doubled, to over one million Jews in the first four years after independence... Members of the intelligence community firmly denied using any terrorist tactics , but they were proud to say that they consistently came up with new and original methods to transport Jews to Israel. They were, after all, for the survival of their new nation."

    Yes, agents of Aliyah Bet succeeded in doubling the population of Israel State in its first four years. However, this success was built on dirty operations just like the previous emigration operations of Zionism against the Jews.

    Mossad bombs on Iraqi Jews ; the Ali Baba Operation

    The systematic oppression policy of the Zionist leaders forcing European Jewry for emigration did not result in the expected "Jewish transport" rate despite all the efforts made.

    This conclusion urged the Zionist leaders to take radical precautions against the Jewish community. As stated in the book Zionism and Racialism; "When the emigration of European Jews did not meet the expected rate; having them move out of their countries and transport to Israel, convincing and even forcing them to occupy places where the Palestine Arabs left, were the predetermined policies of Israel State and World Zionist Organization."

    In this respect, Israeli leaders determined the Jewish community to be the first to "suffer from harsh conditions": Iraqi Jews were exiled to Babylon and lived there for 2500 years. Their population reached to 150 thousands and they built 60 synagogues in the locations where they settled. These people lived in peace with Muslims until Mossad agents arrived there.

    Despite the Emigration Law declared in 1950, Iraqi Jews were not willing to go to Israel at all. Mossad agents realized that Iraqi Jews were not willing to have their names registered on emigration lists, so they did not hesitate to drop bombs over them to remind them that they were in danger. In a bombed attack to the Masauda Shemtou synagogue, three Iraqi Jews were killed and ten were injured. In the following days it was found out that the responsible raiders were Mossad agents. It is clearly seen in Zionism and Racialism that In the bombed attack to the Masauda Shemtou synagogue in Baghdad, the perpetrators were found out to be Israel agents and tried." The same subject is explained in detail within the book about Mossad , Every Spy a Prince , written by Israeli journalists Dan Raviv and Yossi Melman.




    An Iraqi Jew named David Reuben is a witness of the events Iraqi Jews were exposed to in the Ali Baba Operation and in Jerusalem Post dated 21st of July, 1964 he gives some details about the case. He especially expresses that Zionists started a psychological war against the Iraqi Jews during the operation. The primary aim of this was to create hostility between Muslims and Jews to force them for their immigration to their "homeland" Israel. In addition to this; some physical methods were also put to use according to his words. Synagogues were bombed which resulted in slight damage to the Jews and again Muslims were accused of these deeds. Eventually, Jews were made believe that they were not safe in their residence. As told by Reuben, Zionists were behind the scene of all the incidents.

    This unclarified event was actually prepared by the Zionist leaders. It was later brought out to daylight, and the bloody emigration operation which was a dirty secret in Zionist history was revealed in Israel press. Weekly Israel paper Ha'olam Hazeh in its issues dated 20th of April and 1st of June, 1966 and daily Yedioth Aharonot in its issue dated 8 November, 1977 declared that the bombing was made by Mossad. Jewish writer Ilan Halevi in his book named La Question Juive published in 1981. The Ali Baba Operation was also confirmed in August 1972, by Kokhavi Shemesh in a newspaper named "Black Panthers" published in Israel. Also on 7th of November, 1977 with the request of Tel- Aviv Major Court, questions were directed to Mordekai Porat journalist Baruch Nadel and his answers cleared out the same result.

    Iraqi Jews who were anxious with Mossad's bombs found a way to "escape"(!) by emigration to Israel. The dirty operation aiming at emigration of Iraqi Jews to Israel by force, named "Ali Baba Operation", was initiated by the Zionist leaders. At the end of the operation, 120 thousand Iraqi Jews were completely transferred to Israel.

    Another influential factor in bringing Jews to Israel was the covert diplomatic relations existing between Israel and Iraqi Government. Agents of Aliyah Bet bribed the Iraqi Prime Minister in order to purchase the Jews:

    "Shlomo Hillel the Aliyah Bet agent responsible of emigration was posing as "British businessman Richard Armstrong" representing Near East Air Transport Corporation of the United States in talks with the Iraqi government. After two years of active anti-Semitic oppression, the Iraqi parliament passed a law in March 1950 that permitted every Jew who wished to do so to leave the country. The Prime Minister was Toufik al-Sawidi. This seemed surprisingly lenient from a regime that had declared war on Israel and arrested hundreds of Jews for Zionist activities. The explanation lay in incentives offered to the prime minister who opened the emigration gates. He was also the chairman of Iraq Tours, which - by no coincidence - was appointed as agent for Near East Air Transport Corporation. In other words, by a roundabout method, the head of Iraq's government received bribes and kickbacks from Israeli intelligence. The obscure American airline covered its tracks carefully so as to disguise its close ties with the Israel government. No one knew that during 1948 and 1949 the company had flown all fifty thousand Jews of Yemen and Aden to Israel."



    -----




    ...


