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    Basics of Tahaarah (purification)

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    Types of Impurities


    How many kinds of najaasat (impurities) are there?

    Najaasat is of two kinds: one haqeeqi (physical) and the other hukmi (ritual).


    1. The najaasat which can be seen is called haqeeqi najaasat, for example urine, stool, blood, wines.


    2. When a man is without wuduu’ or bath (when he needs it), he has hukmi najaasat.


    It is necessary to be free from both types of najaasat for saying salaah.


    How many types of hukmi najaasat (ritual impurities) are there?


    Two types: One is the lesser type known as Hadath-e-asghar, the other is the greater type which is called hadath-e-akbar or janaabat.


    Hadath-e-asghar requires Wudhu (ablution) for purification, and Hadath-e-akbar requires Ghusl (bath) for purification.


    How many types of haqeeqi najaasat (physical impurities) are there?

    There are two types of haqeeqi najaasat. One is ghaleeza najaasat and the other is khafeefa najaasat.


    Urine and stool of human beings and the urine and dung of all the haraam animals (forbidden to be eaten), flowing blood of human beings and animals, saliva of
    haraam animals, swine (its whole body), wines, hen’s or duck’s excretions – all these are ghaleeza najaasat.
    Urine of halaal animals (animals permitted for eating) and the excretion of haraam birds are khafeefa najaasat.

    To what extent is ghaleeza najaasat permissible?

    If ghaleeza najaasat is of dense type, e.g. stool or excretion, it is excused up to 3 grams or 1/9th of an ounce in weight. If it is a liquid such as wine or urine, then its spot equal to the area covered by a coin or a circle of half an inch radius will be permissible. It means that if the najaasat less than this extent is on the body or cloth, one is allowed to say Salah. But such Salah will be makrooh.


    It is not allowed to keep on even such a najaasat if you are aware of it.


    How much of khafeefa najaasat can be excused?

    If it covers less than a quarter of a garment or any particular part of the body, it can be excused.


    How to clean one’s body or clothes from haqeeqi najaasat?

    H
    aqeeqi najaasat
    , whether it is ghaleeza or khafeefa, on the body or clothing, can be cleaned by washing three times, and after every washing, the garment must be squeezed.



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    Re: Basics of Tahaarah (purification)

    The Wuduu'

    What is wuduu’ ?

    Wuduu’
    is a special way of washing the exposed parts of the person, to purify himself from Hadath-e-asghar (lesser ritual impurity).

    How to do wuduu’ ?

    Sit at a high place. Take clean water in a clean pot. It is better to face the Qiblah but if there is no possibility of it, there is no harm. Roll up your sleeves to your elbows; then recite Bismillaah and wash both the hands up to the wrists, three times.
    Then gargle three times and brush your teeth. If you do not have a brush or miswaak, rub your teeth with your (right index) finger.
    Then put water into your nostrils three times and clean them with your left little finger, then wash your face three times. Do not splash water on your face with force but run water on the forehead softly and wash from the forehead down to the chin and on both sides of the face up to the ears.
    Then wash the right arm up to and including the elbow three times, and do the same with the left arm.
    Then wet your hands and pass them over the head, ears and neck. This is called masah. Masah should be done on each part only once.
    Then wash each foot three times up to and including the ankle, first the right foot, then the left.


    Are all these things necessary to perform the wuduu’ ?


    There are certain things that are necessary and without them wuduu’ will not be complete. These are called fard (compulsory). There are other things which may be left out and the wuduu’ will be complete, though it will be naaqis (improper)- they are called sunnah. There are certain other things which bring more blessings of Allah or thawaab but if left out, they do not make much difference- these things are called mustahab (recommended and desirable).

    How many things are fard in wuduu’ ?

    There are four things fard in wuduu’:


    1. Washing the face from the forehead to the lower portion of the chin and from one ear to the other;
    2. Washing both the arms, up to the elbows;
    3. Doing masah, covering at least a quarter of the head; and
    4. Washing of both feet up to the ankles.



    How many things are sunnah in wuduu’ ?

    Wuduu’
    has 13 things that are sunnah:


    1. Niyyah (intention);
    2. Saying the bismillaah before starting;
    3. Washing the hands three times up to the wrists;
    4. Brushing the teeth by miswaak or fingers;
    5. Gargling three times;
    6. Passing water into the nostrils three times;
    7. Khilaali.e. to pass wet fingers into the beard;
    8. Khilaal of fingers and toes;
    9. Washing of each part three times;
    10. Masah of the whole head;
    11. Masah of both ears;
    12. Wuduu’ done systematically, in order; and
    13. Washing of each part one after the other without pause, so that no part dries up before you finish the whole wuduu’.



    What is mustahab in wuduu’ ?

    Five things are mustahab in wuduu’:


    1. To begin with the right (i.e. the right hand, right arm, etc.- Many ‘ulamaa (scholars) consider this as sunnah with very strong opinion);
    2. Masah of the back of the neck;
    3. Doing everything by oneself without taking someone else’s help;
    4. Facing the qiblah; and
    5. Doing the wuduu’ at a clean and elevated or high place.



    How many things are makrooh (undesirable and obnoxious) in wuduu’ ?

    Four things are makrooh in wuduu’:


    1. Doing wuduu’ at a dirty place;
    2. Cleaning the nose with the right hand;
    3. Talking unnecessarily while doing wuduu’; and
    4. Doing wuduu’ in a way that is against the sunnah.



    How many things break the wuduu’ ?

    Eight things break the wuduu’. They are called nawaaqid (breakers) of wuduu’:


    1. Discharging of urine or stool, or the coming out of anything from the mentioned parts;
    2. Discharging gases;
    3. Flowing of blood or pus out of any part of the body;
    4. Vomiting in mouthful;
    5. To sleep lying down or while resting the body against something;
    6. To faint due to some illness or by any other reason;
    7. Become insane or going mad; and
    8. Laughing during the salaah also breaks wuduu’.