    In those years, Arabic workers were in the agriculture sector with high wages and did the most difficult tasks like house cleaning and labor work in industries. A new formula had to be found to decrease the wages as well as the Arabic population in the region. Before long, the solution was found... Doctor Thon, working for the Jewish Agency World Zionist Organization, found a solution to this problem which was explained in his speech on 1908:

    "Only an eastern Jew would work with a lower wage offered to an Arab. This way these eastern Jews transferred to Israel, will be supporting "Hebrew labor" which is the aim of Zionism and eliminating Palestine labor will come up as a result... If the continuous settlement of immigrating Yemen families to the pre-determined regions is achieved, then another problem would also be handled: The women and daughters of Yemen families will be replacing Arabic women working as maids in houses of immigrated families. Arabs are earning 20 to 25 francs a month."

    Yes, theoretically a solution was found to the problem: Yemen families' men would be working as workmen and women as maids in hardest jobs with the lowest wages. The problem was how to persuade these Jews for emigration to Israel. This problem was handled with a method that was just appropriate to the dirty history of Israel:

    "In 1910, a false preacher was sent to Yemen. Socialist and Zionist Warshevki was baptized according to the customs of the time and took the name of Rabbi Yavni'eli. Warshevki, under the name Rabbi Yavni'eli preached that Messiah had come down to earth in Israel and the third Israel Kingdom was established in Jerusalem.

    After some time; this date, when the Yemen Jews were being transferred to Israel through the Magic Carpet Operation in 1948, they were singing on the plane and calling Ben Gurion 'David! David! King of Israel!'.
    The operation was accomplished in two different steps. 5.5 million dollars were spent for the transportation operation during 1948 December to 1949 March and 1949 July to 1950
    September."


    Through the 'Magic Carpet Operation' accomplished during 1948-1949, 50.000 Yemen Jews were transferred to Israel. Yemen Jews were fooled with another dirty operation. Yet, their dramatic life was about to start at this point... In the "Promised Land", they would not meet with a comfortable and holy life. On the contrary, they were welcomed with the worst and hardest jobs of the land: "Most of the emigrants started working as farmers and they became the labor force for industry or transportation. While marshes were recovered and prepared for agriculture, many young people lost their lives."

    In the following years, Israel administration started seeking ways to bring the remaining Yemen Jews to Israel. The Israel agents, who were trjdng to pump up another artificial Jewish immigration to the Promised Land, started working for it. Zaman newspaper stated on 21 August, 1982 :

    "It was planned that an American Jew named Listen Bismirka functioning in Yemen would walk around the Yemen Jews and encourage them to emigrate to Israel. In an article of EJ)- I>ark ill Evsat newspaper it was reported; Listen Bismirka kept on his operations in the mountains of Yemen and tried to persuade first the religious sect for emigration. All actions
    aimed at bringing Yemen Jews to Israel."

    Israelis were partially successfiil in operations implemented in Yemen. However, Yemen Jews were again deceived with shiny words and promises which would finally result in their emigration to Israel. Yet, their new lives offered them only trouble. The daily Zaman gives
    some further information:

    "It is informed that the families transferred to Israel from Yemen with various methods of deceit were in distress. Two Jewish Yemen families wrote a special letter to the Yemen government and described their miserable situation in Israel. These families pronounced their wish for returning to Yemen and expressed their misery; "We are in distress here. They took our 25 thousand dollars and passports. Please send us new passports and tickets for us to
    return to our country" .


    https://archive.org/stream/Holocaust...Yahya_djvu.txt


    God knows who those poor herded sheep were imagining when they saw the balfour declaration (which clearly shows an intent to change the terms upon an anticipated change of circumstances - since the shill British government was making protection promises regarding the situation of jews in other countries - a recipe for future war - and annihilation of men who would otherwise fight the userers enslaving them in their own localities).

    Were they singing:
    "The lord is my shepherd i shall not want".

    I wonder who they assumed their "lord" to be?

    I heard the idiot behind the illuminated one eyed seal now puts himself on par with Allah just as prophesied.
    Dear Lord.


    See also:

    It looks like Imran Khan is about to become Pakistan's prime minister
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    Re: War, Slavery, and Compound Tribute Extraction

    The work of other spin-off banks in the global slavery plan:




    That crap about the loyalty of f.d.roosevelt is false though - roosevelt is the very puppet shill that was used to confiscate the gold of the common people of the 50 east india company colony states via executive order 6102 , and also to hold them financial hostage for his handlers who implemented the next stage in the antichrist fake godless israel deception.

    ---

    Executive Order 6102 is a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt "forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States". The limitation on gold ownership in the U.S. was repealed after President Gerald Ford signed a bill legalizing private ownership of gold coins, bars and certificates by an act of Congress codified in Pub.L. 93–373[1] which went into effect December 31, 1974. The order was made under the authority of the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the Emergency Banking Act the previous month.

    Rationale Edit

    The stated reason for the order was that hard times had caused "hoarding" of gold, stalling economic growth and making the depression worse.[2][full citation needed] The New York Times, on April 6, 1933, p. 16, wrote under the headline "Hoarding of Gold", "The Executive Order issued by the President yesterday amplifies and particularizes his earlier warnings against hoarding. On March 6, taking advantage of a wartime statute that had not been repealed, he issued Presidential Proclamation 2039 that forbade the hoarding 'of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency', under penalty of $10,000 and/or up to five to ten years imprisonment."[3]

    The main rationale behind the order was actually to remove the constraint on the Federal Reserve which prevented it from increasing the money supply during the depression; the Federal Reserve Act (1913) required 40% gold backing of Federal Reserve Notes issued. By the late 1920s, the Federal Reserve had almost hit the limit of allowable credit (in the form of Federal Reserve demand notes) that could be backed by the gold in its possession (see Great Depression).

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Order_6102


    ---


    The fact that is that his handlers had removed the gold from the market as they had done in england for the implementation of a part of the same criminal plan after rinsing the london stock exchange and causing a national banking liquidity crisis (which they had also utilised in order to enslave the population in further debt bondage).
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    The following is a well informed and informative lecture which touches on and sometimes delves into specific details about how the global satanic deception has been and is being committed via the usury bondage cartel:

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    The National Debt Scam





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    Notice how the city of london police force which patrols the square mile banking centers was initially a group of individuals set up as privately owned security guards (and possibly bailiffs) by the "city fathers of the square mile" i.e businesses which mainly focused on usury and jewellery mainly run by a certain ethnic segment of the community - and then somehow began to be called a police force.

    Also bear in mind that the square mile has its own governing structure and business employee based voting system, and that it has been involved in power struggles and tug of war with the monarchy for centuries - events surrounding the battle of hastings 1066, THIS:


    The first recorded Jewish community in Britain was brought to England in 1070 by King William the Conqueror, who believed that what he assumed to be its commercial skills would make his newly won country more prosperous. Two hundred years later, the Jews were no longer welcome. On 16 March 1190, in the run up to the Third Crusade, the Jewish population of York was massacred at the site where Clifford's Tower now stands,[3] and King Edward I of England passed the Statute of the Jewry (Statutum de Judaismo) in 1275, restricting the community's activities, most notably outlawing the practice of usury (charging interest).[4] When, 15 years later, Edward found that many of these provisions were ignored, he expelled the Jews from England. They emigrated to countries such as Poland which protected them by law. A small English community persisted in hiding despite the expulsion. Jews were not banned from Scotland, which until 1707 was an independent kingdom.

    In 1656, Oliver Cromwell made it clear that the ban on Jewish settlement in England and Wales would no longer be enforced, although when Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel brought a petition to allow Jews to return, the majority of the Protectorate Government turned it down. Gradually Jews eased back into England, first visiting for trade, then staying longer periods, and finally bringing their families. In mid-nineteenth century Ireland, then ruled by the British, Daniel O'Connell, known as "The Liberator" for his work on Catholic Emancipation, worked successfully for the repeal of the "De Judaismo" law, which prescribed a special yellow badge for Jews.[5] Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881), of Jewish birth although he joined the Church of England, served in government for three decades, twice as prime minister.
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Jews

    The Knights Templar, the subsequent crusades from 1094, the peasants' revolt, Freemasonry, the inner temple, the outer temple, the barrista, the bar, and the jewry, the east india company est. 1600, the first and second english civil wars

    The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
    The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I (1649); the exile of his son, Charles II (1651); and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then the Protectorate under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell (1653–1658) and subsequently his son Richard (1658–1659). In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688.[2]

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War
    ,

    the great plague of london in 1665, the wranglings and warnings/threats before the great fire of london in 1666 which also possibly contained any residual infection

    London had been a Roman settlement for four centuries and had become progressively more crowded inside its defensive city wall. It had also pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch, Holborn, and Southwark, and had reached far enough to include the independent City of Westminster.[7]

    By the late 17th century, the City proper—the area bounded by the City wall and the River Thames—was only a part of London, covering some 700 acres (2.8 km2; 1.1 sq mi),[8] and home to about 80,000 people, or one sixth of London's inhabitants. The City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs where most Londoners lived. The City was then, as now, the commercial heart of the capital, and was the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes.[9]

    The aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the slum suburbs, or in the exclusive Westminster district (the modern West End), the site of King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Wealthy people preferred to live at a convenient distance from the traffic-clogged, polluted, unhealthy City, especially after it was hit by a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the Plague Year of 1665.

    The relationship was often tense between the City and the Crown. The City of London had been a stronghold of republicanism during the Civil War (1642–1651), and the wealthy and economically dynamic capital still had the potential to be a threat to Charles II, as had been demonstrated by several republican uprisings in London in the early 1660s. The City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War, and could remember how Charles I's grab for absolute power had led to that national trauma.[10]

    They were determined to thwart any similar tendencies in his son, and when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers that Charles made of soldiers and other resources. Even in such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite. By the time that Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was already out of control
    .[11]


    A panorama of the City of London in 1616 by Claes Visscher. The tenement housing on London Bridge (far right) was a notorious death-trap in case of fire, although much would be destroyed in an earlier fire in 1632.
    Fire hazards in the city Edit

    Charles II
    The City was essentially medieval in its street plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, winding, cobbled alleys. It had experienced several major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632. Building with wood and roofing with thatch had been prohibited for centuries, but these cheap materials continued to be used.[12] The only major stone-built area was the wealthy centre of the City, where the mansions of the merchants and brokers stood on spacious lots, surrounded by an inner ring of overcrowded poorer parishes whose every inch of building space was used to accommodate the rapidly growing population. These parishes contained workplaces, many of which were fire hazards—foundries, smithies, glaziers—which were technically illegal in the City but tolerated in practice.