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    Re: Basics of Tahaarah (purification)

    Bath (Ghusul)


    What is ghusul ?


    Gh
    usul
    means taking bath; but there is a particular way of taking bath described by sharee’at (Islamic law) to purify oneself from hadath akbar and janaabat.

    What is the way of taking a ghusul ?


    The way of taking ghusul is this: First wash the hands up to the wrists. Then wash the private parts and the uncleanness or haqeeqi najaasat from the body. Then do wuduu’. Then pour water over the body three times, gargle and put water into the nostrils.

    How many things are fard in ghusul ?


    Three things are fard in ghusul:


    1. Passing water into and out of the mouth. i.e. gargling;
    2. Putting water into the nostrils; and
    3. Passing water over the entire body.


    How many sunnats are there in ghusul ?

    There are five sunnats in ghusul:


    1. Washing the hands up to the wrists;
    2. Washing the private parts and the parts over which uncleanness is found;
    3. Niyyah of washing off hukmi najaasat;
    4. Doing wuduu’ first; and
    5. Passing water over the whole body three times.

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    Re: Basics of Tahaarah (purification)

    Tayammum


    What is Ta-yam-mum?

    To clean najaasat hukmi using taahir (clean) clay or earth or the like is called Tayammum.

    When is tayammum valid?


    When water is not available or when the use of water is injurious to health.

    What is meant by water being “not available”?


    When water is at least a mile away or there is fear of enemy if one goes to find water. For example, a well is nearby the house but to go there may result in you getting killed by an enemy or a dangerous snake or a man-eating animal. Or if there is so little water that if used for wuduu’ it will cause trouble of thirst. Or the well is there but no bucket nor rope. Or if a person is alone and is helpless to get water which is present nearby: all these conditions mean that water is “not available.”

    When should the danger to health be considered?


    When it is known by one’s own experience or when an experienced physician tells that the use of water will be injurious for the health, then tayammum is allowed.

    What is meant by water being at least a mile away?


    When a man is at a place where there is no water but is told or he himself knows that water is available at a mile’s distance, it will be necessary for him to go get the water and do wuduu’.

    But if there is no one to tell and there is no trace of water or is believed that it is a mile or more away, it is not necessary to get water. Tayammum is allowed in such a case.

    How many things are fard in tayammum?


    Three:

    1. Niyyat;
    2. To strike both hands on the earth and rub them on the face;
    3. To strike both hands on the earth and rub both forearms including the elbows.


    Explain how to do tayammum.


    First, there should be the niyyah (the intention to do tayammum to remove najaasat for performing prayers).
    Second, rub both hands on taahir earth and blow of the excessive dust. Then rub both the hands on the face in such a way that no part of it is left out. Even a hair-breadth of unrubbed space will not complete tayammum.
    Third, rub again both the hands on the earth. Blow off the dust. First put the four fingers of the left hand under the finger tips of the right hand and pull them up to the elbow. In this way, pull over the inner part of the right hand, from the elbow to the fingers. Pass the inner side of the left thumb over the upper side of the right thumb. Then pass the right hand on the left in the same way.
    Then do khilaal of the fingers. If one is wearing a ring, it is necessary to remove it or at least revolve it. It is sunnah to do khilaal of the beard also.

    Is tayammum allowed for wuduu’ and ghusl both or for wuduu’ only?


    Tayammum
    is allowed for both.

    On what things is tayammum allowed?


    Tayammum
    is allowed on clean, pure earth or sand, stone or lime-stone, baked earthen pots which are not glazed, baked or unbaked bricks, walls of mud, stone or lime-stone or yellow clay. Tayammum on clean dust is also allowed.

    On what things is tayammum not allowed?


    Tayammum
    is not allowed on wood, metals, glass, wheat, barley or other foodgrains, cloth and ashes. Tayammum is not allowed on things which may melt or burn to ashes if put in a fire.

    Is tayammum allowed if there is no dust on the walls made of stone, bricks or lime?


    Things on which tayammum is allowed need not be covered with dust. If there is a pot of stone, or clay, or a brick, it can be used for tayammum even if it has been washed.

    Can tayammum be done with the dust that collects over the things on which tayammum is otherwise not allowed?


    Yes, if the dust is in such a quantity that when struck by hand it flies up, or rubbing by hand leaves a mark in the dust, then tayammum is allowed with it.

    Is one allowed to say prayers by tayammum done for touching or reading the Holy Qur’aan or for entering a mosque or saying adhaan or replying to salaam?


    No, it is not allowed. [Niyyah is necessary for tayammum.]

    By tayammum done for namaaz janaazah (funeral prayer) or sajdah tilaawat (prostration necessitated by reciting or hearing certain aayaat of the Qur’aan) can prayers be said?

    Yes, it is allowed.

    What if tayammum is done when the water is not available but one finds water after one has said prayers?


    Prayers said already are all right. It will not be repeated whether the water was found at the time of prayers or afterwards.

    What breaks tayammum?


    Things which break wuduu’ also break tayammum.
    Tayammum breaks when water is found. Tayammum done due to a disease ends when one recovers.

    If tayammum was done for hadath-e-akbar, then one does not have to repeat Ghusl when water is found.

    Does tayammum for one prayer hold good for prayers at another time?


    One can say any number of prayers by one tayammum as long as it does not break. So tayammum done for fard prayers will hold good for nafl, for reading the Qur’aan, for namaaz janaazah, sajdah tilaawat and for all other kinds of prayers.

    What is the duration of tayammum?


    As long as water is not available or the helplessness continues. This can last for years.

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