    The human habitations were crowded to bursting point, intermingled with these sources of heat, sparks, and pollution, and their construction increased the fire risk. The typical six- or seven-storey timbered London tenement houses had "jetties" (projecting upper floors). They had a narrow footprint at ground level, but maximised their use of land by "encroaching" on the street, as a contemporary observer put it, with the gradually increasing size of their upper storeys. The fire hazard was well perceived when the top jetties all but met across the narrow alleys; "as it does facilitate a conflagration, so does it also hinder the remedy", wrote one observer[13]—but "the covetousness of the citizens and connivancy [corruption] of Magistrates" worked in favour of jetties. In 1661, Charles II issued a proclamation forbidding overhanging windows and jetties, but this was largely ignored by the local government. Charles's next, sharper message in 1665 warned of the risk of fire from the narrowness of the streets and authorised both imprisonment of recalcitrant builders and demolition of dangerous buildings. It, too, had little impact.

    The river front was important in the development of the Great Fire. The Thames offered water for firefighting and the chance of escape by boat, but the poorer districts along the riverfront had stores and cellars of combustibles which increased the fire risk. All along the wharves, the rickety wooden tenements and tar paper shacks of the poor were shoehorned amongst "old paper buildings and the most combustible matter of tarr, pitch, hemp, rosen, and flax which was all layd up thereabouts."[14]

    London was also full of black powder, especially along the river front. Much of it was left in the homes of private citizens from the days of the English Civil War, as the former members of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army still retained their muskets and the powder with which to load them. Five to six hundred tons of powder was stored in the Tower of London.[15] The ship chandlers along the wharves also held large stocks, stored in wooden barrels.

    17th-century firefighting Edit

    "Firehooks" used to fight a fire at Tiverton in Devon, England, 1612
    Fires were common in the crowded wood-built city with its open fireplaces, candles, ovens, and stores of combustibles. There was no police or fire brigade to call, but London's local militia, known as the Trained Bands, was available for general emergencies, at least in principle, and watching for fire was one of the jobs of the watch, a thousand watchmen or "bellmen" who patrolled the streets at night.[16]


    After two rainy summers in 1664 and 1665, London had lain under an exceptional drought since November 1665, and the wooden buildings were tinder-dry after the long hot summer of 1666. A fire broke out at Thomas Farriner's bakery in Pudding Lane a little after midnight on Sunday 2 September. The family was trapped upstairs but managed to climb from an upstairs window to the house next door, except for a maidservant who was too frightened to try, who became the first victim.[29] The neighbours tried to help douse the fire; after an hour, the parish constables arrived and judged that the adjoining houses had better be demolished to prevent further spread. The householders protested, and Lord Mayor Sir Thomas Bloodworth was summoned, who alone had the authority to override their wishes.

    When Bloodworth arrived, the flames were consuming the adjoining houses and creeping towards the paper warehouses and flammable stores on the river front. The more experienced firemen were clamouring for demolition, but Bloodworth refused on the grounds that most premises were rented and the owners could not be found. Bloodworth is generally thought to have been appointed to the office of Lord Mayor as a yes man, rather than by possessing requisite capabilities for the job. He panicked when faced with a sudden emergency[30] and, when pressed, made the oft-quoted remark, "Pish! A woman could piss it out", and left.
    After the City had been destroyed, Samuel Pepys looked back on the events and wrote in his diary on 7 September 1666: "People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity [the stupidity] of my Lord Mayor in general; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon him."
    and the "glorious revolution" of 1688 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorious_Revolution , and the establishment of the Bank of England in 1694 all tightly weave together along with many other parts of history, to form what we see now.





    City of London Police
    This article describes the police force for the square-mile sized district known as the City of London. For the force covering the rest of Greater London, see Metropolitan Police Service.

    The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temples. The force responsible for law enforcement within the remainder of Greater London, outside the City, is the Metropolitan Police Service, a separate organisation. The City of London, which is now primarily a financial business district with a small resident population but a large commuting workforce, is the historic core of London, and has an administrative history distinct from that of the rest of the metropolis, of which its separate police force is one manifestation.

    .....The police authority is the Common Council of the City, and unlike other territorial forces in England and Wales there is not a police and crime commissioner replacing that police authority by way of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011,[4] but like a police and crime commissioner, the Common Council is elected....


    ....Prior to 1839, the responsibility for policing in the City was divided, from the medieval period, between day and night City Watch, primarily under the two sheriffs. Responsibilities were shared with the aldermen's officers – the ward beadles – who are now purely ceremonial. It was these officers' responsibility for ensuring the Night Watch was maintained. Policing during the day eventually came under the City Patrol, which evolved into the City Day Police, which was modelled on the Metropolitan Police. In 1838, the Day Police and Night Watch were merged into a single organisation. The passing of the City of London Police Act 1839 gave statutory approval to the force as an independent police body, heading off attempts made to merge it with the Metropolitan Police.[8]

    During 1842, the City Police moved its headquarters from Corporation's Guildhall to 26 Old Jewry, where it remained until it was relocated to Wood Street in 2002.[7]....


    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_London_Police



    The Court of Common Council is the primary decision-making body of the City of London Corporation.
    It meets nine times per year. Most of its work is carried out by committees. Elections are held at least every four years. It is largely composed of independent members although the number of Labour Party Common Councilmen in 2017 grew to five out of a total of 100.[1]

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_of_Common_Council



    The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the UK's financial sector.

    In 2006 the name was changed from Corporation of London to avoid confusion with the wider London local government, the Greater London Authority.[3]

    The Corporation is probably the world's oldest continuously-elected local government authority. Both businesses and residents of the City, or "Square Mile", are entitled to vote in elections, and in addition to its functions as the local authority – analogous to those undertaken by the 32 boroughs that administer the rest of the Greater London region – [/b]it takes responsibility for supporting the financial services industry and representing its interests.[4][/b] The corporation's structure includes the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, the Court of Common Council, and the Freemen and Livery of the City.

    There is no surviving record of a charter first establishing the Corporation as a legal body, but the City is regarded as incorporated by prescription, meaning that the law presumes it to have been incorporated because it has for so long been regarded as such (e.g. Magna Carta states that "the City of London shall have/enjoy its ancient liberties").[6] The City of London Corporation has been granted various special privileges since the Norman Conquest,[7][8] and the Corporation's first recorded Royal Charter dates from around 1067, when William the Conqueror granted the citizens of London a charter confirming the rights and privileges that they had enjoyed since the time of Edward the Confessor. Numerous subsequent Royal Charters over the centuries confirmed and extended the citizens' rights.[9]


    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/City...on_Corporation



    The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.[9]

    Formed
    29 September 1829; 188 years ago[3]
    Preceding agencies


    Bow Street Runners[4]
    Marine Police Force[7]


    The Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as "bobbies", was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829 and on 29 September of that year, the first units of the service appeared on the streets of London.[15] In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had been formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police.[16] In 1837, it also incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had been organised in 1805.






    The Bow Street Runners have been called London's first professional police force. The force originally numbered six men and was founded in 1749 by magistrate Henry Fielding, who was also well known as an author.[1] Bow Street runners was the public's nickname for the officers, "although the officers never referred to themselves as runners, considering the term to be derogatory".[2] The Bow Street group was disbanded in 1839.

    Named after
    Bow Street Magistrates' Court
    Predecessor
    thief-takers
    Successor
    Metropolitan Police Service
    Formation
    1749


    The Bow Street Runners are considered the first British police force. Before the force was founded, the law enforcing system was in the hands of private citizens and single individuals with very little intervention from the state. Judge Henry Fielding decided to regulate and legalise their activity due to high rates of corruption and mistaken or malicious arrests, therefore creating the Bow Street Runners.

    They represented a formalisation and regularisation of existing policing methods, similar to the unofficial 'thief-takers' (men who would solve petty crime for a fee). What made them different was their formal attachment to the Bow Street magistrates' office, and payment by the magistrate with funds from central government. They worked out of Fielding's office and court at No. 4 Bow Street, and did not patrol but served writs and arrested offenders on the authority of the magistrates, travelling nationwide to apprehend criminals.

    Henry Fielding's work was carried on by his half-brother Justice John Fielding, who succeeded him as magistrate in the Bow Street office. Under John Fielding, the institution of the Bow Street Runners gained more and more recognition from the government, although the force was only funded intermittently in the years that followed. It served as the guiding principle for the way that policing developed over the next 80 years. Bow Street was a manifestation of the move towards increasing professionalisation and state control of street life, beginning in London.
    Bow Street Horse PatrolEdit

    Contrary to several popular sources, the Bow Street Runners were not nicknamed "Robin Redbreasts", an epithet reserved for the Bow Street Horse Patrol. The horse patrol was organised in 1763 by Richard Ford, Sir John Fielding's successor at Bow Street,[3] who secured a government grant of £600 to establish the force to deal with highway robbery. It was so successful in cutting crime that funding stopped—and highwaymen soon returned. The Patrol was not re-introduced until 1805 following Patrick Colquhoun's campaign. They wore a distinctive scarlet waistcoat under their blue greatcoats.
    Policing in the early 18th centuryEdit

    Up to the early 18th century, Britain did not have an official policing system backed by the state. A police force like the Maréchaussée already present in France would have been ill-suited to Britain, which saw examples such as the French one as a threat to their liberty and balanced constitution in favour of an arbitrary and tyrannical government. The enforcement of the law then was mostly up to the private citizens, who had the right and duty to prosecute crimes in which they were involved or in which they were not. At the cry of 'murder!' or 'stop thief!' everyone was entitled and obliged to join the pursuit. Once the criminal had been apprehended, the parish constables and night watchmen, who were the only public figures provided by the state and who were typically part-time and local, would make the arrest.[4]

    As a result, the state set a reward to encourage citizens to arrest and prosecute offenders. The first of such rewards was established in 1692 of the amount of £40 for the conviction of a highwayman and in the following years it was extended to burglars, coiners and other forms of offence. The reward was to be increased in 1720 when, after the end of the War of Spanish Succession and the consequent rise of criminal offences, the government offered £100 for the conviction of a highwayman.

    Although the offer of such a reward was conceived as an incentive for the victims of an offence to proceed to the prosecution and to bring criminals to justice, the efforts of the government also increased the number of private thief-takers.[5]

    Thief-takers became infamously known not so much for what they were supposed to do, catching real criminals and prosecuting them, as for "setting themselves up as intermediaries between victims and their attackers, extracting payments for the return of stolen goods and using the threat of prosecution to keep offenders in thrall".[5] Some of them, such as Jonathan Wild, became infamous at the time for staging robberies in order to receive the reward.[6]
    Henry Fielding (1750–1754)Edit

    It was with these premises that the Duke of Newcastle turned to Henry Fielding for help. Fielding had become a Westminster magistrate in 1748 and in his house in Bow Street, Covent Garden, he had started a kind of magisterial work that was different from anything that had been done before. Taking up the legacy of his predecessor, Sir Thomas de Veil, Fielding turned Bow Street in a court-like setting in which to conduct examinations.[7]
    Judge Henry Fielding

    However, his reformed method was not limited to his magisterial activity in Bow Street, but it was also extended outside of the magistrate's office. In fact, since 1749–50 Henry Fielding had begun organizing a group of men with the task of apprehending offenders and taking them to Bow Street for examination and commitment to trial.[8] Such an organized intervention was needed, according to Fielding, because of the difficulties and reluctance of private citizens to apprehend criminals, especially if those were part of a gang — reluctance largely caused by the fear of retaliation and by the extremely high costs of the prosecution that would have to be paid by the victim of the crime. This activity, however, was very similar to the thief-takers' enterprise and, as such, it could have been considered as corrupt as the latter.[9] Therefore, Fielding wrote a number of pamphlets to justify the activity of thief-taking; he argued that the legitimacy of this activity had been undermined by the actions of a few (see for example Jonathan Wild) and that, in fact, thief-takers performed a public service where the civil authorities were weaker.[10] Another step towards the legitimization of the activity of the Bow Street Runners concerned the lawfulness of an arrest made by an ordinary citizen. Fielding made clear that constables were not the only one to have the right to make an arrest, but under special circumstances - such as with a warrant issued by a magistrate - also private citizens could act against a suspected criminal and arrest them.[10]

    Another problem that Fielding had to face was that of the economic support of the Runners; without any direct funding from the government, the men at Fielding's service were left relying on the rewards issued by the state after an offender's conviction and by private citizens in order to retrieve their stolen goods. It is also true that many of the original Runners were also serving constables, so they were financially supported by the state.[11] Nevertheless, the problem persisted and, in 1753, Fielding's initiative came close to failing when his men had stopped their thief-taking activity for some time. A way out of this situation came in the same year, when the government lamented spending too much money in rewards with no apparent decrease in the crime rates. At this point, the Duke of Newcastle, the secretary of state at the time, asked Fielding for advice, which he presently gave. In the document that Fielding presented to the government revolved around the activity of the Bow Street officers; Fielding's suggestion consisted in that he be given more money in addition to his own magistrate's stipend for two main purposes. The first was, of course, to offer an economic support to the officers working in Bow Street, that would have allowed these men to extend their policing activities well beyond the simple thief-taking. The other purpose was to advertise the activity of the Bow Street office and to encourage private citizens to report crimes and provide information about offenders; the advertisements would be published in the Public Advertiser, a paper in which, as some critics have pointed out, the Fielding brothers had a financial interest.[12]

    In late 1753, the government approved Fielding's proposal and established an annual subvention of £200, that allowed Fielding not only to support the advertisement and the Bow Street officers, but also to maintain a stable group of clerks who kept detailed records of their activities. A new kind of magistrate's office and of policing activity was therefore established and, after the death of Henry Fielding in 1754, it was carried on by his brother John, who had overseen the whole project and was to further expand and develop it over the following years.[13]
    Sir John's Runners (1754–1780)Edit
    Sir John Fielding

    When Henry Fielding died in 1754, he was succeeded as Chief Magistrate by his brother Sir John Fielding, who had previously been his assistant for four years. Known as the "Blind Beak of Bow Street", John Fielding refined the patrol into the first truly effective police force for the capital, later adding officers mounted on horseback, and remained chief magistrate of Westminster until his death in 1780.

    As soon as he was appointed, John Fielding examined the activity of the Bow Street office and the issues that needed to be addressed; the financial contribution from the state was still in place, so his pamphlet focused mainly on the need to tackle violence and highway robbery in particular.[14] At the beginning, Fielding shared his office with Saunders Welch, an energetic former grocer elected High Constable of Holborn, who had led the first group of organized thief-catchers in 1749 and selected his men from former constables, discharged at the end of their year in office, who were prepared to receive legal training and carry on the work.[15][16] Eventually, the government agreed to establish a separate magistrate office from which Welch could operate, leaving Fielding as the dominant presence in Bow Street.[16] Over the years, the government subvention raised from the initial £200 to £400 in 1757 and to £600 by 1765, as Fielding managed to persuade the Duke of Newcastle, now first lord of the Treasury, of the increasing costs of an active policing and advertising, as well as of the need of recruiting a permanent clerical staff for the office.[17] The administration of the funds was left largely in Fielding's hands. He provided payments to six officers, for investigating and attempting to apprehend offenders, and occasionally to a few assistants.[17]

    During John Fielding's time as a magistrate, the Bow Street office seems to have been open for the most of the day and for most days of the week, even when Fielding was not himself in the office, there was always a so-called 'ordinary' to whom one could report offences also during the nighttime.[18] One of the main activities carried out by clerks and assistants in the office was to collect and record information about offences and offenders, therefore creating a sort of criminal database that could turn useful to officers in their investigating activities.[19] Fielding believed that a national system of criminal information circulating throughout not only the metropolis of London but also throughout the country, would make it certain that offenders would be arrested and brought to justice and, moreover, that anyone contemplating an offence would be deterred from doing so.[20]

    In addition, he introduced innovations at the Bow Street office that would have great effect on the first procedures of criminal prosecution. Fielding created a court-like setting that could attract and accommodate a large audience for his examinations of suspected offenders, opened and available for the public for long and regular hours. In doing so, he turned the office from being the mere house of a magistrate to being the Bow Street Magistrates' Court in which several justices were employed in rotation in order to keep the office open for long hours every day.[20] This process of transformation was further amplified by Fielding's success in encouraging the London press to attend and provide their readers with a weekly report on his activity.[21]


    What exactly is the City of London police?
    Posted by:
    Nick Shaxson
    in:
    Thoughts

    It’s a good question. Is it a police force? Well, yes, it is, kind of. After all, its “About Us” page says this:

    “We are committed to fighting crime at all levels. Although we fulfil a national role tackling fraud and other serious criminality, our local role is no less important to us.”

    But already, the questions begin. That same front page, in the very, very top paragraph, also says this:

    “The City of London is the world’s leading international financial and business centre. It is an area where disruption to ‘business as usual’ would have significant impact on the diverse range of business interests located here.

    What on earth does that mean? Why would a police force highlight that above everything else (even above the bit about fighting crime?)

    A year ago or so I got an email, which contained this (I’ve asked the author whether I may identify him; no response yet.) The bit in bold is the key part: boy, is that a question that needs some answers.

    “I used to be a tax inspector and worked in what was then called Special Office investigating offshore tax avoidance and evasion. Curiously very little specialist training was given on the complex laws and powers available to combat these issues. It was all learned from the experience of colleagues and my own experience.
    . . . .
    Working in London it was amazing to see how blatantly the city banks peddle massive tax haven arrangements to multinationals, many of them relying on the tiniest veneer of legality. Big 4 accountants and city lawyers were also selling such schemes but not quite in the same league as the banks.

    I was particularly taken with your account of the role of the banks in running the city. So I did a little research of my own and was surprised with what I found. The banks control the City Corporation. The City Corporation controls the City of London police. The City of London police state their purpose is “to protect the UK from economic crime” and they take the lead role on that for UK policing.

    So is it any wonder that the banks can get away with so much when they effectively control their own policing? Why haven’t we seen more criminal investigations of banks and bankers following the events of 2008?”



    A brief casual standing answer "to your question from 4 YEARS AGO"




    The City of London police does like to brag about its ‘lead role:”

    “The City Police is the acknowledged lead force within the UK for economic crime investigation.”

    OK, let’s take that at face value for now. Next, I tried to find out what the City of London police’s strategic objectives are. I couldn’t get a clear steer from their extensive ‘policies’ page, but one entry, related to police procurement, provides this:

    Strategic Aims

    1. Complies with the City of London Corporation financial regulations.
    . . .
    6. Promotes the strategic objectives of the City of London Corporation.


    A couple of questions now. What are the City of London Corporation financial regulations? (The City Corporation is not the regulator for UK financial services.) Second, this is a police procurement document, but does the City of London Police have point six as its own strategic objective? I could not find out on a(n admittedly fairly hasty) search, and I do note that all the documents I looked at on the ‘policies’ page were crammed with the curious words ‘NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED‘ in angry red capitals, on page after page. (What is protectively marked? Can we see it please?) But I think it is safe to say – until someone shows me otherwise – that a key strategic objective of the City of London police is to “promote the strategic objectives of the City of London Corporation.”

    So the next question, then, is: what are the strategic objectives of the City of London Corporation?

    Well, they are laid out here, in its September 2011 Core Strategy Document, from p17 onwards, and include:

    STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1
    To maintain the City’s position as the world’s leading international financial and business centre.

    So if the City of London police is “the acknowledged lead force within the UK for economic crime investigation”, and if it has as one of its (indirect) objectives to maintain the global pre-eminence of the City financial services, then what on earth is it doing trying to fight financial crime? The objective of promoting an ever bigger financial centre directly conflicts with the objective of fighting financial crime: the more you relax law enforcement and turn a blind eye to dirty money, the more will come. It’s a simple formula used by every tax haven in the world, and which I’ve written extensively about in Treasure Islands.

    This is really a gigantic black hole in global finance, which nobody is pointing to. I asked a knowledgeable ex-copper about all this, and got this reply back this morning:

    “Oh, the City of London Police, or as we used to refer to them ‘…The best little police force money can buy…’

    The City of London Police have always been the plaything of the City Corporation.
    . . .
    They were always treated with a far greater degree of consideration by the Corporation than us nasty roughnecks in the Met, and they did their absolute best to make sure that if we had investigations which took us down to the Square Mile, then they would deal with those aspects of the enquiry. Then they just told us what the City fathers wanted us to know. They did as they were told because they knew which side their bread was buttered.

    I had no time for them, and as far as I was concerned, they were full of sh!t.

    They had a very strong Freemasonic thing going because so many of the City suits were on the Square, and that’s where a lot of skulduggery got organised, so I tended to steer clear of them as much as possible.

    I know that they are trying to make a case for being the lead agency for fraud investigation in the UK, but they haven’t sorted that out with ACPO [Association of Chief Police Officers] as far as I know, and the last time I spoke to a mate of mine on the ACPO financial crime sub-committee, things were still the same and ACPO weren’t going to go along with the City’s proposals.”



    I have to get on a plane for Brazil now, so I don’t have time for more digging, or to find out the latest status re ACPO.

    But this cursory search today has been extraordinary.

    Why haven’t Britain’s journalists been asking more questions about this?

    If you haven’t read Treasure Islands yet, then I suggest you do: this blog will make a lot more (appalling) sense.


    http://treasureislands.org/what-exac...london-police/







    Below is an opinion piece which relies heavily on positive opinions of a few people without actually addressing the huge conflicts of interest.


    Battle to merge London's police
    Ken Livingstone wants the government to create a super force for the capital, but officers on the beat see it as unnecessary meddling



    There is, to the untrained eye, very little between them. Perhaps Londoners with a yen for ensigns and uniforms can distinguish between officers from the Metropolitan police and their counterparts in the City of London force.

    Few others give the issue much thought.

    But the demarcation line between two of the main organisations which police London has become a source of frustration for Ken Livingstone, the mayor.

    Despite the status of the City of London force as a unique entity since 1839, he wants it to be absorbed into the Met, along with the section of the British Transport police responsible for keeping order on the tube.
    Guardian Today: the headlines, the analysis, the debate - sent direct to you
    Read more

    Mr Livingstone has made several approaches to the Home Office and has promised to continue lobbying for a super force which, he says, would police London more efficiently. But that would require legislation.

    In addition to persuading David Blunkett, he will also have to convince the rank and file, because officers in the Met, City and Transport police oppose what they say is unnecessary meddling.


    Illogical though the structures may be, they say the present system has served London well and should be preserved.

    Mr Livingstone outlined his vision to the London assembly. "On the grounds of efficiency, effectiveness and clarity of accountability, the City of London police, the Royal parks police and British Transport police should be absorbed into the structures of the MPS [Metropolitan police service]," he said. "It is important to have a single police force coterminous with the London boundaries, which is able to deliver both on local policing and policing a capital city. I will continue to makerepresentations to the Home Office stating the business case and the benefits to Londoners."


    But police officers think they have just as strong a case for keeping the status quo. Glen Smyth, chairman of the Metropolitan Police Federation, said: "There is no real benefit in it for us because we would have extra areas to police with not many more to police them with ... it is not as simple as bringing everything into one force. The question should be will it benefit the public and I don't think it would."

    William Parsons, chairman of the City of London Police Federation, said his force and the Met already worked closely.

    "That relationship serves everyone very well. We in the City of London provide a high standard of performance. I can't think of a reasonable case to say we should be amalgamated."

    Roger Randall, the general secretary of the British Transport Police Federation, said the loss of the 650 officers policing the tube would probably be the end of the force despite it being a national body. "This is not government policy and every time it has been looked at it has been decided that this would be the worst possible move for the people of London," he said.

    The corporation of London is the police authority for central London and enjoys good relations with Mr Livingstone. But on this issue there is no consensus.

    Simon Walsh, chairman of its police committee, said: "The City of London police does a unique job in a unique place and its special focus on both security and economic crime give it real strength. The current arrangement works well and any merger would risk damaging proven excellence. Security and fighting economic crime are too important to become political footballs."

    He said: "The Home Office recently recognised the City of London police as the lead regional force in investigating serious economic crime and we have won extra resources for this work."

    Daniel Whittle-Harvey, the first commissioner of the City of London police, was responsible for about 500 men when he was appointed in 1839.

    A successor to the 13th century Watch, today's service has about 1,200 employees covering the City of London. It is dwarfed by the Met, which has 30,568 officers and an overall workforce of 43,000 people responsible for law and order in Greater London.

    John O'Connor, a former head of Scotland Yard's Flying Squad, said most Met officers have always respected the abilities of their colleagues in the City. But many also considered the force itself as too small to be credible.

    "One very senior officer was once quoted as saying that if he was in charge of the City he would put a sergeant in charge and then forget about it. That sums up the attitude of many," he said.

    He said the relative wealth of the City force has always been evident. "They have much better equipment than the Met. Whatever they want they go to the City fathers and they get it quickly. Met officers always find they have to wait."

    Donald Rumbelow, who wrote I Spy Blue, a history of the City of London force, said there has been "banter" between officers from the two entities since Victorian times but even now the ties still bind.

    "There is a tremendous amount of integration between the two forces," he said. "There is no advantage to be gained from merging the two. Out on the street they are all police officers."


    https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/...london.ukcrime

    Good luck

    With that now that Nathaniel Rothschild and his Bullingdon Club friends have openly taken control - and put an easy to topple Muslim dude (more likely to fear a propaganda onslaught than actually stand up with a steely stare) up to face the shoes and tomatoes whilst diverting the public rage and shifting it to the edl line.


    Last edited by Abz2000; 09-17-2018 at 05:00 AM.
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